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Which brain structure is most directly involved in the rapid appraisal of whether a stimulus is good or bad?
~ ex. Baker (profession) recalls how baking bread smells, how it feels, etc.
Jordan, an engineering major needs to take introduction to chemistry in order to fulfill his requirements for his major. In order to help him remember the 6 noble gases in his chemistry class he thought about each one and how they related to things in his life…helium balloons, how they look, how they make your voice sound, neon signs at his favorite pizza place..how that pizza tastes and smells, krypton… where superman lives and he loves comics…..ETC.
Process of maintaining information in memory over time
Breaking into meaningful chunks to extend amount of time available to STM
~ The most important of all memory processes
~ Memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match.
ex. Likely to transfer information you learned from one class to another class
Act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
~ Network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
Ex: Say silk 5 times….. Spell silk… What do cows drink?
Failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it
~ Tip of the tongue phenomenon
Frederick hears a familiar song on the radio and knows that he owns that band’s CD. However, he struggles to remember the name of the band. This is an example of what sin of memory?
ex.Parents holding on to views for years; “In the past, my beliefs have been consistent.”
Intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
Victoria was a songwriter. She went through a difficult breakup and composed a song to express her emotions. When she went to her producer he informed her that her song sounded eerily similar to Adele’s “Someone Like You”. This is an example of _________.
anything that elicits a response
Ex: Ringing a bell; a tone; snake; stove
behavior that occurs in the presence of a stimulus
automatic response to a non-neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned
initially neutral stimulus paired with the UCS.
EX. The bell in Pavlov’s experiment
response similar to UCR elicited by the CS.
EX. The salivating because of the ringing of the bell
~ Temperature change/hot water
~ Flinch/jump back
~ Sound of the toilet flushing
~ Jumping back
Every time someone flushes a toilet at your house, the shower becomes very hot and causes you to jump back. Over time, you begin to jump back automatically after hearing the toilet flush, before the water temperature changes.
UCS? UCR? CS? CR?
~ Too much alcohol
~ Feeling nauseas
Aaron, a senior at Ohio State went to a party off campus. He drank beer all night (too much) and on his way home stopped at Cane’s chicken on high street for a snack. Due to the excess alcohol, Aaron spends the remainder of the night sick in his bathroom. Now every time he walks past Cane’s he feels nauseas. UCS? UCR? CS? CR?
3. Spontaneous Recovery
6. Second-Order Conditioning
The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and US are presented together
~ Gradual learning of a conditioned response
~ Timing matters!
~ Pairing the bell with the food
learning phase in which response is acquired
~ Same as Classic Conditioning
~ Difference is HOW the response is acquired
CR decreases in magnitude and is eventually eliminated when CS is repeatedly presented alone (without UCS)
~ Overwriting, not forgetting
~ Relearning that the bell no longer means anything. Ring the bell, don’t give food. Ring the bell, don’t give food. The dog is salivating. But, over time, if you don’t give the dog the food, the dog will unpair the bell to the food
sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the CS
~ Renewal effect: Sudden reemergence of a CR when the animal goes back into the original setting in which the CR was acquired.
~ ex. Phobias
My dog Cayla immediately runs to her food bowl after her morning walk thinking it is time for breakfast. When she was a puppy my Dad used to feed her after their walk. Now she gets breakfast a little later. Eventually she stops running to her bowl after the walk. Weeks later, she starts doing this behavior again (running to her bowl after her walk).
What is Cayla Exhibiting?
the process by which conditioned stimuli that are similar but not identical to the original CS elicit a CR
~ Generalization gradient: more similar the new CS is to the original the stronger the CR will be
Exhibiting less pronounced CRs to CSs that differ from the original CS
~ Opposite of stimulus generalization
Pairing a new stimulus (CS2) with a CS (rather than a UCS) so now both the CS and the CS2 elicit the CR
~ But the CS2 was NEVER paired with the UCS
~ Example: Pavlov pairs the tone with the food, then pairs the tone with a light – and the light will elicit salivation (2nd order CS)
Developing an avoidance reaction to certain foods
~ Real world applications
learning based on consequences of behavior
~ Behavior is shaped by what comes after (reward or punishment)
~ Individuals response is voluntary
if a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by something satisfying, the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened
~ Followed by something unsatisfying -> less likely to be repeated
behavior an organism produces that has some impact on the environment
~ Studied the roles of reinforcement and punishments
Melissa’s boyfriend gives her a foot rub after she cooks him dinner—she start cooking more often!
Handing out candy for correct answers is an example of __________________
~ Getting rid of a headache by taking ibuprofen
~ Removing water from a windshield by using wipers
~ Turning off alarm in the morning
~ Stopping beeping sound by putting on seatbelt
~ Leaving movie theatre if movie is bad
Giving out candy for answering questions
Giving a dog a treat when he goes outside to use the bathroom
Giving a child a break after doing 10 minutes of math homework
add a punishment to decrease behavior
~ Yelling at a child for hitting a friend
Emily touched the stove and burned her hand! She didn’t touch the stove again…
remove a desired stimulus to decrease behavior
~ Take away iPad for fighting with sister
Adam brought home a bad report card so his father took away his cell phone for a week—He studied harder next time
Zach got a headache at school so he took Advil and his headache went away—next time he got a headache he immediately took Advil
~ Rewarding every occurrence
~ Learn quickly/extinguish quickly
~ Only some responses are reinforced – produces higher rates of responding and more resistant to extinction
~ Fixed/Variable Interval Schedule
~ Fixed/Variable Ration Schedule
reinforcement after a special number of responses
Ex: treat after 5 correct responses
Frequent Flyer program is an example of
reinforcement after an average number of responses (precise number of responses varies)
Ex: treat after 2 correct responses, then after 5 correct responses, then after 3
~ Know reward is coming but don’t know when!
Slot machines are an example of
A slot machine is a good example of this type of reinforcement schedule ____________
reinforcement for performing behavior at least once in a specified time period
Only need one correct response to receive reward (decreases productivity)
Ex: treat every 45 seconds
Weekly paycheck is an example of
behavior is reinforced based on average time that has expired since last reinforcement, with interval varying randomly
~ After average # of responses or time, but variable
~ Ex. Treat for correct response after 2 min, then 4 min, then 8 min
Checking Facebook after 2 minutes, then after 10 minutes, then after 5 minutes of studying is an example of
Drew and his mom were taking a walk when they see a really big dog. Drew’s mom becomes very afraid and crosses the street. After this experience, Drew is fearful of dogs. This is an example of________________.
Learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of information acquisition
~ Learning on accident
process where repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in gradual reduction in responding
~ Happens when we deem stimuli safe and worth ignoring
~ Simplest form of learning
This type of learning does not happen on purpose
When we respond less strongly to stimuli over time this is called____________
specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten their well being
subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health
o Specific events that produce stress
~ Defined beginning, middle and end
~ Can be positive and negative
Stressors that occur continuously or repeatedly
~ Related to greater psychological and physical symptoms compared to acute stressor
~ Dealing with a death, breakup, etc.
Events are most stressful when there is no way to deal with the challenge
~ Expecting you will have control is associated with effectiveness in dealing with stress
~ Glass and Singer (1972)
~ Complete tasks in silence or in noisy classroom near air zone
~ Noise brought down performance
increase blood flow to muscles; make you more “ready.” Increased heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
three-stage physiological stress response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered
~ Non-specific- response doesn’t very no matter the source of repeated stress
Alarm à Resistance à Exhaustion
Brittney is getting married in less than a month. She is looking forward to the occasion but is overwhelmed with finalizing last minute details with the guests, hotel, and caterer. She is likely experiencing ________.
facing the stressor and working to overcome it
~ May be difficult in extreme trauma
Acceptance --> Exposure --> Understanding
finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat
Ex: Picturing people in their underwear while doing public speaking
Anthony enrolled in a course this semester that was much more difficult that he originally expected. To make it through the semester Anthony began to think about the course as a challenge that he would be stronger for overcoming. Instead of dwelling on the difficulty of the class he saw it as an opportunity to learn new material he wouldn’t have otherwise learned. This technique is an example of ________.
a therapy that helps people to cope with stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about the situation
~ Anger-prone people = less physiologically aroused
technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body
condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure
· Dispassionate, nonevaluative and sustained moment-to-moment awareness of perceptible mental states and processes
· Includes continuous, immediate awareness of physical sensations, perceptions, affective states, thoughts and imagery
· Enhance general features of coping with distress and disability in everyday life as well as under conditions of more serious disorder or stress (Grossman et al., 2004)
the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function
~ Listening to your body
~ Can control physiological functions of which we aren’t usually aware
Axel participated in a study where he watched videos of bungee jumping and felt stressed. While this was happening he was getting information about his heart rate and blood pressure. This enabled him to better regulate these bodily processes. What type of technique is this?
the exercise of voluntary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards
~ Required to engage in health promotion
~ Delayed gratification
positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
emotional experience is the consequence and not the cause of our physiological reactions to objects and events in the world
~ Each unique emotional experience is the result of a unique pattern of physiological responses
~ With out a physiological response, there would be no emotion!
suggest that a stimulus simultaneously triggers a physiological response and emotional experience
· Speed of onset of an emotion > speed of Autonomic Nervous System reaction
· People can’t always detect physiological changes
suggests that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal
Same physiological reaction to all emotional stimuli but interpretation differs based upon the occasion
~ Lesion to amygdala
~ Eat, sex, docile, no fear
Deceased amygdala, increased activity in cortex
~ Use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one’s emotional experiences ~ Cheep UP/Cheer DOWN
~ Strategy Examples: avoiding situations that trigger emotion, distracting activities, trying not to think about it
Emotions can be described by their location on the two dimensions of ______________________________.
observable sign of an emotional state
~ Evolutionary significance of emotional expression
~ Face and body posture communicates internal states
Believed to be a small number of emotions that are cross culturally recognized
~ Happiness, sadness, anger, surprised, disgust, fear
Emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences they signify
~ Helps us figure out what others are feeling
~ Mimicry helps us empathize
~ People with amygdala damage have trouble experiencing fear and anger and are typically poor at recognizing the expressions of those emotions in others
~ You can control most facial muscles, you don’t have to display the emotion you are feeling
~ Expressions are moderated by knowledge of display rules and culture
~ Norms for the control of emotional expression
Ex: I’m happy (I’m not really as happy as I appear). Making expression more than it is.
muting expression of emotion
Ex: A football coach with no emotional response
expressing one emotion while feeling another
Ex: Poker face
feeling an emotion but displaying no expression
Which of the following does NOT provide any support for the universality hypothesis?
A. Congenitally blind people make the facial expression associated with the basic emotions
B. Infants only days old react to sweet tastes with smiles and to bitter tastes with expressions of disgust
C. Robots have been engineered to exhibit emotional expressions
D. Researchers have discovered that isolated people living a Stone Age existence with little contact with the outside world recognize the emotional expressions of people with contemporary lifestyles
Which of the following statements is inaccurate?
A. Certain facial muscles are reliably engaged by sincere facial expressions.
B. Even when people smile bravely to mask disappointment, their faces tend to express small bursts of disappointment.
C. Studies show that human lie detection ability is extremely good.
D. The polygraph machines detect lies at a higher rate than chance, but their error rate is still quite high.
The hedonic principle states that ________________.
A. Emotions provide people with information.
B. People are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain.
C. People use their moods as information about the likelihood of succeeding at a task
D. Motivations are acquired solely through experience
Which of the following activities is most likely the result of extrinsic motivation?
A. Completing a crossword puzzle
B. Pursuing a career as a musician
C. Having ice cream for dessert
D. Flossing one’s teeth
According to Maslow, the most basic of our needs is the need for _____________________________.
C. Safety and Security
D. Belongingness and Love
Two friends have asked you to help them settle a disagreement. You hear each side of the story and have an emotional response to one viewpoint, but you don’t express it. This is an example of which display rule?
a disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
~ Purging includes – Vomiting, Laxative, Exercise
a disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake
~ one way people cope with their existential terror is by developing a cultural worldview—shared set of beliefs about what is good and right and true
o Live in a world of meaning in which they can achieve symbolic immortality
~ People who are reminded of their own mortality will work to reinforce their cultural worldviews
o Praise those with the same views
o Reject those with different views
~ motivations we are aware of
o “I’m going to med school and doing research so I can find a cure for diabetes.”
~ motivations we aren’t aware of
o “I’m going to med school so I can prove my mothers love”
motivation not to experience a negative outcome
~ biological or physiological factors’
o Shaped by adaptive factors
o “Hard wired” or inherited
~ environmental influences
o Learned behaviors
~ How the physical world works
~ How their minds represent it
~ How other minds represent it
3 Essential Tasks of Cognitive Development
~ Not just mini adults
~ Kids = Scientists
o Active explorers
· Kids of a certain age made similar states
· Proposed that development occurred in four stages
o Concrete Operational
o Formal Operational
~ Birth to 2 yrs.
~ Sense and move
~ Schemas: theories or models of the way the world works
o How we understand the world around us
o Why would this be helpful
· Infants apply their schemas in novel situations
· Absorbing new experiences into current knowledge structures
· Filing new info into existing folder
~ Baby tugging stuffed animal
~ Baby sees zebra
~ Revising schemas in light of new information
~ New info doesn’t fit old beliefs
~ Create new file folder
~ Child pulls cats tail
~ Child decides zebra is not the same as a horse
~ Idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible~ Have some understanding of this when they are 4 months old
· The stage of development that begins around 2 years and ends at about 6 years
· Do not grasp the concept of conservation
o children cannot grasp that they have a mind and that these minds contain mental representations of the world
o They are unable to make a distinction between the way things are and the way we see them
Begins around age 6 ends about age 11
· Child learns how various operations can affect or transform concrete objects
· Child can think logically about physical objects and events and understands conservation of physical properties
· Able to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now
· Experiment systematically with hypotheses and observe outcomes
Autism Spectrum Disorders
o 1 in 68 (CDC estimate)
o Developmental disability
o Impairments in social communication and characterized by restricted and repetitive interests/behaviors
o Can have mild to severe behavioral problems
o Most do not develop theory of mind