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Fewer than _____ of all _____ survive beyond the first two weeks after fertilization.
A cousin's pregnancy terminated in the seventh week after conception. During what stage of prenatal development did she have the miscarriage?
Because of complications from diabetes, Molly's pregnancy had to be terminated during the third month in order to save her life. In what stage of prenatal development did she have the termination?
_____ are agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause it harm.
A pregnant woman was recently arrested for using heroin. She is addicted to heroin, and there is a risk that her fetus will be born a heroin addict as well. Heroin is a _____ for the fetus.
Brenda has suffered from epilepsy all her life. She takes Trileptal to control her seizures. Recently she found out she was pregnant with her first child. She read that her medication is a Category C medication, meaning the benefits may outweigh the risks; however, no adequate studies have been performed on the medication for pregnant women. While she was excited to be pregnant, she was concerned about continuing to take the medication. She asked her doctor whether Trileptal was a __________________.
A neighbor is five months pregnant and still smoking a pack of cigarettes every day. Perhaps she is unaware that nicotine is a(n)____ for the fetus of a mother who smokes heavily.
Jake is a 3-month-old baby who is no longer as interested in a puppet head as was a week ago. What has happened here?
According to Jean Piaget, object permanence and stranger anxiety develop during this stage of cognitive development.
According to Jean Piaget, during this stage of cognitive development, children are able to think logically about events, grasp analogies, and perform arithmetical operations.
According to Jean Piaget, children during this stage of cognitive development use abstract logic and have the potential for mature moral reasoning.
During adolescence, most people achieve Jean Piaget's intellectual stage known as:
A game of peek-a-boo with his dad excites William during the first six months of his life because William actually thinks his dad has disappeared. This is because William lacks:
5-year-old Otto complained to his mother that the pizza was not big enough. Otto's mom cut the pizza into smaller slices, thus making Otto happy as he believed the pizza had become larger. Otto lacks the concept of:
Ty's parents divorced when he was 5 years old. His father moved out of state, and his mother is busy trying to keep a roof over their heads. Ty is now 13 and has been getting into some minor troubles with school and with the law. Despite this, his mother still allows Ty to come and go when he wishes, she rarely if ever punishes him, and she gives into whatever he wants. She feels guilty about the divorce and that he does not have a father. Some psychologists would say that Ty's mother has this type of parenting style.
People differ the MOST in their learning and memory abilities during:
Shelly's brother hid her favorite stuffed bear in the other cabinet after Shelly had originally put the bear in her own toy chest. When she returned, she was able to find the bear in the other cabinet where her brother had put it. This illustrates Shelly's development of:
A child’s realization that others may have beliefs the child knows to be false BEST illustrates the development of:
According to Sigmund Freud, this part of the personality contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy the basic sexual and aggressive drives.
According to Sigmund Freud, this part of the personality is largely conscious and is the mediator that operates on the reality principle.
According to Sigmund Freud, this part of the personality represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations.
_____ is a psychoanalytic method for exploring the unconscious. With this method, patients are told to relax and say whatever comes to mind.
Kanesha meets with a therapist because she wants to change her life. The doctor tells her to lie down on the couch, relax, and say whatever comes to mind. This psychoanalytic method is known as:
_____ emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development.
Marilyn thinks strict class attendance policy is an indication of her professor's overly controlling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions (the course meets only once a week). Her judgment BEST illustrates:
As Spencer is driving to campus one day, another car cuts him off and speeds ahead. Immediately he yells out "Crazy driver!" not realizing that the person is rushing to get to the hospital. Spencer's judgment BEST illustrates:
Though neighbors heard someone screaming for help as she was being murdered, they failed to call the police in time to save her. This BEST illustrates:
While walking 30 yards from the ocean shoreline, Mr. Hughes heard a swimmer cry for help. However, he continued walking because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction BEST illustrates:
Alexandra is well liked by her friends. When one watch her, one can see that she mimics her friends' gestures and seems to match their moods. Tanya Chartrand would suggest that this automatic mimicry is a component of:
In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes everything EXCEPT:
When scientists compared the brains of rats raised in an enriched environment with the brains of rats raised in an impoverished environment, the rates raised in an enriched environment had:
_____ lobe development during adolescence also includes growth of myelin, the fatty tissue around axons that speeds neurotransmission.
Wilbur is 68 years old and is sitting in his recliner reflecting on the mistakes he made as well as his dreams that went unfulfilled. According to Erik Erikson, Wilbur is in the stage of development called:
The Markowitz family has a son, Noah, who has exceptionally high intelligence and excels in math. However, he lacks social and communicative skills which limit his ability to sustain normal peer relationships. Noah has been diagnosed with:
MORE SELF-ASSURED, POPULAR, AND INDEPENDENT
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by:
David is 13 years old and is telling his mother that she should not drive too fast, and she should make a complete stop at the light in order to avoid getting a ticket. Lawrence Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates _____ morality.
Jeremy is 16 years old and is trying out different clothes and hairstyles. His father is confused and sometimes shocked by the pairing of shirts and pants, earrings, chains, and hair colors. His mother on the other hand, just laughs. According to Erik Erikson, Jeremy is in the stage of development called:
Jeannette is in her mid-seventies, and she is in remarkably good health. If she were to worry about getting sick, she should probably worry MOST about:
When infants gaze more intently at a new stimulus, researchers conclude that infants recognize new stimulus as different. It shows that infants:
Ellen began forgetting where she put her purse, how to balance a checkbook, and where she left the car in the parking lot. Ellen is experiencing the signs and symptoms of:
Improved judgment, impulse control, and the ability to plan for the future develop during the teens and early twenties largely as a result of:
Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter. She frequently ignores her daughter's cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter may display signs of:
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, people who develop an abstract level of reasoning where they perceive basic ethical principles and the moral good as more important than their own self have developed what is known as _____.
In prosperous communities, the time from 18 to the mid-twenties is an increasingly not-yet-settled phase of life, which some now call:
A brother just found out that his sister became pregnant about seven days ago. He rushes to find a book on pregnancy so that he can learn more about it. What will the book say is happening around the seventh day of pregnancy?
During an experiment, newborn infants were found to turn their heads in the direction of human voices. These same infants would likely prefer to look at face-like images (as opposed to a bull's-eye pattern) and at objects about 8-12 inches away, which is the same distance between a nursing infant's eyes and its mother's eyes. These findings suggest:
Dr. Greco is conducting a study with military veterans from the Vietnam and Gulf Wars. He plans to evaluate them every year for 10 years to see if those with PTSD have a more pronounced decline in mental abilities and overall memory. This is a(n) _____ study.
2-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room while his mother is in the room. However, as soon as she leaves he becomes distressed, and when she returns he goes to her immediately. Adam most clearly displays:
In the United States, about _____ percent of all babies are walking by age 11 months, _____ percent are walking within a week after their first birthday, and about _____ percent are walking by age 15 months.
According to Erik Erikson, one positive outcome of the struggle for identity is the development of a comfortable sense of who one is and capacity for:
The National Institute of Mental Health is conducting a study on memory and response time in relation to timed tasks for adults who are 50 to 75 years of age. They are bringing in all age groups at once to compare the differences. This is a(n) _____ study.
Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output begin to decline in the late-twenties. Research has shown that these processes of aging can be halted or reversed by:
13-year-old Ariana is getting more involved in risky behaviors, which has her mother very worried. Ariana is also more impulsive and emotionally volatile than she used to be. What is the MOST likely explanation for Ariana's behavior?
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children that are the result of a pregnant woman's heavy drinking are known as:
Denise is a heavy drinker and she continued to drink throughout her pregnancy. She gave birth to a baby girl whose head was small and slightly disproportioned. It is most likely that the infant has:
Karen is a research assistant at the university psychology laboratory. She finds that the mice cortexes she is studying are thinner and lighter. What may have happened?
Research shows that infant rats that are _____ gain weight more rapidly and develop faster neurologically than those rats that are _____.
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement is known as:
In Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, children in the sensorimotor stage acquire a:
_____ is to understanding children's cognitive development as _____ is to understanding the psychosocial development.
Sharon's father demands total obedience from his children. When he speaks, he expects his children to listen. He allows no discussion and no arguing. He has zero tolerance for breaking the rules he has set forth. Sharon's father has this type of parenting style.
Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Lawrence Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates _____ morality.
Erik Erikson proposed that at this stage of life people struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love.
Jenny has a job, a cat named Jake, and 31 candles on her birthday cake. She is worried about finding the "right man." She frequently spends nights alone and knows she is not getting any younger. According to Erik Erikson, Jenny is in the stage of development called:
When a baby's cheek is touched, the baby will turn towardthe touch and open his or her mouth in search of a nipple. This is known as the_____ reflex.
Beginning at about _____ months, children many greet strangers by crying and reaching for their familiar caregivers.
Erik Erikson proposed that at each stage of life people face a psychosocial task that needs resolution. According to this theory, the first task that infants wrestle with is:
Anatoli and Andrei are 11-month-old identical twins. Anatoli took his first steps yesterday. How soon will Andrei take his first steps?
Men do not experience anything equivalent to _____; that is, they do not experience a cessation in fertility or a sharp drop in hormones.
A college psychology class is running an experiment with a colony of infant rats. Half of the infant rats are isolated in barren cages and the other half live together in an enriched environment with lots of toys and exercise equipment. What would the expected outcome be at the end of the school year?
According to researchers, teens who start smoking typically have _____ who model smoking and offer cigarettes.
By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ and strangers’
In one experiment, rats were housed for 60 day in enriched environments. At the conclusion of the experiment, the number of synapses grew by about:
A person reads about a woman who is seven months pregnant and has been reciting poems and singing to her fetus. Is she wasting her time?
Jake is a 3-month-old baby who is staring intently at the new person who just came in to visit his parents. This shows that Jake:
Two sealed, pyramid-shaped beakers contain what are clearly identical amounts of a liquid. However, a child judges them as holding different amounts of liquid after one beaker is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:
Tommy was at the park with his father and excitedly pointed to the squirrel and exclaimed, "Kitty, kitty!" His father pointed out that this was a squirrel and not a kitty. This BEST illustrates the process of:
Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her friends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing:
Prior to 1920, psychology often was defined as "the science of _____."
In this observation technique, one person is studied in depth.
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people is known as a(n):
When Judy's professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised to answer a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Judy later learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, but she continued to think he was unfriendly. Judy's reaction BEST illustrates:
A potential source of irrationality is _____, people’s tendency to cling to their beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence
Psychological theories do what?
organizes a range of self-reports and observations; implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or derive practical applications
Nature vs. Nurture
Edward L. Thorndike
According to psychologists, memory refers to all of these things.
Conditioned Response (CR)
the serial position effect
the spacing effect
Observational; Albert Bandura
Unconditioned response (UR)
About seven bits of information (give or take two)
Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes
The misinformation effect
his conditioned fear of guns
every time the desired behavior occurs; sporadically when the desired behavior occurs
Unconditioned stimulus (US); conditioned/ neutral stimulus (CS)
Encoding, storage, retrieval
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
Guide an organism to exhibit a complex behavior using successive approximations
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
the unconditioned response
the conditioned response
mood congruent memory
According to the _____, people explain behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
There is evidence that behavior is the result of the interplay between external and internal influences; that behavior is the product of biology, social experience, and unconscious thought processes. This evidence suggests that personality should be studied from a:
_____ is an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. Humanistic theorists believe this attitude nurtures growth in others.
Darius's friends know him as someone who values people regardless of their failings. When people spend time with Darius, they know he will have an attitude of total acceptance toward them. Carl Rogers refers to this attitude as:
An attitude of total acceptance toward another person is known as:
When people perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others, this is called:
At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This BEST illustrates:
Denia is the expert on psychometrics and assessment; however, three of the clinicians disagree on her choice of scales. She decides to change her opinion for the good of the group. This BEST illustrates:
A person in a group tends to exert MORE effort when he is individually accountable than when he is working with others toward a common goal. This is known as:
_____ can be defined as any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy.
Gene has always had trouble with her weight. She was not breast-fed when she was an infant and seems to overcompensate now. According to Sigmund Freud, which psychosexual stage is Gene fixated in?
Cynthia thinks that her new neighbor is mean and snobbish. This _____ will likely influence Cynthia to act negatively toward her neighbor.
_____ are feelings that are based on beliefs. They predispose people to react in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Dr. Burns sees his own therapist in order for him to be at his emotional best for seeing patients. He is open with his feelings and self-disclosing in his own therapy. Rogers refers to this attitude as:
When people display their own feelings and drop their facades, they are displaying:
A group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues. During the conversation, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This BEST illustrates:
People feel happier in the presence of happy people than in the presence of depressed people. This is known as:
In one study, participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his face or shook his foot were observed to produce the same behaviors. This mimicry illustrates:
Once people have agreed to a small request, they have a tendency to comply with a larger request. This is known as:
Kate is trying to convince her parents to send her to Europe. First, she asks them for a small favor (a bus ticket to a local city), hoping that later they will be more willing to send her on the longer trip. This technique is known as:
It is an election year, and a volunteer asks if Jay would put a small sign in his yard. He agrees. The next week, Jay's wife cannot believe he agreed to put the 3-foot sign on the front lawn. This scenario is explained by:
_____ result(s) from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
This psychologist proposed the social-cognitive perspective.
_____ result(s) from a person's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:
Although Natalie receives slightly greater rewards from her marriage than her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This BEST illustrates the significance of:
Sigmund Freud suggested that three interacting systems can explain the dynamics of the human mind. These three systems refer to:
One of the "Big Five" personality factors is:
Groupthink is fueled by a desire for:
If someone asks how much people like various letters of the alphabet, they tend to prefer the letters found in their own names. This BEST illustrates the impact of:
This is the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them.
The dramatic increase in Americans' premarital sexual activity over the past half-century BEST illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by:
Waiting to eat one's meal until all of the guests at one's table are served is an example of:
According to Sigmund Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:
_____ is a statistical procedure that can be used to identify clusters of behaviors that are related to a trait.
Psychologists would use _____ to assess whether a single personality trait is reflected in a cluster of characteristics.
Veda is sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate. She would likely score very highly on a personality test that measures:
During a riot, a large sporting event, or mob action, people lose self-awareness and self-restraint. This is known as:
This is an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
_____ represent(s) the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions that are shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
_____ is better way of being social. It allows enduring ideas and traditions shared by a group of people to be transmitted from one generation to the next.
This is the deep affectionate attachment people feel for those with whom their lives are intertwined.
The humanistic perspective of personality:
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory includes ideas about:
When people adjust their behavior or thinking so that it coincides with a group standard, they are exhibiting:
When Matt went to Mexico, he brushed up on his knowledge of the culture. He knew that he should shake hands with the men, and kiss the cheek of the women with whom he would be meeting. This BEST illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:
According to Abraham Maslow, people are motivated by:
The proper order of Sigmund Freud's psychosexual stages is:
Students in an individualistic culture like the United States tend to attribute their academic success to:
Although Alex is frequently caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about his actions. Alex MOST clearly demonstrates a(n):
This Neo-Freudian proposed the popular idea of the inferiority complex and believed that much of human behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.
According to Carl Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote personality growth. These are:
A person from a culture that emphasizes _____ gives priority to the goals of the group and defines the self accordingly.
Mario's friend yells at him for being five minutes late for lunch. Rather than believe his friend is a rude jerk, Mario decides that she may be having difficulties with her partner. Thus, her behavior is the result of:
The "Big Five" personality factors include:
Frieda is organized, careful, and disciplined. She would likely score very highly on a personality test that measures:
According to Carl Jung, humans have a reservoir of images that are derived from our universal experiences. This is known as a person's:
The stability of personality during adulthood is BEST evaluated by:
Lately, five-year-old Liam has been acting strangely. He clings to his mother and expresses jealous feelings towards his father, almost as if his father is a rival for his mother's love. Sigmund Freud would suggest that Liam is experiencing:
Liam decides to make a positive change in his life. Instead of going to work with a frown on his face, he will force himself to smile when he walks in the door. According to _____, by altering one's behavior predicts a good chance of changing one's attitude.
People tend to feel discomfort when their thoughts are inconsistent, and so they act to reduce that discomfort. This is known as:
Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of:
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another is to _____ love; as deep affectionate attachment is to _____ love.
People often commit the fundamental attribution error, especially when they explain
a difference in cultural norms
According to Jean Piaget, object permanence and stranger anxiety develop during this stage of cognitive development.
Denise has just given birth to a 6-pound baby girl. Her infant's head is small, and slightly disproportioned. Denise did drink alcohol while she was pregnant, although it is not clear how much or how often she drank. It is possible that the infant has:
fetal alcohol syndrome
Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory
when one is maturing sexually
identity vs. role-confusion
intimacy vs. isolation
the cells of the zygote begin to differentiate
intimacy vs. isolation
more self assured, popular and independent
a critical period
trust vs. mistrust
no, she is not wasting her time. Her baby can hear her and will likely recognize her voice immediately after birth.
integrity vs. despair
generativity vs. stagnation
sense of object permanence
Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory
fetal alcohol syndrome
concept of conservation
zygote, embryo, fetus
more likely to develop a sense of self reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence
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