Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
An approach that advocatesthat psychologists restrict themselves tothe scientific study of objectively observ-able behavior.
The philosophical view thatcertain kinds of knowledge are innate orinborn.
The philosophi-cal view that all knowledge is acquiredthrough experience.
A now defunct theory thatspecific mental abilities and characteris-tics, ranging from memory to the capacityfor happiness, are localized in specificregions of the brain.
The study of biologicalprocesses, especially in the human body.
Sensory input from the environ-ment.
The amount of time takento respond to a specific stimulus.
A person’s subjectiveexperience of the world and the mind.
The analysis of the basicelements that constitute the mind.
The subjective observationof one’s own experience.
A temporary loss of cognitive ormotor functions, usually as a result ofemotionally upsetting experiences.
The part of the mind thatoperates outside of conscious awarenessbut influences conscious thoughts,feelings, and actions.
Sigmund Freud’sapproach to understanding humanbehavior that emphasizes the importanceof unconscious mental processes inshaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
A therapeutic approachthat focuses on bringing unconsciousmaterial into conscious awareness tobetter understand psychological disorders.
An approach tounderstanding human nature thatemphasizes the positive potential ofhuman beings.
An action or physiologicalchange elicited by a stimulus.
The consequences of abehavior that determine whether it will bemore likely that the behavior will occuragain.
whether they are positive or negative increase the futureprobability of their behavior that led to their consequences.
- meaning that, if you scream and you are givenfood you will scream again
Errors of perception, memory, orjudgment in which subjective experiencediffers from objective reality.
A psychologicalapproach that emphasizes that we oftenperceive the whole rather than the sum ofthe parts.
An approach topsychology that links psychologicalprocesses to activities in the nervoussystem and other bodily processes.
A field thatattempts to understand the links betweencognitive processes and brain activity.
The scientific studyof mental processes, including perception,thought, memory, and reasoning.
The study of the purposemental processes serve in enablingpeople to adapt to their environment.
Charles Darwin’s theorythat the features of an organism that helpit survive and reproduce are more likelythan other features to be passed on tosubsequent generations.
A psychologicalapproach that explains mind and behaviorin terms of the adaptive value of abilitiesthat are preserved over time by naturalselection.
A subfield of psychol-ogy that studies the causes and conse-quences of interpersonal behavior.
The study of howcultures reflect and shape the psychologi-cal processes of their members.
The belief that accurateknowledge can be acquired throughobservation.
A set of principlesabout the appropriate relationship betweenideas and evidence.
A hypothetical explanation of anatural phenomenon.
A falsifiable prediction madeby a theory.
A set of rules andtechniques for observation.
A description of aproperty in concrete, measurable terms.
A device that can detect thecondition to which an operationaldefinition refers.
A device thatmeasures muscle contractions under thesurface of a person’s skin.
The extent to which a measure-ment and a property are conceptuallyrelated.
The tendency for a measure toproduce the same measurement when-ever it is used to measure the same thing.
The ability of a measure to detectthe concrete conditions specified in theoperational definition.
Those aspects ofan observational setting that cause peopleto behave as they think they should.
A technique forgathering scientific information byunobtrusively observing people in theirnatural environments.
An observation whose truepurpose is hidden from both the observerand the person being observed.
A graphicalrepresentation of measurements arrangedby the number of times each measure-ment was made.
A mathematicallydefined frequency distribution in whichmost measurements are concentratedaround the middle.
The value of the most frequentlyobserved measurement.
The average value of all themeasurements.
The value that is “in the middle”–i.e., greater than or equal to half themeasurements and less than or equal tohalf the measurements.
The value of the largest measure-ment in a frequency distribution minus thevalue of the smallest measurement.
A statistic thatdescribes the average differencebetween the measurements in afrequency distribution and the mean ofthat distribution.
A property whose value can varyacross individuals or over time.
Two variables are said to “becorrelated” when variations in the value ofone variable are synchronized withvariations in the value of the other.
A measure of thedirection and strength of a correlation,which is signified by the letter r.
A correlation observedin the world around us.
The fact thattwo variables are correlated only becauseeach is causally related to a third variable.
A technique wherebythe participants in two groups are identicalin terms of a third variable.
A technique whereby eachparticipant is identical to one otherparticipant in terms of a third variable.
The fact that acausal relationship between two variablescannot be inferred from the naturallyoccurring correlation between thembecause of the ever-present possibility ofthird-variable correlation.
A technique for establishingthe causal relationship between variables.
The creation of an artificialpattern of variation in a variable in order todetermine its causal powers.
The variable that ismanipulated in an experiment.
The group of peoplewho are treated in a particular way, ascompared to the control group, in anexperiment.
The group of people whoare not treated in the particular way thatthe experimental group is treated in anexperiment.
The variable that ismeasured in a study.
A problem that occurswhen anything about a person determineswhether he or she will be included in theexperimental or control group.
A procedure thatuses a random event to assign people to
the experimental or control group.
The characteristic of anexperiment that establishes the causalrelationship between variables.
A property of anexperiment in which the variables havebeen operationally defined in a normal,typical, or realistic way.
The complete collection ofparticipants who might possibly bemeasured.
The partial collection of peopledrawn from a population.
A method of gatheringscientific knowledge by studying a singleindividual.
A technique forchoosing participants that ensures thatevery member of a population has anequal chance of being included in thesample.
A written agreement toparticipate in a study made by an adultwho has been informed of all the risks thatparticipation may entail.
A verbal description of the truenature and purpose of a study.
Cells in the nervous system that
communicate with one another to perform information- processing tasks
The junction or region betweenthe axon of one neuron and the dendritesor cell body of another.
Neurons that receiveinformation from the external world andconvey this information to the brain via thespinal cord.
Neurons that carry signalsfrom the spinal cord to the muscles toproduce movement.
Neurons that connectsensory neurons, motor neurons, or otherinterneurons.
The difference in electriccharge between the inside and outside ofa neuron’s cell membrane.
An electric signal that isconducted along a neuron’s axon to asynapse.
The time following anaction potential during which a new actionpotential cannot be initiated.
Knoblike structures thatbranch out from an axon.
Chemicals thattransmit information across the synapse toa receiving neuron’s dendrites.
Parts of the cell membrane thatreceive the neurotransmitter and initiate orprevent a new electric signal.
A neurotransmitterinvolved in a number of functions,including voluntary motor control.
A neurotransmitter thatregulates motor behavior, motivation,pleasure, and emotional arousal.
A major excitatory neurotrans-mitter involved in information transmissionthroughout the brain.
Theprimary inhibitory neurotransmitter in thebrain.
A neurotransmitter thatinfluences mood and arousal.
A neurotransmitter that isinvolved in the regulation of sleep andwakefulness, eating, and aggressivebehavior.
Chemicals that act within thepain pathways and emotion centers of thebrain.
Drugs that increase the action ofa neurotransmitter.
Drugs that block the functionof a neurotransmitter.
An interacting network ofneurons that conveys electrochemicalinformation throughout the body.
The part ofthe nervous system that is composed ofthe brain and spinal cord.
Thepart of the nervous system that connectsthe central nervous system to the body’sorgans and muscles.
A set of nervesthat conveys information into and out ofthe central nervous system.
of nerves that carries involuntary and
automatic commands that control blood
vessels, body organs, and glands.
A set of
nerves that prepares the body for action in
A set of
nerves that helps the body return to a
normal resting state.
Simple pathways in thenervous system that rapidly generatemuscle contractions.
An area of the brain thatcoordinates information coming into andout of the spinal cord.
An extension of the spinal cordinto the skull that coordinates heart rate,circulation, and respiration.
A brain structure thatregulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels ofarousal.
A large structure of thehindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
A brain structure that relaysinformation from the cerebellum to the restof the brain.
A part of the midbrain that orientsan organism in the environment.
A part of the midbrain that isinvolved in movement and arousal.
The outermost layer ofthe brain, visible to the naked eye anddivided into two hemispheres.
Areas of theforebrain housed under the cerebral cortexnear the very center of the brain.
A group of forebrainstructures including the hypothalamus, theamygdala, and the hippocampus, whichare involved in motivation, emotion,learning, and memory.
A subcortical structure thatrelays and filters information from thesenses and transmits the information tothe cerebral cortex.
A subcortical structure thatregulates body temperature, hunger, thirst,and sexual behavior.
The “master gland” of thebody’s hormone-producing system, whichreleases hormones that direct thefunctions of many other glands in thebody.
A structure critical forcreating new memories and integratingthem into a network of knowledge so thatthey can be stored indefinitely in otherparts of the cerebral cortex.
A part of the limbic system thatplays a central role in many emotionalprocesses, particularly the formation ofemotional memories.
Plays an important role in recognizing expressionsof fear.
A set of subcorticalstructures that directs intentional move-ments.
A thick band of nervefibers that connects large areas of thecerebral cortex on each side of the brainand supports communication of informa-tion across the hemispheres.
A region of the cerebralcortex that processes visual information.
A region of the cerebralcortex whose functions include processinginformation about touch.
A region of the cerebralcortex responsible for hearing andlanguage.
A region of the cerebralcortex that has specialized areas formovement, abstract thinking, planning,memory, and judgment.
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement,abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. Truly sets humans apart frommost other species.
Areas of the cerebralcortex that are composed of neurons thathelp provide sense and meaning toinformation registered in the cortex.
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex.
Strands of DNA woundaround each other in a double-helixconfiguration.
A measure of the variabilityof behavioral traits among individualsthat can be accounted for by geneticfactors.
used to record electrical activity in the
This is creating characteristics for entire groupsof people. X group is smelly, Y group is smart, Z group is stupid.
Alan Hodgkin andAndrew Huxley
discovered the restingpotential while studying marine invertebrates.
Hodgkin and Huxley workedwith the squid giant axon because...
Even a slight imbalancetoo much of one neurotransmitter or not enough of another can dramaticallyaffect ___________________.
An antagonist drug that destroys dopamine-producing neurons in the brain.
The parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to itsnormal ________________ state.
dilates pupil, relaxesbronchi, accelerates heartbeat, inhibits digestive activity, stimulates glucose release, stimulates secretion of epinephrine/norepinephrine (need for running away and running and does thisthrough the adrenal gland), relaxesbladder, stimulates ejaculation in male
Over activation of the sympathetic nervous system during sexual behaviorcan lead to __________________ ____________________ in males and ______________________ _____ ____________________ infemales.
Coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord andcontrols the basic functions of life. It includes the medulla, the reticularformation, the cerebellum, and the pons.
This results in heroin shutting down brain areas involved in regulatingrespiration and heart beat so it shuts down the medulla and you die.
The midbrain is a central location for ______________ and _________________ which arecritical for movement, mood and arousal.
the occipital lobe (vision), the parietal lobe (touch), the temporal lobe (hearing), and the frontal lobe (movement and thinking).
Each side of the body is controlled by the _________________ hemisphere.
the PET scan measure __________ _________
The frequency is just how many cycles per secondyou get.
Our k is always going to be 0.02.