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identity vs. role-confusion
intimacy vs. isolation
the cells of the zygote begin to differentiate
intimacy vs. isolation
more self assured, popular and independent
no, she is not wasting her time. Her baby can hear her and will likely recognize her voice immediately after birth.
integrity vs. despair
generativity vs. stagnation
sense of object permanence
Melissa has been asked to write a paper on the history of the school of psychology called behaviorism. She will MOST likely include work by which group of three psychologists?
You are preparing for midterms when you suddenly realize that you have been in the library for over 6 hours and have not eaten lunch. Psychologists Woodworth and Hull might argue that your sudden motivation to find something to eat is due to ______ theory.
In contrast to behaviorism's focus on behavior as being shaped by external causes, humanistic psychology regarded which of the following as the important influences on human behavior?
Josie is conducting a study on whether sleep deprivation increases stress levels. She will be observing and measuring levels of stress based on whether the subjects were assigned to the deprived or nondeprived sleep conditions. In this experiment, the stress level is the:
Which of the following is not a goal of psychology?
Dr. Fine is a psychologist who emphasizes the importance of unconscious influences in her work with patients. It is most likely that Dr. Fine conceptualizes her work from a ______ perspective.
A hypothesis is:
Cynthia always buys the brand of paper towels that is on sale, even if it is not the highest quality towel. She makes her paper-towel-buying decision based on the _________ model of decision making.
When Vasilis is faced with the decision of which of two equally attractive apartments to rent, he makes a list of what is most important to him and gives each factor a numerical rating. Apparently he is using the _________ model of decision making.
You have discovered in your recent research study that as self-reported levels of happiness increase, binge-eating behavior significantly decreases. You have just revealed a ______ correlation in your research.
Karen is going to measure happiness based on how frequently a person smiles or laughs. This measure of happiness is called her ______ definition.
The National Health and Social Life Survey gathered information about the sexual practices of U.S. adults between the ages of 18 and 59. This is an example of ______, in that every member of the larger group has an equal chance of being selected for inclusion in the sample.
Descriptive methods are research strategies for ______ and describing behavior.
In order to understand a client’s extreme behavior, a psychologist has investigated the client's personal, physical, and social history. The most appropriate research method would be a(n):
The ______ is the numerical indicator of the strength of the relationship between two factors.
One of the common obstacles to problem solving, known as _______________, involves persisting in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past.
The investigative method used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor is called the:
The humanistic theories of motivation, championed by psychologists ______ and ______, viewed motivation as arising from the desire to realize one's highest personal potential.
A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present is also called a ____________, according to the text.
In individualistic cultures, success and succeeding in competitive tasks is more:
A formal concept is the mental category that is formed by:
Dr. David wants to conduct a survey on the political views of college freshmen, so he administers his survey to a large lecture class comprised of freshmen students. Although Dr. David cannot survey every freshman in the university, he is able to select a ______ sample that parallels the larger group on many variables.
The "best," or most typical, instance of a particular concept is called a(n) _____________.
A mental category that is formed by learning the rules that define it is referred to as a:
The desire to direct one's behavior toward demonstrations of ability and exercise of control in a situation is known as:
A mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experiences is referred to as a:
If a researcher is interested in gathering information from a large group of newlyweds about their experiences, beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes about the challenges and benefits of married life, he or she would benefit from using a(n) ______ design for the data collection.
Also known as a(n )______________, this is a problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution.
___________________refers to the tendency to view objects as operating only in their usual or customary manner.
Dr. Psychologist is studying how childhood aggression varies with the amount of violent video games that are played. Childhood aggression in this study is a:
Professor Baker's special area of study involves measuring the system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements. Professor Baker specializes in the study of:
A person’s ability to create an infinite number of new and different phrases and sentences shows the _______________ nature of language.
Which of the following is a criticism of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Mark is using statistics to summarize, analyze, and ______ the data he has collected for his research study.
One's ability to come to a conclusion or make a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved is called:
Mr. and Mrs. Kilpatrick sit down with their 18-year-old daughter one night to tell her that if she saves up another $500, they will match her money and help her purchase the car she has been eyeing. The ability of the Kilpatricks to communicate meaningfully about ideas, objects, and activities that are not physically present is referred to as:
The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved is also known as __________.
Rianne has to choose between returning to graduate school to pursue her love of philosophy, or going to work for a bank in town. Although she does not enjoy banking, she knows she will receive a good salary and benefits there. If Rianne decides to take the position at the bank, she is exhibiting:
The psychologist who is best known as the developer of the first intelligence test, and who believed that the test could help identify children who needed special help was____________.
Jerry is a skilled engineer, good at his craft, and yet has trouble holding down a job. In his performance evaluations, it is often mentioned that he has difficulty resolving conflict and functioning well as part of a team. Jerry likely lacks:
The results of objective observation, measurement, and experimentation on which the field of psychology is based is(are) called:
The three distinct components involved in an emotion are: a subjective experience, a:
Current research that uses twins and IQ scores to study the impact of environment and genetics has found that:
The biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior together constitute: are defined as:
The area of psychology that focuses on how people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems, and think, is described as the ______ perspective.
The problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do NOT work is called:
Your friend Jen is so motivated to become a nurse that she has decided to attend an accelerated nursing program and work very hard to get through it. You see in her behavior the three basic characteristics commonly associated with motivation, which are:
According to ______ theories, people are motivated to engage in certain behaviors because of evolutionary programming.
A(n) _________ is a problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions.
An instinct theorist would argue that the motivation to engage in certain behaviors is the result of:
______ theory involves the view that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs.
Elana got her new DVD player, she spent hours trying different approaches to programming the machine rather than consulting the manual. Elana is using the _________ approach to problem solving.
Carrie, an accountant at a large accounting firm, has been unhappy in her position and has even considered quitting. Then, unexpectedly, she is promoted and given a raise. Carrie now has a renewed interest in her job, which is explained by the ______ theory, which proposes that behavior is motivated by the "pull" of external goals.
The basis of arousal theory is that people find very high levels of arousal ______ and very low levels of arousal ______.
According to the ______ theory of motivation, psychological and cognitive factors are the essential elements in motivation.
______ developed a model of human motivation that proposed that people are motivated to satisfy their needs first at the physiological level, and then emerge up into "higher" psychological needs.
Eugene believes that, at this point in his life, he is fully using his talents, capacities, and potentialities. According to Abraham Maslow, Eugene has achieved:
Developed by psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, the theory known as ______ posits that people are actively growth-oriented and move toward a unified sense of self and integration with others.
This general term refers to the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
What do we call the manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions?
Which of the following statements accurately summarizes the James-Lange theory of emotion?
The most typical instance of a particular concept according to your text would be called a(n) _______________.
The American psychologist who developed the WAIS, the most widely used intelligence scale, was _______________.
Contemporary psychologists continue to debate some of the ideas behind the doctrine of interactive dualism introduced by René Descartes, which states that:
Carrie is taking a graduate school course on therapy theories, one of which is about uncovering unconscious causes of behavior. It is likely that the text chapter that contains this theory is discussing:
Martha participates in a research study in order to receive extra credit for her psychology class. When she arrives in the research office she is given a can of what looks and tastes like beer, but which actually contains no alcohol. In the adjoining room Martha's classmate Karen is also participating in the study. Karen also receives a similar can, but hers does contain alcohol. If the experiment is designed to test the effects of alcohol on concentration, who receives the experimental condition?
The group of related mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, and retrieving information is called:
The two primary types of conditioning discussed in the text are ______ and ______.
Visual sensory memory is to ______ as auditory sensory memory is to ______.
The "magic number" in memory, famously known as seven plus or minus two (now considered more likely to be four plus or minus one), refers to the capacity available in ______ memory to store information.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about long-term memory?
Which of the following perspectives posits that both mental processes and external events are involved in the learning of new behaviors?
Examples of the ______ principle include the context effect and mood congruence.
According to the ______ specificity principle, when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding, which of the following is MOST likely to lead to successful retrieval?
The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event is also known as what type of memory?
For Becca, a bad grade is a devastating experience, so she studies very hard to avoid getting them. Her study behavior is maintained by:
Negative reinforcement and punishment produce entirely different effects on behavior. Whereas negative reinforcement ______ the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future, punishment ______ the future occurrence of the behavior.
Little James receives attention from his teacher in the form of a scolding every time he misbehaves. As a result, he misbehaves quite frequently. In this instance, it would appear that the teacher's scolding is a:
The scientific study of forgetting was begun by the German psychologist ______ over a century ago.
The behavioral researcher Edward C. Tolman proposed that learning can occur without reinforcement and without being manifested in actual performance improvement. This type of learning, known as ______, showed that rats formed "cognitive maps" of mazes even without being reinforced.
Which of the following involves a brief but intense feeling of familiarity in a new situation?
One night you dream that your college roommate got married. When you run into her in a coffee shop about a year later and ask her how the wedding was, she tells you that she is not married. This form of memory distortion is also known as:
A wellness program has been instituted at your local community center and this week it is focusing on people struggling with depression. Given what you have learned in your studies of Seligman's work on ______, you recognize that depression is often connected to the idea that adverse events are inescapable and uncontrollable.
The recollection of something that did not actually occur that is often distorted and fabricated is also known as a:
Two times a week Joey’s mother lets him watch a video on trucks. He has now developed the ability to easily name every type of truck. This ability is the result of:
A person is MORE likely to experience a false memory of an event if the actions constituting the event are ______ the person's script or schema of that situation.
Mr. Kalsi's new portable air conditioner came with an instructional video showing the step-by-step procedure for installation and operation of the unit. After carefully watching the video, Mr. Kalsi was successful in setting up and operating the new machine. This example illustrates the type of learning called:
Memories involved made without conscious awareness are to ______ memories as memories made with conscious awareness are to ______ memories.
Five-year-old Jim and six-year-old John watched Superman cartoons all morning. In the early afternoon, they donned beach towels as capes, climbed on top of the garage roof, and got ready to fly. Their startled mother stopped them in time, but she was forcefully reminded of the powerful influence of ______ on behavior.
The ability to generate new ideas, new actions and multiple options and answers.
difficulty in putting words together in sentences or even speaking single words, although a person can understand and even sing a song. (in the left frontal lobe)
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Sally did not do well on her last math test. If her fifth-grade teacher concludes that Sally did poorly because she is NOT motivated to do well in school, the teacher may be committing:
Yoko was late for work because traffic was particularly heavy. When she arrived at the office, she apologized to her boss, insisting that it was her fault for being late—if she had been less lazy, it wouldn't have happened. According to the Culture and Human Behavior box titled "Explaining Failure and Murder: Culture and Attributional Biases," blaming an accidental occurrence on an internal, personal disposition rather than on situational factors is called the:
______ was the German-born British psychologist who developed a trait theory of personality that identified the three basic dimensions of personality as:
When Allison landed a big contract for her firm, she accepted the credit for her hard work and smart “wheeling and dealing.” When she failed to get the contract in another situation, she blamed the loss on the sneaky and dishonest tactics of the competition. Her attitudes illustrate:
The term ______ was used by Carl Rogers to refer to the sense of being loved and valued by other people, especially one's parents.
When Martha walked down a dark alley one night in a part of town that she knew was dangerous, she was mugged, but fortunately not otherwise harmed. When she told a friend of hers what happened, his first thought was that "she should have known not to walk there at night." Martha's friend is in a sense putting the responsibility for her misfortune on her, despite the fact that she was a victim of a mugging. Her friend was using the psychological process known as:
Social cognitive theory embraces the idea that it is a person's ______ that represent(s) the person's cognitive skills, abilities, and attitudes.
When a person attributes the successful outcomes of his behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes, the person most likely has an explanatory style known as:
According to social psychologists, the three components of an attitude typically are which of the following?
______ is the negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
Mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations are called:
According to Freud, the notion that a little boy feels affection for his mother and hostility and jealousy toward his father as well as experiencing castration anxiety, is known as the:
The actualizing tendency and the self-concept are to ______ as reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are to ______.
How many source traits did Raymond Cattell propose?
Which of the following theories of personality stresses the influence of unconscious mental processes, the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts, and the enduring effects of early childhood experience on personality?
Male is to _____ aggression as female is to _____ aggression.
Which of the following theories emphasizes conscious, self-regulated behavior rather than unconscious mental influences and instinctual drives and stresses conscious thought processes, self-regulation, and the importance of situational influences?
The likelihood of helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit describes:
Gilbert is taking a test that asks him to answer standardized questions about himself, such as "How often have you experienced anxiety in the last year?," after which the questions and answers are compared with established norms. He is told to answer the questions as honestly as possible. The type of test Gilbert has been given is called a(n):