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perspectives of psych
the junction between the two
communicationg neurons, its the
space that needs to be jumped
can also be called a synaptic cleft
or synaptic hole or synaptic junction
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are:
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain:
When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.
Our earliest conscious memories are seldom for events before our third birthday. This best illustrates
Sexual characteristics having nothing to do with reproduction, such as deeper male voice and facial hair, are called
The improved judgment and impulse control that occur as adolescents grow older is made possible by the development of
Compared with 40 years ago, in the US today people are likely to
Judy has recently had periods of mild physical discomfort, and she is no longer able to become pregnant. It is most likely that Judy is experiencing
The deterioration of memory and thinking caused by ailments such as Alzheimer’s disease or a series of small strokes is called
An early sign of Alzheimer’s disease would most likely be
The process by which rods and cones convert electromagnetic energy into neural signals is an example of
Some people are better than others at detecting slight variations in tastes of various blends of coffee. This illustrates
Mrs. Raines claims to remember being sexually abused by her father when she was less than a year old. Her memory is not likely to be reliable because of
The receptor cells that actually convert light energy into neural signals are called
The principles of continuity and closure best illustrate the importance of
Although several students in the classroom are talking loudly, Jim’s attention is focused on what his girlfriend is saying. In this instance, the girlfriend’s voice is the
The perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that move together is called
Renny knew the red tulip was closer to her than the yellow tulip because the red one cast a larger retinal image than the yellow one. This illustrates the importance of the distance cue known as
The seeming convergence of parallel lines provides the distance cue known as
The illusion of movement in animated neon signs is known as
The coiled fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses is called the
Conduction hearing loss is most likely to result from damage to the
Many older people lose their hearing for high-pitched sounds due to tissue degeneration near the beginning of the basilar membrane. This is best explained by which theory?
On the day she is to be interviewed for an important new position, Rachel awakens with a severe toothache. During the interview she feels no pain; not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache. Rachel’s experience is best explained by
With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. Her experience best illustrates the importance of
With her eyes closed, Sierra can accurately touch her mouth, nose, and chin with her index finger. Sierra accuracy illustrates the importance of
The vestibular sense involves the sensory system that
By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of
In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example, the presentation of the roses is the
Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?
After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav is fearful of any
woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav’s reaction best illustrates
A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to enter 20
elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient’s fear.
On Monday, Johnny’s mother gave him cookies and milk after he had played quietly for 10 minutes. On Tuesday, she required 20 minutes of quiet play before treat time. On Wednesday, she gave him cookies only after he played quietly for a full half-hour. Johnny was taught to play quietly for extended periods through
Jacinda has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by what type of reinforcement?
Coffee shops that reward customers with a free cup of coffee after every 10 coffee purchases are using
A child learns to stop fighting with his brother after the fight leads to suspension of the child’s TV-viewing privileges. In this case, the suspension of TV-viewing privileges is a
Mr. Schlenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionally
sending notes of appreciation to his hard-working employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of
The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of
Inferring another’s mental states is an ability known as
Which of the following types of memory is of shortest duration?
To remember her way from her new home to her school, Julie consciously formed a mental image of each street corner where she needed to turn. This best illustrates
Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery and clever ways of organizing material are called
The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Hutz vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful
Lars was feeling depressed at the time of his high school graduation. Lars is especially likely to recall his high school graduation again when he is
Austin can’t remember Jack Smith’s name because he wasn’t paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin’s poor memory is best explained in terms of
When asked misleading questions after observing an accident, eyewitnesses often alter their initial memories of the event. This best illustrates
Authors and songwriters sometimes think an idea came from their own creative imagination, when in fact they are unintentionally plagiarizing something they earlier read or heard. This best illustrates
If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a
Jack triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the
The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of
Mrs. Pearce cut Julie's hot dog into eight pieces and Sadie's into six pieces. Sadie cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Julie. Piaget would say that Sadie doesn't understand the principle of
One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called
The Douglasses use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the Douglasses as ________ parents.
The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl.
Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents' values but does not fully accept her friends' standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of
Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared to previous centuries?
Dementia is most commonly associated with
Cross-sectional research indicated that during early and middle adulthood, aging is associated with ________ levels of intelligence. Longitudinal research indicated that during this period of life, aging is associated with ________ levels of intelligence.
Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be either fearful or relaxed adults most directly highlight the issue of
The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the _______ threshold.
Sitting at your desk, you see a bird fly past your window. The process by which your eyes convert the light energy from the bird flying into neural impulses is an example of
Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curve and thickness of the
Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?
Eardrum vibrations are transmitted and amplified by three tiny bones located in the
En route to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex, neural impulses from the auditory nerve are first relayed to the
After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jay experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jay's hearing loss is best explained by the ________ theory.
The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of
Receptor cells for kinesthesis are located in the
Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?
Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cherisse perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of
Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana mentally filled in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the gestalt principle of
As the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as
The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion. This best illustrates
After learning that her new college roommate had experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, Erin incorrectly interpreted her roommate's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of
Effectively designing physical environments—such as designing the layout of a kitchen in a way that maximizes safe and efficient meal preparation-- is typical of work of
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
Jackie is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
Months after she was raped, Callie's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place where she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Callie's anxiety.
Five-year-old Tyler is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcement.
The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
Bill is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Bill prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of
Dan and Joe, both 4 years old, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joe's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
Automatic processing occurs without
Sharolyn easily remembers the telephone reservation number for Holiday Inns by using the mnemonic 1-800-HOLIDAY. She is using a memory aid known as
Josh vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates
The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory.
Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called
After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of
After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from others' traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of
Research reports of repression and recovered memories indicate that
extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well remembered.
-1 to 2 yr
-child speaks in mostly single words
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her fish
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of
Scientists are trained to carefully observe and record any research outcomes that are inconsistent with their hypotheses. This practice most directly serves to reduce
Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates
Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of
A $100 coat marked down from $150 can seem like a better deal than the same coat priced regularly at $100. This best illustrates the importance of
The various vowel sounds that can be placed between a “t” and an “n” produce words such as tan, ten, tin, and ton. These various vowel sounds represent different
At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to
When 3-year-old Rosalie complained, “Boris hitted me with a ball,” she was illustrating the tendency of young children to
overgeneralize certain grammatical rules in sentence construction.
After Miguel's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty
Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is
someone with savant syndrome.
Which of the following people best illustrates Sternberg's concept of practical intelligence?
A) Jerry, a student who quickly recognizes the correct answers to multiple-choice test questions
B) Gary, a graduate student who generates many creative ideas
C) Shala, a newspaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources
D) Chani, a young mother who prefers cleaning her house to supervising her children
Shala, a newspaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources
Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates