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Important for morality and memory
The common failure to notice large changes in environments.
attachment style for infants who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation
65% of infants
personal beliefs about whether one is male or female
not only about socialization, biology counts too
state of biological orsocial deficiencies
The inattentive or shallow encoding of events.
Deficits in long-term memory that result from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma.
An inability to form new memories.
The temporary inability to remember something that is known.
=inability to remember needed info
ex. not remembering someone's name
*temporary, "tip of the tongue"
Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember.
The false recollection of episodic memory.
false recollection of episodic mem
called "honest lying" cuz it's unintentional
radical ex=capgras syndrome, when people think their fam has been replaced by impostors
A hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
A type of misattribution that occurs when a person thinks he or she has come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source.
The cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared.
The processing of information so that it can be stored.
when mental representation is formed/stored in memory
Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience.
Memory for one's personal past experiences.
memory for one’s personal past experiences
The processes involved when people remember specific information.
Vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, and emotionally arousing event.
The inability to retrieve memory from long-term storage.
The system underlying unconscious memories.
the system underlying unconcious memories
The relatively permanent storage of information.
mental capacity to encode, store, retrieve info; ability to make use of experience
nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
The changing of memories over time in ways consistent with prior beliefs.
Strategies for improving memory.
The three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
1. sensory mem=sensory info stored briefly as its orig form
2. short term/WM
STM=limited capacity mem holds info shortly
WM=active processing keeps diff types of info for current use
3. LTM=relatively permanent storage of info
Processing multiple types of information at the same time.
allows us to process information from different visual features at the same time by focusing on targets over distractors
A mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma.
When prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information.
A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits.
Remembering to do something at some time in the future.
Neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval.
The act of recalling or remembering stored information to use it.
Anything that helps a person (or other animal) recall information from memory.
When new information inhibits the ability to remember old information.
The condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information.
A hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information.
Memory for knowledge about the world
Memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form.
sensory memory – memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form
The ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle.
serial position effect
placement on a list affects how we remember things
primacy effect=good memory for items at beg of list (because of LTM)
recency effect=good memory for items at end of list (still in WM)
A limited-capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period.
A type of amnesia that occurs when a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information.
Memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory.
memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, palce, person, or circumstances involved with a memory
Memory for the physical environment; it includes things such as location of objects, direction, and cognitive maps
The retention of coded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event.
the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event
The development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information.
=altering a mem cuz of misleading info
ex. developing false mems for events that never happened
*why people aren't good eye witnesses
The pattern of forgetting over time.
=reduced mem over time
ex. forgetting the plot of a movie
An active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use.
A mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object; it is analogous to the object.
mental representation that has some of the physical characteristcs of an object ex. image of violin
Making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind.
making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
ex. after seeing many news stories about a particular event, will think it's more likely than it is because you can think of more examples of it
Mental activity such as thinking or representing information.
A mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around common themes.
Knowledge acquired through experience and the ability to use that knowledge.
Attempting to select the best alternative among several options.
Using a belief or rule to determine if a conclusion is valid (follows logically from the belief or rule).
using a belief or rule to come up with examples of something
ex. syllogisms --> all A are B. All B are C. Therefore all A are C.
remember: examples can be DEAD wrong, so start with DEDuctive reasoning
The idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category.
A form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions.
Information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membership.
Information processing in novel or complex circumstances.
The effect of presentation on how information is perceived.
the way info is presented alters how people perceive it
ex. condom=95% safe or 5% failure. same stat, HUGE difference
The idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities
In problem solving, shortcuts (rules of thumb or informal guidelines) used to reduce the amount of thinking that is needed to move from an initial state to a goal state.
shortcuts in problem solving used to reduce the amt of thinking needed to reach a goal
ex. rules of thumb
Using examples or instances to determine if a rule or conclusion is likely to be true.
using examples to understand a rule or conclusion
ex. the scientific method
remember: using ideas IN the concept, understand the rule
(1) The sudden realization of a solution to a problem. (2) A goal of some types of therapy; a patient's understanding of his or her own psychological processes.
the sudden realization of a solution to a problem
The human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges.
The number computed by dividing a child's estimated mental age by the child's chronological age, and then multiplying this number by 100.
An assessment of a child's intellectual standing relative to that of his or her peers; determined by a comparison of the child's test score with the average score for children of each chronological age.
an assessment of a child's intellectual standing relative to that of his or her peers; determined by comparison of the child’s test score with the average score for children of each chronological age
A problem solving strategy that has worked in the past.
The idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains.
proposed by gardner
idea that people can show diff skills in a variety of diff domains; people can be bad in some categories, great in others
ex. musical, inter/intrapersonal, linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, existential
Finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal.
An approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category, some members are more representative than others.
categorizes objects based on an idea that some members are more representative than others (organized from typical to atypical)
ex. dogs --> golden retriever is the "doggiest", so it's the prototype
Using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable.
A rule for categorization based on how similar the person or object is to our prototypes for that category.
A new way of thinking about a problem that aids its solution
Apprehension about confirming negative stereotypes related to one's own group
An abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea.
Psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or muscle tension.
psycholgical activation suchas increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or muscletension
Rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations.
rules learned throughsocialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to givensituations
Psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs.
psychological state thatmotivates an organism to satisfy its needs
Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs.
feelings that involvesubjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs
· the intensity of emotional reactions
Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed.
motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed ex. working to get a paycheck
motivation to perform anactivity because of the external goals toward which the activity isdirected
The tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium.
the tendency for bodilyfunctions to maintain equilibrium
External stimuli that motivate behaviors (as opposed to internal drives).
external stimuli thatmotivate behaviors (as opposed to internal drives)
Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose.
motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity itself
motivation to perform anactivity because of the value or pleasure associated with thatactivity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose
Factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior.
State of biological or social deficiencies.
Maslow's arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are lowest priority and personal growth needs are highest priority.
by maslow, arranges needs from basic survival (lowest priority), to personal growth needs (highest priority)
top:self actualization=achieving personal dreams
safety=security, free from threats
physiological=hunger, thirst, air
maslow's arrangement ofneeds, in which basic suvival needs are lowest priority and personalgrowth needs are highest priority
The need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes.
the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adapted purposes
explains how quickly we make friends
the need for interpersonalattachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptivepurposes
Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that humans share across cultures; they are associated with specific biological and physical states.
evolutionary adaptiveemotions that humans share across cultures; they are associated withspecific biological and physical states
Blends of primary emotions, including states such as remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation.
A state that is achieved when one's personal dreams and aspirations have been attained.
A pattern of physiological responses during sexual activity.
excitement start kissing/touching (blood flow to genitals,aroused)
plateau: frenzied stage, passion takes over (faster pulse,breathing and BP)
orgasm:(involuntary muscle contractions, ^breathing,HR)
resolution: release of sex tension,back to normal
a pattern of physiologicalresponses during sexual activity
Evolutionary theory that suggests men and women look for different qualities in their relationship partners because of gender-specific adaptive problems.
evolutionary theory's idea that men and women rank the importance of qualities in their relationship differently cuz of gender specific adaptive probs
ex. women are more cautious of sex cuz of BABIES
evolutionary theory thatsuggests men and women look for different qualities in theirrelationship partners because of gender-specific adaptive problems
Bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action's consequences.
bodily reactions that arisefrom the emotional evaluation of an action's consequences
The psychological principle that behavioral efficiency increases with arousal up to an optimum point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal.
areas of the brain (hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, hippocampus) that encourage/reinforce an action -->activated by dopamine
strengthening of a synaptic connection so that post synaptic neurons are more easily activated
"neurons that fire together, wire together"
happens during fear conditioning in the amygdala
behavioral perspective: learning is acquistion of stimulus-response connections
evolutionary perspective: learning is predisposed by evolutionary history
cognitive perspective: humans are not empty or passive, learning is acquistion of knowledge
harder to put into words, unconscious
lose old mems, can form new ones
old mems okay, can't form new ones
in general=deficits in LTM due to disease, brain injury, psych trauma
when people lost past mems ex. events, facts, people, personal info
inability to form new mems
effortful=conscious effort, ex. studying
maintenance rehearsal=rote memorization
elaborative rehearsal=links to previous mems
organization=relate ideas to others
automatic=incidental, no effort, ex. memories of a trip
1. encoding=info is acquired and processed so it can be stored
2. storage=retention of encoded into, means a change in the NS happened to register the event
3. retrieval=recalling/remembering stored info to use
material studied in multiple sessions over time (better remembered)
material studied in a brief period, cramming
1. episodic=memory for one's personal past experiences
2. semantic mem= mem for knowledge about the world
=reduced mem due to failing to pay attn
ex. losing keys
=assigning a mem to the wrong source
falsefameeffect=falsely thinking avg joe is famous, name is well-known
sleeper effect= tell weird fact, as time passes, will remember the "fact", not the source
cryptomnesia=comes up with new idea, really a retrieved idea
=influence of current knowledge on mem of past events
ex. remembering past attitudes as similar to current ones, even though they've changed
=resurgence of unwanted/disturbing mems that we would like to forget
ex. remembering an embarrassing moment
when prior info inhibits ability to remember new info
when new info inhibits ability to remember old info
stress of pos events ex. preparing for a party
stress of neg events ex. stuck in traffic when late
bio system responsible for stress response
stressful event -> brain -> hypothalamus ---chemical message-->pituitary gland--hormones------>adrenal glands->cortisol released
3 stages to respond to stress
1. alarm=emergency response that preps body to fight or flee
2. resistance=defenses prep for a longer, sustained attack against the stressor, immunity increases a little
3. exhaustion=when systems fail, weakest organs 1st
a more extreme event will tend to be followed by an event closer to the mean
ex. if you go to the doc when symptoms are bad, you'll feel better pretty soon, no matter what the doc does
part of the coping process that involves making decisions about whether a stimulus is stressful or irrelevant
part of the coping process when people eval their options and choose coping behaviors
type of coping where people try to prevent having an emotional response to a stressor
ex. avoidance, distractions, etc.
*only works temporarily
type of coping where people take direct stpes to confront or minimize a stressor
ex. developing solutions, like studying harder, to fix problem
cogn process where a person focuses on possible good things in her situation, looks for silver lining
1. downward comparisons=comparing self to those who are worse off
competitive, achievement oriented, aggressive, hostile, restless, can't relax, impatient
relaxed, non competitive, easy going, accomodating behavior
current levels of skill, knowledge ex. hs tests, maybe the ACT
what one might be good at in the future ex. LSAT, SAT
a schema everyone is familiar with, but it's more of an event rather than just a thought
ex. going on a date to the movies
a way of categorization based on how similar the person/object is to our preconceived notions
ex. meeting someone who is laidback and tan, will assume they're from hawaii
focuses on performance on stndized achievement tests that measure what people know and prob solving skills (been used most of the past century)
examines mental abilities that help operate well -->how process info, reaction time, amt can hold in memory, focus
idea that one general factor, g, underlies all mental activities
developed by spearman
two types=fluid and crystallized
part of spearman's general intelligence theory
info processing in complex situations, things never seen before ex. analogies, reasoning
knowledge gained thru experience and ability to apply it, either know or don't ex. vocab, cultural info
fulfills biological needs
regulatory=required for survival ex. hunger, water
nonregulatory=serves other functions ex. sex
things that motivate you, but don't fulfill bio need
a state that is achievedwhen one's personal dreams and aspirations have been attained