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Theory that analyzes consciousness into basic elements.
Theory that is influence by natural selection. It investigates the function of consciousness.
A theory led by John B. Watson and later on B.F. Skinner.
Behavior is the overt or observable responses or activities. In other words, nurture, not nature, took place.
Changes in physical and psychologicalfunctioning that occur from conception across the entire lifespan
Does research such as experiements and studies.
Communicates with others (read and write research reports, go to meetings to see cutting-edge research, collaborate).
Trains new psychologists.
-Measurement and description
-Understanding causation and relationships (associoations)
-Control and application
5 Steps in Scientific Investigation
1) Formulate a hypothesis
2) Design a study
3) Collect data
4) Analyze data and draw conclusions
5) Communicate findings
-Artificial nature of experiments
-Ethical and practical issues
(CANNOT IMPLY CAUSATION)
-Predicition: higher correlation coefficients = increased ability to predict one variable based on the other.
-Can study variables that cannot be manipulated.
Clarity of communication.
The relative intolerance of error.
the extended fiber of a neuron through which nerve impulses travel from the soma to the terminal buttons
the gap between one neuron and another
1) Action Potential travels from dendrite soma down to terminal buttons.
2) Vesicles move towards synaptic cleft.
3) Vesicles release neurotransmitters into cleft.
4) Neurtransmitters connect with certain receptor sites.
5) This excites post-synaptic neuron and starts another Action Potential.
This system includes:
-Hippocampus: establishes long term memories
-Amygdala: memory and emotion, particularly aggression
-Temporal: speech and memory
-Parietal: physically sense things
-CAT scan: x-ray image of the brain
-MRI: uses magnetic properties of the brain
-EEG: measures electrical signals on scalp caused by firing of neurons
-PET Scan: shows levels of glucose metabolism
-fMRI: shows levels of blood flo
-To conserve energy
-To reduce danger
-To restore energy and other bodily resources
-To learn and to dream
Founder of the school of Functionalism
pioneered the behaviorist perspective; psychological research should seek the laws that govern observable behavior across species.
the approach to identifying causes of behavior that focuses on the functioning of the genes, the brain, the nervous system, and the endocrine system
the psychological perspective that focuses on cross- culture differences in the causes and consequences of behavior
a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more events or variables often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific conditions
a stimulus other that the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces into a research setting that affects a participant’s behavior
a subset of population that closely matches the overall characteristics of the population with respect to the distribution of males and females, racial and ethnic groups
the observable characteristics of an organism, resulting from the interaction between the organisms genotype and its environment
a recording of the electrical activity of the brain
brain image produced by device that obtains detailed pictures of activity in the living brain by recording the radioactivity emited by cells during different cognitive or behavioral activities
a technique for brain imaging that scans the brain using magnetic fields and radio waves
a brain imaging technique that combines benefits of both mri and PET scans by detecting magnetic changes in the flow of blood to cells in the brain
part of the nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord
the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles and skin
- the network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the blooddstream
the brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
the region of the brain stem that regulates breathing, waking and heartbeat
the part of the limbic system that controls emotion, aggression and the formation
the part of the limbic system that is involved in the acquisition of explicit memory
the region of the brain that translates thoughts into speech or signs
a region of the brain that allows fluent speech production and comprehension
changes in the performance of the brain may involve the creation of new synapses or changes in the function of existing synapses
the creation of new neurons
the period of rest during which a new nerve impulse cannot be activated in a segment of an axon
In psychological research, the absolute threshold is defined as:
The collection of rod and cone receptors that funnel signals via bipolar and ganglion cells to a particular visual cell in the visual cortex make up that visual cell’s:
A painting of train tracks may look as though the tracks go off into the distance because the artist draws the tracks as converging lines. This binocular cue to depth known as
perceptual inferences can be shaped by experience
Which of the following are the psychological dimensions of sound
timbre, loudness and pitch
norepinephrine and dopamine
dreams allow an outlet for energy invested in socially undesirable impulses
spend less time in REM sleep for a few nights
After presenting a dog with repeated pairings of a tone with meat powder, Pavlov found that the dog would salivate when the tone was presented by itself. This salivation to the tone was a(n)
In his ground-breaking work studying cats in Puzzle Boxes, Edward Thorndike found that satisfying consequences increased the likelihood of a behavior, while dissatisfying consequences decreased the likelihood of a behavior. This is known as:
sleep is marked by intense mental activity and bizarre dreaming.
The consistent pattern of cyclical body activities repeated everyday is better known as the:
All employees are paid for every 10 sales that they make. In the terms of Operant Conditioning: What type of reinforcement contingency is the company using?
All employees are paid for every 10 sales that they make. In the terms of Operant Conditioning: What type of reinforcement schedule is the company using?
The theory which holds that dreams are a bi-product of neural stimulation of the visual cortex and amygdala by the pons while individuals are asleep is called the:
An experimenter records how quickly a participant can press a button correctly identifying the solution to a math problem from a choice of 4 numbers. Technically, this measure is known as
A friend tells you her new phone number. You repeat the number to yourself over and over again until you find a pen with which to write it down. According to the modal model, while rehearsing the phone number, it is stored in ________ memory.
Which of the following is an example of retroactive interference?
Assessing whether you like a new flavor of ice cream is known as . The process of making a choice between strawberry and vanilla flavor ice cream is known as .
According to the modal model, before information is passed into short-term memory it is briefly held in the sensory store. Visual information retained in the sensory store is called:
As preparation for a test, a student tests herself on her study notes. She finds that she recalls more information from the beginning of her notes than from the middle or end. This illustrates what psychologists call the ________ .
______ is putting information into memory; ______ is getting information out of memory:
Jason is listening to his Mom list off 15 things that he needs to remember to pick up at the store. According to George Miller, if Jason just relies on short term memory to remember these items, he will probably remember:
Steve was recently traded to a new football team. He’s having a hard time remembering the plays for his new team because he keeps mixing them up with his old team’s plays. Steve’s problem illustrates the operation of:
Sue Savage-Rumbaugh conducted language research with bonobos (for example, Kanzi) and chimpanzees. Which of the following did this research demonstrate about the language capabilities of such animals?
Chimps/ bonobos are nearly as well suited for learning and using language as humans.
one’s language determines the nature of one’s thought
The statement, “All grapes are fruit. Some grapes are green. Therefore some fruit is green” is an example of:
If you are trying to decide between three cars to purchase but, then, decide to wait until you know more about all three models, this is an example of:
If a test has good test-retest reliability:
Which statement is true concerning mental retardation?
In which of the following cases would you expect to find the greatest similarity in IQ?
between identical twins
Joseph Renzulli (2005) argued that giftedness is not just a matter of IQ score. In addition, he stated, giftedness requires individuals to score highly on the dimensions of:
A child is inthe preoperational stage of cognitive development. If Piaget’s model is correct, the child will next move tothe _________ stage.
During adulthoodat what age does the sperm count for men begin to decline?
According toAbraham Maslow’s hierarchy, once a person has satisfied their physiologicalneeds they will become influenced by their needs.
-strange situation: behavioral test used to determine child's attatchment style
- 4 types of attachment
--secure attachment 60%
--aviodant attachment 20%
--ambilivilant attachment 15%
--disorganized attachment 5%
talkative, sociable, outgoing, assertive
Age related physical and behavioralchanges characteristic of a species raised in the normal habitat
What are the two attribution biases?
Fundamental Attribution Error
Underestimate influence of external factors
Overestimate the influence of internal factors
Overestimate contribution of internal factors to
Overestimate contribution of external factors to failures
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy)
2. Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)
3. Integrity vs. Despair (adulthood)
1. implicit (procedural or reflexive)
2. explicit (Declarative)
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