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Visual sensory memory is to ______ as auditory sensory memory is to ______.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about long-term memory?
The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event is also known as what type of memory?
According to the ______ specificity principle, when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding, which of the following is MOST likely to lead to successful retrieval?
For Becca, a bad grade is a devastating experience, so she studies very hard to avoid getting them. Her study behavior is maintained by:
Negative reinforcement and punishment produce entirely different effects on behavior. Whereas negative reinforcement ______ the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future, punishment ______ the future occurrence of the behavior.
Which of the following involves a brief but intense feeling of familiarity in a new situation?
The behavioral researcher Edward C. Tolman proposed that learning can occur without reinforcement and without being manifested in actual performance improvement. This type of learning, known as ______, showed that rats formed "cognitive maps" of mazes even without being reinforced.
The basis of arousal theory is that people find very high levels of arousal ______ and very low levels of arousal ______.
Jerry is a skilled engineer, good at his craft, and yet has trouble holding down a job. In his performance evaluations, it is often mentioned that he has difficulty resolving conflict and functioning well as part of a team. Jerry likely lacks:
In individualistic cultures, success and succeeding in competitive tasks is more:
Which of the following is a criticism of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
The three distinct components involved in an emotion are: a subjective experience, a:
Melissa has been asked to write a paper on the history of the school of psychology called behaviorism. She will MOST likely include work by which group of three psychologists?
In contrast to behaviorism's focus on behavior as being shaped by external causes, humanistic psychology regarded which of the following as the important influences on human behavior?
Josie is conducting a study on whether sleep deprivation increases stress levels. She will be observing and measuring levels of stress based on whether the subjects were assigned to the deprived or nondeprived sleep conditions. In this experiment, the stress level is the:
Which of the following is not a goal of psychology?
Dr. Fine is a psychologist who emphasizes the importance of unconscious influences in her work with patients. It is most likely that Dr. Fine conceptualizes her work from a ______ perspective.
A hypothesis is:
Cynthia always buys the brand of paper towels that is on sale, even if it is not the highest quality towel. She makes her paper-towel-buying decision based on the _________ model of decision making.
When Vasilis is faced with the decision of which of two equally attractive apartments to rent, he makes a list of what is most important to him and gives each factor a numerical rating. Apparently he is using the _________ model of decision making.
You have discovered in your recent research study that as self-reported levels of happiness increase, binge-eating behavior significantly decreases. You have just revealed a ______ correlation in your research.
Karen is going to measure happiness based on how frequently a person smiles or laughs. This measure of happiness is called her ______ definition.
The National Health and Social Life Survey gathered information about the sexual practices of U.S. adults between the ages of 18 and 59. This is an example of ______, in that every member of the larger group has an equal chance of being selected for inclusion in the sample.
Descriptive methods are research strategies for ______ and describing behavior.
In order to understand a client’s extreme behavior, a psychologist has investigated the client's personal, physical, and social history. The most appropriate research method would be a(n):
The ______ is the numerical indicator of the strength of the relationship between two factors.
One of the common obstacles to problem solving, known as _______________, involves persisting in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past.
The investigative method used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor is called the:
A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present is also called a ____________, according to the text.
A formal concept is the mental category that is formed by:
Dr. David wants to conduct a survey on the political views of college freshmen, so he administers his survey to a large lecture class comprised of freshmen students. Although Dr. David cannot survey every freshman in the university, he is able to select a ______ sample that parallels the larger group on many variables.
The "best," or most typical, instance of a particular concept is called a(n) _____________.
A mental category that is formed by learning the rules that define it is referred to as a:
A mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experiences is referred to as a:
If a researcher is interested in gathering information from a large group of newlyweds about their experiences, beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes about the challenges and benefits of married life, he or she would benefit from using a(n) ______ design for the data collection.
Also known as a(n )______________, this is a problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution.
___________________refers to the tendency to view objects as operating only in their usual or customary manner.
Dr. Psychologist is studying how childhood aggression varies with the amount of violent video games that are played. Childhood aggression in this study is a:
Professor Baker's special area of study involves measuring the system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements. Professor Baker specializes in the study of:
A person’s ability to create an infinite number of new and different phrases and sentences shows the _______________ nature of language.
Mark is using statistics to summarize, analyze, and ______ the data he has collected for his research study.
One's ability to come to a conclusion or make a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved is called:
Mr. and Mrs. Kilpatrick sit down with their 18-year-old daughter one night to tell her that if she saves up another $500, they will match her money and help her purchase the car she has been eyeing. The ability of the Kilpatricks to communicate meaningfully about ideas, objects, and activities that are not physically present is referred to as:
The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved is also known as __________.
The psychologist who is best known as the developer of the first intelligence test, and who believed that the test could help identify children who needed special help was____________.
The results of objective observation, measurement, and experimentation on which the field of psychology is based is(are) called:
Current research that uses twins and IQ scores to study the impact of environment and genetics has found that:
The area of psychology that focuses on how people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems, and think, is described as the ______ perspective.
The problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do NOT work is called:
A(n) _________ is a problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions.
Elana got her new DVD player, she spent hours trying different approaches to programming the machine rather than consulting the manual. Elana is using the _________ approach to problem solving.
This general term refers to the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
What do we call the manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions?
Which of the following statements accurately summarizes the James-Lange theory of emotion?
The most typical instance of a particular concept according to your text would be called a(n) _______________.
The American psychologist who developed the WAIS, the most widely used intelligence scale, was _______________.
Contemporary psychologists continue to debate some of the ideas behind the doctrine of interactive dualism introduced by René Descartes, which states that:
Carrie is taking a graduate school course on therapy theories, one of which is about uncovering unconscious causes of behavior. It is likely that the text chapter that contains this theory is discussing:
Martha participates in a research study in order to receive extra credit for her psychology class. When she arrives in the research office she is given a can of what looks and tastes like beer, but which actually contains no alcohol. In the adjoining room Martha's classmate Karen is also participating in the study. Karen also receives a similar can, but hers does contain alcohol. If the experiment is designed to test the effects of alcohol on concentration, who receives the experimental condition?
The two primary types of conditioning discussed in the text are ______ and ______.
The scientific study of forgetting was begun by the German psychologist ______ over a century ago.
One night you dream that your college roommate got married. When you run into her in a coffee shop about a year later and ask her how the wedding was, she tells you that she is not married. This form of memory distortion is also known as:
Five-year-old Jim and six-year-old John watched Superman cartoons all morning. In the early afternoon, they donned beach towels as capes, climbed on top of the garage roof, and got ready to fly. Their startled mother stopped them in time, but she was forcefully reminded of the powerful influence of ______ on behavior.