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We categorize by looking at a “prototype” and comparing the object to this main representation of the category
-We compare and categorize based on similar basic features. “Family Resemblance Theory”
-We use examplars, basing decisions of concepts and categories using the “examples” of similar classes of the object
we seek to confirm what we already believe
Distraction by Irrelevant Information
People often get sidetracked and it detracts from effective problem solving
The sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error.
The AHA experience
Compensatory Decision Models
Allows attractive attributes to compensate for unattractive attributes
Noncompensatory Decision Models
Basic flawed assumption that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event
Linda bank teller feminist
Additive Decision Model
Rating the attributes of each alternative and selecting the one which has the highest sum
Elimination by aspects
Shortcuts that guide us in decision making about probabilities
Matching an object to a “concept” or “category” without processing how likely the fit bay be
Decision Making and the Brain
significant involvement in the prefrontal cortex related to our judgement.
Damage to this part of the brain leads to riskier decisions.
historically defined by how we “measure” it
Developed intelligence tests to identify slow learners to develop remedial programs
ability to learn to gain proficiency in an area
measures the amount of info a person has acquired
Based on ability not chronological age
A child with a mental age of 6 and chronological age of 5 would have the same IQ as a child with a mental age of 12 and chronological age of 10.
Newer tests were developed with norms for all age groups based on a standard distribution
Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Intelligence Tests are still used today
Results in a Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full Scale IQ score
Based on norms for the population: 100 is the mean; Normal range: 85-115.
The Flynn Effect
Hypotheses: more time in school, better educated parents, better nutrition, broader exposure through media..
Wechsler’s View of Intelligence
“The global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his/her environment”
Verbal Comprehension Scale
Processing Speed Scale
Working Memory Scale
Perceptual Reasoning Scale
breadth of concepts, ideas and experiences; + correlated with overall IQ.
Basic fund of information; culturally sensitive COD
awareness of socially appropriate behavior, rules and roles. lost ball of friends
verbal concept formation, level of abstraction.
what ways are cats and dogs the same
concentration/ attention; mathematical ability
For the entire school the children for whom the teachers expected greater intellectual growth averaged significantly greater improvement than did the control children; especially for grades 1 and 2
if we expect something to happen in a certain way our expectancies will make it so…
(intellectual developmental disorder) is a disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, and practical domains (DSM 5)
language and literacy, money, time and number concepts; self-direction
interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naivete (i.e. wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized
activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety
over 100 single genetic traits can result in intellectual disabilities
-Trisomy 21 (extra genetic material on or duplication of on the 21st chromosome)
-Physical Features: Small stature, low muscle tone, upward slant of the eyes
-People with Down syndrome have an increased risk for congenital heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and thyroid conditions
-Majority fall into the mild to moderate level of intellectual disability
-Precocious; master things earlier
-Teachers may not identify them correctly
-Gifted vs “Profoundly Gifted” distinction
-May have exceptional potential in visual/performing arts, leadership traits or empathy
-Acceleration not current recommendation
long term study of gifted individuals (longest running study- since 1921)
1500 youngsters (average IQ=150)
Found to be above average in height, weight, strength, physical health, emotional stability and social satisfaction throughout adulthood
Winner notes different from profoundly gifted (IQ>180) as these children may be more introverted and socially isolated
the ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences, the “processing part” of the brain
Interpersonal - sensitivity to other people.
Intrapersonal - knowing one’s self
Existential - working on causes, charity work, astrology charts, community service
the ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning
does the test measure the construct for which it is designed to assess/measure
Measurement consistency; do we get consistent results over time
vigor and persistence of goal directed behavior, helps move us towards our goals
motivation plays a significant role in adaption; social need to affiliate, share resources, provide protection, procreation
internal state of tension that propels one to a certain activity/behavior to lessen the feeling
External goals that promote a behavior
A motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding
A motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding, but that lead to reward
The ability to engage in behaviors that are currently unrewarding for greater rewards. Associated with better grades (more predictive than IQ), social competence, emotional intelligence, achievement motivation, higher SAT.
tendency for the body (person) to want to maintain a state of constancy
Energy is necessary for maintenance and growth. Search for a balanced diet
primary structure of the brain which signals hunger and satiation (fullness)
(near side) turns hunger “on”
(lower, middle) is the hunger “off”.
Stimulation stops eating.
Lesion or damage can cause voracious eating.
Eat voracious you become voluptuous.
Obesity rates currently based on Body Mass Index or BMI. An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight.
An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese
Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years
1. Coronary heart disease
2. Type 2 diabetes
3. Cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)
4. Hypertension (HBP)
6. Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
Overeating can result from biochemical abnormalities (leptin-resistent)
Nature designed us to overeat
We eat when we are not hungry
1. Increased High Fat Easily Accessible Junk Food
2. Increased Portion Size
3. Increased Sedentary Lifestyle
Over eating leads to increase in the number and size of fat cells. When we lose weight we we experience a decrease in the size of fat cells, but not the number of fat cells
Dieting affects our metabolism; the rate at which energy is used. Our body adapts to less calories by trying to maximize the ways to turn food we do consume into fat
a disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake
Treatment and support are available
4-6% fatality rate
Peak age 15-19; > in Females
-disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
-Can involve taking laxatives or inducing vomiting
-Significant shame component
-More treatable because recognize problem
-Often in normal weight range
Long term health issues: ulcers, hernias, hair loss, dental damage, electrolyte imbalances
Identified sexual behaviors/preferences
Self-Report Data—Bias Issues
Males experience a refractory period
Prevalence rates of orgasm may vary for men and women—women may experience multiple orgasms although reports are that they reach orgasm less consistently than men
Men express belief they are smaller than average
Flaccid penis size is not a direct proportion to the penis erect
size did not matter
Males think about sex more and willing to engage in sexual activity with more casual partners
Males place more emphasis on youth and attractiveness
Females place more emphasis on intelligence and ability to provide and protect
Biological vs Environmental influences on sexuality
Homosexuality not considered a mental disorder since 1973
1. To obtain positive stimulation in our lies
2. To receive emotional support
3. To gain attention
4. To permit social comparison
-Motivation by success (approach motivation): thrill at mastery, sense of achievement
-Motivated by fear of failure (avoidance motivation): fear of performing badly, increases anxiety, tends to be a little stronger but see individual differences
-Yerkes/Dodson: optimal levels of anxiety/performance
Assessment of Achievement Motivation
People high in achievement tend to work harder and more persistently, more future oriented, able to delay gratification for long term goals
Subjective conscious experience, includes an “appraisal” or evaluation of the situation
Hypothesis: when subjects lie noticeable changes in physiological indicators
Not always accurate
Less likely to identity those who lie without accompanying discomfort
Sensitive to those high on anxiety measures
characteristic overt expression of emotion
Six basic emotions generally able to identify
Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise and disgust
Body language and facial expression
belief that facial expressions themselves can control emotion
norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions; culturally determined
conscious experience of emotion results form perception of arousal; “I’m scared because I am running”
cognitive interpretations of a situation and response occur at approximately the same time; “I am running away and feeling scared”
People use two factors to identify emotion; physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation; search the environment for an explanation for reactions; look for external cues to help label emotions
explores our need to use self-esteem as a buffer against anxiety over our mortality.
-Subjects give harsher penalties to rule breakers
-Give greater rewards to those upholding cultural standards
-Respond more negatively to those critical of their country
-Show more respect for cultural icons (flags) and
value their spouses.
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