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Factor analysis can be used to
identify traits that are highly correlated.
A personality trait is a
predisposition to act in a particular way
Why is it especially difficult to develop good measures of personality?
We are trying to measure how someone acts in
general, but their behavior may change from
moment to moment.
A measure of personality that produces consistent or repeatable scores has _______, and a measure of
personality that predicts something useful, such as actual behavior, has _______.
reliability ... validity
The big five personality dimensions are:
neuroticism, extraversion, openness to new
experiences, agreeableness, and conscientious-
Which two traits do most personality theorists agree are the most powerful?
neuroticism and extraversion
One criticism of the Big Five personality factors is that this model
ignores any trait for which our language has few
One of the main ways psychologists have studied the causes of differences in personality among people is
compare the similarities in personality between
identical twins and fraternal twins.
According to research, our personality gets more _________ as we age.
How can you determine whether a test is standardized?
Determine whether the test has a known
distribution of scores.
What is the MMPI used for?
to measure personality tendencies
When given to people of various ethnic and cultural groups, the MMPI
reveals only small differences between groups.
The MMPI includes some items that most people check true, such as "Occasionally I get angry at
to check whether people are answering honestly
The results of the MMPI seldom tell people much that they did not already know about themselves
because the test consists of
true-false questions about oneself.
Why would a psychologist use a projective test rather than just asking a person to talk about himself or
The projective test should be more effective in
getting a person to start talking.
As compared to objective personality tests, projective personality tests have the disadvantage that
their results are hard to interpret and subject to
the psychologist's expectations.
Research on the Emotional Stroop test has shown that people tend to show __________ response times to
items that have particular emotional significance for them, such as heroin addicts and heroin related
Responses on implicit personality tests, such as the Implicit Association Test, are
difficult to fake.
Although criminal profiling is possible, the majority of criminals give:
the same, vague information
Your neighbor confides that she is worried because she believes that a variety of government agencies
have bugged her phone and are out to get her. This kind of thinking suggests
ideas of persecution.
The DSM IV can be used to determine
psychological disorders based on presenting
Based on recent carefully controlled studies, which group is more likely to experience feelings of anxiety
and depression and is more prone to suicide?
young people age 15 to
The psychodynamic perspective views the obsessive compulsive disorder as connected to a/n
Cory was driving the car when an accident occurred that killed his best friend who was with him. When
Cory woke up the next morning he couldn't remember where he was or what had happened the night
before. He is most likely exhibiting
__________ involves a claim of psychological disability in order to escape responsibility.
Somatoform disorders involve
the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
Mood disorders are characterized by disturbances in __________ emotions.
Elation and depression are both aspects of __________ disorder.
Vulnerability to depression has been noted among
__________ theory suggests that depression is caused by anger that is turned inward.
Pearl constantly blames herself for problems in her marriage. She believes she has a personality flaw and
no matter what she will always have problems in relationships. Pearl will likely exhibit
Pessimism and self-criticism are __________ factors in depression.
Which of the following is considered a possible risk factor for suicide?
Your best friend discloses the fact that they are thinking of committing suicide. What should you do?
Take them seriously; show you care and
encourage them to seek help.
Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with
memory, attention, thinking, and communica-
Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecution
and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with
Floyd's therapist believes that his hallucinations and delusions are more rewarding to Floyd than social
interactions. Floyd's therapist endorses the __________ view of schizophrenia.
The observation that concordance rates for schizophrenia are high in identical twins suggests that
there is a biological basis for the disorder.
An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is
Tom is a loner, who has few friends and seems incapable of sympathy or empathy. He is showing signs of
the __________ personality disorder.
In regards to the antisocial personality disorder, the psychodynamic perspective is to __________ as the
learning perspective is to __________.
weak superego; experience
Being supportive, available, and willing to help person with suicidal thoughts is most likely associated
with which step of preventing suicide?
Being a good listener
A therapist's relationship to a client is impacted by the
interaction of the therapists theoretical approach
and the client's perspective.
The function of early asylums was to
provide a place to store the mentally ill.
Psychodynamic therapies assume that psychological disorders originate in
early childhood experiences and inner conflicts.
A goal of psychoanalysis was to strengthen the psychic structure that Freud called the
Client-centered therapy focuses on how childhood experiences create __________ which adversely affect
the client's current functioning.
denial of self
In client-centered therapy, the therapist tries to set aside his or her own values and experiences and view
the world through the client's
frame of reference.
Gestalt therapy differs from client-centered therapy in that Gestalt approaches are
Behavior therapy applies the principles of __________ to modify behavior.
One of the most successful techniques for overcoming phobias is
To change a client's nail biting behavior, the client is instructed to paint their nails with a coating that
tastes terrible. This is a(n) __________ method.
Token economy is a behavioral treatment approach based on __________ conditioning principles.
__________ therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients' psychological
Selective perception and a tendency to overgeneralize are __________ as defined by Aaron Beck.
cognitive errors or distortions
One advantage to group therapy is that it is
It is easiest to measure the outcomes of __________ goals in therapy.
Most antianxiety drugs belong to the chemical class known as
Prefrontal lobotomy, a failed __________ procedure, involved severing the nerve connections between
the prefrontal lobes and the thalamus.
Cognitive therapy provides_______________that reduce the risk of recurrence of depression when
Person perception refers to the process of
forming impressions of others
Social schemas are best defined as
organized clusters of ideas about people or
Marsha believes that all news reporters are cynical, doubting individuals who would sell their souls for an
exclusive story. In this case, Marsha's beliefs about the traits and behaviors of news reporters are one
A group that one belongs to and identifies with is known as
When we make assumptions about why people do the things they do we are making
If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are
fundamental attribution error
According to the notion of defensive attribution, we tend to explain the setbacks that befall other people
in terms of
Attributing one's successes to dispositional factors and one's failures to situational factors is referred to as
a self-serving bias
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is
referred to as
Research has shown that initial attraction
is greatly influenced by that person's physical
Which of the following is NOT one of the crucial dimensions of attitudes?
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate their products, they are relying, in part,
on the power of ____ to change consumers' attitudes.
Matthew often hears his parents discussing the importance of making lots of money. Eventually, Matthew
himself begins to value a high income. Matthew's attitude about money was acquired through
Cognitive dissonance refers to the state one is in when
cognitions are inconsistent
Cognitive dissonance theory accounts for Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) results by proposing that
$20 to lie had sufficient justification for their
counterattitudinal behavior and experienced
Conformity occurs when people change their behavior
in response to real or imagined social pressure
In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects
were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks
to a stranger
The bystander effect is the finding that
the probability that a witness to an emergency
will help decreases as the number of bystanders
The decrease in the individual effort exerted by group members when working together on a task is
Group discussion resulting in strengthening a group’s dominant view and shifting it to a greater extreme
is known as
Why are stereotypes resistant to change?
Consigning deviants to a subtype that is viewed
as unrepresentative of the group allows people
to preserve their stereotype of the group
1. trait- a consistent, long-lasting tendency in behavior
2. State- a temporary activation of a particular behavior
1. reliability- repeatability or consistency of scores
2. validity- usefullness of the scores for predicting something else
1. each correlates with many personality dimensions for which our language has a word
2. none of these five traits correlates highly with any of the other five, so they are not measuring the same thing
1. The research methods could overlook certain personality traits just because of quirks of the english language
2. 9 personality deminsions seemed to have been overlooked
3. Five is more traits than we need
It vaguely describes almost everyone and people tend to accept almost ANY statement that a psychologist makes about them
Test was based on evidence rather than theory and true or false questions.
Most of the questions were out of date.
has 10 different clinical scales
they encourage people to oriject their personality characteristics onto amibiguous stimuli.
helps people reveal themselves more fully than they normally would
1. The test identifies most people as psycologically disturbed
2. Different ethinic groups have certain ways to respond that are different than others
Ø Physical problems such as paralysis, pain, or a persistent belief that one has a serious disease, yet no abnormality can be found
greeks believed that the gods punished humans with confusion and madness
in the middle ages they would have been hanged as witches
1. They are unusual
2. They suggest faulty perception or interpretation of reality
3. They suggest severe personal distress
4. They are self-defeating
5. They are dangerous
6. The individuals behavior is socially unacceptable
Why is classification important?
1. Clinical syndromes
2. personality disorders
3. general medical conditions
4. psychosocial and environmental problems
5. Global assessment of functioning
anxiety, depression, and suicide.
largely responsible from societal opression but could also be from genetic makeup
2. panic disorders
3. generalized anxiety
5. stress disorders
psycological views: phobias symbolize conflicts in childhood, generalized anxiety as persistant difficulty in repressing primitive impulses, obsessions as leakage of unconscious impulses and compulsions are seen as acts that allow people to keep such impulses partly repressed
biological views: genetic factors are implicated in most disorders
2. dissociative fugue
3. dissociative identity disorder
psychodynamic: people with dissociative disorders use massive repression to prevent them from recognizing improper impulses or remembering ugly events
Learning theory: they have learned not to think about bad memories or disturbing impulses in order to avoid feelings of anxiety, guilt, and shame
focuses on how client’s cognitions (expectations, attitudes, beliefs, etc.) lead to distress and may be modified to relieve distress and promote adaptive behavior
a type of group that aims to foster self-awareness by focusing on how group members relate to each other in a setting that encourages open expression of feelings--not appropriate for treating serious psychological problems--can be damaging when they urge overly rapid disclosure of intimate matters or when several members attack one member
a method for combining and averaging the results of individual research studies
WWII bomber pilots lost night vision but no damage to optical nerves were found.
People think they are sick, when in fact, nothing is wrong with them
paranoid: systemized delusions and frequently related auditory hallucinations, jealousy, agitation, confusion, fear
disorganized: incoherence, loosening of associations, disorganized behavior, disorganized delusions, fragmentary delusions or hallucinations, flat or inappropriate emotions
Catonic: striking impairment of motor activity, from stupor to agitated state, maintain unusual or difficult posture for hours
psychodynamic: because the ego is overwhelmed by sexual or aggressive impulses from the ID, impulse threatens ego and cause inner cconflict
Learning: people engage in schizophrenic behavior when it is more likely reinforced than normal behavior
Parenting: many people who are reared in socially punitive settings are apparently immune to the extinction of socially appropriate behavior
cultural/social: poor quality living and housing contribute to psychological disorders
psychodynamic: Traditional Freuduan theory focuses on Oedipal problems as the source of many psychological disorders
learning: that childhood experiences contribute to maladaptive ways of relating to others in adulthood
1. confusion about the self
3. emotional instability
4. interpersonal problems
-External: sounds, termperature, etc.)
-Internal: things inside our bodies; self-awareness & thinking about thinking
(Tip of the iceberg)
*Conscious Level --> thoughts, perception
*Preconscious Level --> memories, stored knowledge
*Unconscious Level --> violent motives, fears, immoral urges, unacceptable sexual desires, selfish needs, irrational wishes, shameful experiences
***0-6 months - 17 hours
***Adult sleep style by age seven - 8 hours
-West to East
-Lose hours instead of gaining them
*1st: no major problems
*2nd: severely tired by 3 a.m.
*3rd: irritable, tense, mood swings, hallucinations, microsleep (open-eyed nap)
*Stage 1: light sleep, brain activity decreases 50%, twitching, eyes move
*Stage 2: eye movement stops, brain waves slow, sleep spindles begin
*Stage 3: deep sleep, slow delta waves, no eye or muscle movement, difficult to wake sleeper
*Stage 4: deep sleep, only delta waves, no eye or muscle movement, disoriented if awakened
-HR and breathing rate increase
-Body does most recharging
***Pseudo-insomnia: sleep/state misperception; people think it is taking them longer to fall asleep when in reality it has only been 5-10 ish minutes
-Have a regular sleep/wake schedule
-Drink alcohol in moderation only
-Light snack or warm milk before bed
-Establish relaxing an evening ritual (read chapter in book, etc.)
-Stay in bed & try to relax (breathe deeply through stomach)
-Change schedule on weekends
-Drink caffeine 5-6 hours before bed
-Eat heavily before bed
-Take sleeping pills
-Exercise right before bed
-Watch TV or use computer soon before bed
______: fantasy-like events that seem realistic during sleep (average 4/night; relate to everyday places, people, events).
-To express the unconscious in symbols
-Express everyday concerns
**Sex drive, inappropriate thoughts
-Problem-Solving (improved coping when awake)
-Organization & Interpretation of neural activity (during REM sleep; dreams as a "biproduct")
-Hypnotist's skill and relationship to participant (which is usually a complete stranger)
-Effectiveness of procedure
-What individual is asked to do (wouldn't do something morally wrong if wouldn't do it in real life)
-NOT related to personality
-Individual easily absorbed into activities (ex: reading a book)
What are the 4 categories of Psychoactive Drugs?
-Flu-like symptoms (chills, hot flashes, etc.)
-Severe depression (can become suicidal)
-Maintenance (keep @ same dose or use another substance that is less harmful to get them off of the original Narcotic drug; not very successful)
-Detoxification (quit slowly; treatment where unable to get to the drug)
*******Methadone --> highly addictive, but can help a Narcotic drug addict.
-Sex (females process slower)
-Rate of Consumption (takes 10 minutes)
Teach them how to stop using the substance.
**Long-term alcoholics become dependent
-Bath Salts (similar to meth)
-Medical (cocaine --> tranquilizers)
-Talking the user down (if currently using; get grasp on reality so they can calm down)
What questions should be asked about therapy effectiveness?
1) Are clinical judgments valid?
2) Is the method working or another factor?
3) What is the experimental Treatment of psychotherapy Outcome Studies?4) In what situation and for what person?