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Behavioral risk factors are behaviors that increase the chances of disease, injury, or death.
drinking alcohol, carrying a weapon, smoking cigs, having unprotected sex, eating unhealthy, reckless driving, alc/drug abuse, inadequate exercise
to be anxious, hostile, and frequently ill. This leaves people depressed
choosing between two negative or undesirable alternatives.
Reinforcement of responses that lead to mastery of a threat or control over one’s environment
Reducing stress by overcoming the problem
Finding solutions to the problem.
Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it.
Attributing one’s own feelings, shortcomings, or unacceptable impulses to others.
Justifying your behavior by giving reasonable and “rational” but false reasons for it
information given to a person about his or her ongoing bodily activities; aids voluntary regulation of bodily states. It treats some psychosomatic disorders. It can help relieve muscle-tension headaches, migraine headaches, and chronic pain.
Stress inoculation is the use of positive coping statements to control fear and anxiety. First, clients learn to identify and monitor their negative self-statements (self-critical thoughts that increase anxiety). Clients then learn to replace negative statements with coping statements from a supplied lists, then encouraged to make their own lists.
A universal idea, image, or pattern found in the collective unconscious
The influence that external settings or circumstances have on the expression of personality traits
What leads to high self-esteem in Japanese and other Asian cultures? What is self-esteem based on in individualistic cultures?
Self-esteem is based on a secure sense of belonging to social groups. As a result people in Asian cultures are more apt to engage in self-criticism.
Yes, based on a study by Peter Rentfrow and Samual Gosling in 2003
Because of the struggle to overcome imperfections, an upward drive for competence, completion, and mastery of shortcomings. Everyone experiences feelings of inferiority, this occurs mainly because we began life as small, weak and relatively powerless children surrounded by more powerful adults.
Ideal self is an image of the person you would most like to be, and to be in a state of incongruence you are in a state that exists when there is a discrepancy between one’s experiences and self-image or between one’s self-image and ideal self.
In my opinion, yes external situations can greatly effect someone’s personality but I place an equal weight on traits and situations as ways to explain behavior.
In a projective test, a person is asked to describe ambiguous stimuli or make up stories about them. Describing an unambiguous stimulus (ex, a picture of a car) tells little about your personality. But when you are faced with an unstructured stimulus, you must organize what you see in terms of your own life experiences. Everyone sees something different in a projective test, and what is perceived can reveal the inner workings of personality.
Sex as indicated by a preponderance of estrogens (female) or androgens (male) in the body.
Daughters are told that they are pretty and “nice girls don’t fight” boys are told that they are strong and that “tough boys don’t cry”. Parents buy dolls for girls and things like trucks tools and sports equipment for boys. Children are taught from what they observe—The workforce is still highly segregated by sex.
Females exposed to androgens before birth show “tomboy” behaviors during childhood. What is the impact of being a “tomboy” as a child on female interests and female gender characteristics as an adult?
Women, it is said, tend to be more often “left brained” and men, “right brained”. Thus, some psychologists believe that the biological differences explain why men do slightly better on spatial tasks and math and why women are slightly better at language skills.
50% of the people who surveyed fell into the traditional feminine or masculine categories, 15% scored higher on traits of the opposite sex, and 35% were andrygynous, they scored high on both feminine and masculine items.
At first some people lose sex drive but others there is no change. Castration of sex offenders is not likely to change their behavior. After long period of time it usually lowers.
Compare the human sexual response in men and women with respect to the amount of time from the excitement phase to orgasm, and in terms of multiple orgasms.
Women go through sexual phases more slowly than men (typically) 1-=20 minutes for women excitement (orgasm) men as little as 3 minutes.
Men have refectory period after orgasm, making second orgasm impossible. 15% of women return to plateau phase and can have one or more additional orgasms.
What do the studies using the autokinetic effect tells us about social influence?
tendency to attribute behavior of others to their internal causes (personality, likes)
An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
Any scientific measurement of a person’s mental functions.
Define intelligence quotient (IQ) in terms of chronological age and mental age.
Intelligence test questions that an average 7 year old can answer, would have a mental age of 7, but if the student is 10, then she is not very smart. 10 is her chronological age.
Knowing an IQ at age 11 is a good indicator of a person’s IQ later in life. After middle childhood, an IQ becomes more stable
What percentage of the population has an IQ over 130?
Do males and females differ in intelligence?
Males and females do not appear to differ in overall intelligence, general intelligence tests allow us to compare the intellectual strengths and weaknesses of men and women.
How do IQ scores relate to success in school, jobs, and other endeavors?
Describe five misconceptions about gifted children.
1. The gifted tend to be peculiar, socially backward people, 2. Early ripe means later rot; the gifted tend to fizzle out as adults.
3. The very bright are physically inferior “eggheads,” “nerds,” or weaklings.
4. Highly intelligent people are more susceptible to mental illness (“Genius is next to insanity”)
5. Intelligence has little to do with success, especially in practical matters.
Modern video games take far more concentration and cognition skills. These complex games force you to create your own instructions longer than things such as a chapter in a psychology textbook
Discuss the results and implications of studies of the relationship between a mother’s IQ and the IQ of her biological child and adopted child.
A person’s unique pattern of thinking, their unique emotional world, and their unique behavior patterns. Personality refers to consistency in who you are, have been and will be. Horney views personality in terms of how we tend to relate to other people.
An individual needs to be accepted and valued by others, but sometimes the person believes that her true-self (authentic self) is too flawed and has too many limitations, or just simply “ordinary.” [American Beauty] Accordingly, the person creates an ideal-self that is idealized---one that is easy for others to accept. This idealized-self is exceptional, with stellar qualities, never ordinary, but NOT real. The person tries to be someone he is not.
comes from interpersonal relationships (e.g., in the family, with friends, with romantic attachments) in which the individual experiences unconditional positive regard.
comes from everyday experiences such as reaching a goal (being successful), being liked by others, meeting the approval of others, being admired by others, receiving the attention of others, meeting the expectations of others.
an ideal-self that is more achievable, authentic, and realistic. They know and accept their limitations, shortcomings, frailties and flaws.
the type of sensation you experience (i.e. when inducing phosphenes) depends on which brain area is activated
What causes phantom limb pain? Does the gate control theory explain phantom limb pain? What is a neuromatrix?
Gate control theory cannot explain phantom limb pain. Since pain can’t be coming from the missing limb, it cannot pass through pain gates to the brain. Instead, over time, the brain creates a body image called the neuromatric. This internal model of the body generates our sense of bodily self. Although amputation may remove a limb, as far as the neuromatrix in the brain is concerned, the limb still exists.
Positive emotions can affect how well people recognize people from other races. In recognizing faces, a consistent other-race effect occurs. This is a sort of “they all look alike to me” bias in perceiving persons from other racial and ethnic groups. In tests of facial recognition, people are much better at recognizing face of their own race than others. But when people are in positive moods, their ability to recognize people from other races improves.
are ones that affect emotions, mood, arousal, sleep and wakefulness, motivation, or sensory perception.
Non-REM sleep occurs in stages 1,2,3, and 4 and is not associated with dreaming. Function is to bring overall brain activation levels back down at the end of the day.
The more positive fictional commercials we see, the less likely we are to remember an actual negative experience with a product. In effect, the positive, fictional memories “jam,” or block, our ability to remember actual negative memories when deciding whether to buy a product.
If two or more interconnected brain cells become more active at the same time, the connections between them grow stronger. This is called long-term potentiation. After it occurs, an affected brain cell will respond more strongly to messages from the other cells. The brain appears to use this mechanism to form lasting memories.
If a woman practices communal, Theory Y leadership, she is seen as weak. She is “not tough enough” or does not “have the right stuff” to be a leader. Yet, if she acts more assertively and confidently, she is scorned for “trying to be a man.”
the more attached you are to an area, the more likely you are to adorn it with obvious territorial markers that signal your “ownership.” Typical markers include decorations, plants, photographs, or posters. College dorms and business offices are prime places to observe this.
good-looking people are less lonely, less socially anxious, more popular, more socially skilled, and more sexually experienced than unattractive people; in romance, physically attractiveness has more influence on a woman’s fate than on a man’s; when you discover someone has a good personality, they will start looking more attractive to you
Discuss the role of comparison level in determining whether a person will end a relationship or remain in it.
The comparison level is high for people with histories of satisfying and rewarding relationships. It is lower for someone whose relationships have been unsatisfying. Thus, the decision to continue a relationship is affected by your personal comparison level. A lonely person, or one whose friendships have been marginal, might stay in a relationship that you would consider unacceptable.
What does social exchange theory say about why people end relationships?
It states that we unconsciously weight social rewards and costs. For a relationship to last, it must be profitable (its rewards must exceed its costs) for both parties.
Characterize the relative importance of intimacy, passion, and commitment in romantic love, companionate love, and consummate love.
a. Romantic love: intimacy and passion but no commitment
b. Companionate love: intimacy and commitment but no passion (common among long-term couples)
c. Consummate love: intimacy, passion, and commitment
Empathic arousal is an emotional arousal that occurs when you feel some of another person’s pain, fear, or anguish. We are most likely to help someone in need when we “feel for” that person and experience emotions such as empathy, sympathy, and compassion.
Whereas male bullies are more likely to engage in direction aggression, female bullies tend to specialize in indirect aggression.
Disinhibition results in acting out behavior that normally would be restrained. For example, many television programs give the message that violence is acceptable behavior that leads to success and popularity
Media can also cause a desensitization to violence. For example, when Victor Cline and his associates showed a bloody fight film to a group of boys, they found that heavy television viewers showed much less emotion than those who watched little or no TV.
1. Beta waves in the EEG.
2. Muscle paralysis (measure by the EMG) when dreaming.
3. Rapid Eye Movements (REM) (measured with the EOG) when dreaming.
The brain can be thought of as being like a mushroom. The two cerebral hemispheres (also called the forebrain) serve as the cap of the mushroom; the cerebral hemispheres rest on a stem called the brainstem.
Relaxed muscles (measured by EMG)
Low level of activity of neurons in the cerebral hemispheres
Static dreams (mentations), positive emotions
Sleep walking and sleep talking linked to static dreams (mentations).
75-80 % of sleep time
Describe how the compensatory theory of narcolepsy accounts for the secondary symptoms of narcolepsy.
those habitual drug users who continue to use a drug despite its adverse effects on health and social life, and despite their repeated efforts to stop using it.
They are activated by the neurotransmitter Anandamide or endocannabinoid (the brain and body’s own marijuana), which is virtually identical to THC
In the hippocampus, which is associated with the storage of memories, it promotes forgetting. (editing). It also influences appetite by its effects on another area of the brain.
- Informal norms or everyday customs that can be violated without serious cultural consequences
- Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations
- Can’t be violated without serious consequences in certain cultures
- Incredibly strong mores that if violated are extremely offensive and unmentionable
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