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Wundt and Tichner:
an early school of psychology that attempted to identify the structures of the human mind, emphasized on components of mind
an early school of psychology that was concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in individuals’ adaption to the environment
-Functionalism meshed well with Charles Darwin natural selection
behavioral, biological,psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, evolutionary, and socio-cultural
a psychological perspective emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society’s demands, and early family experiences.
the founding father of the psychodynamic approach, he theorized that early relationships with parents are the chief forces that shape and individual’s personality.
*Unlike the behavioral approach, the psychodynamic approach focuses almost exclusively on clinical applications rather than on experimental research.
*for this reason, psychodynamic theories always have been controversial and difficult to validate.
Sensation and perception: researchers who study
study sensation and perception focus on the physical system and psychological processes that allow us to experience the world—to smell the Thanksgiving turkey in the oven and to see the beauty of the sunset
are physicians with a doctor of MD who subsequently specialize in abnormal behavior and psychotherapy, a branch of medicine. Are the only one that can prescribe drugs
-is the study of the interactions between people and they physical environment.
- explore the effects of physical settings in most major areas of psychology including perception, cognition, learning, development, abnormal behavior, and social relations.
-how different building and room arrangements influence behavior to what strategies might be used to reduce human behavior that harms the environment
a method that allows researchers to combine the results of several different studies on a similar topic in order to establish the strength of an effect
1. Descriptive research : observing and recording behavior, by itself descriptive research cannot prove what causes some phenomenon, but it can reveal impt info about people’s behaviors and attitudes. EX?
-surveys and interview,
2. Correlation research: A research strategy that identifies the relationship between two or more variables in order to describe how these variable change together.*uses___technique,
positive correlation : is a relationship in which the two factors vary in the same direction
negative correlations: is a relationship in which increases in one variable are associated with decrease in another.
in trying to make sense of the world, people often make a big mistake about correlation. CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSALITY. Correlation doesn’t tell us about the cause of the events, it can only predict.
-third variable problem :
the situation where an extraneous variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between two others.
- EX: more ice cream more crime rates BUT the third variable not accounted, third variable (heat)
Measures of Central Tendency:
-mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether data sufficiently support or confirm a research hypothesis
.05 confidence level, if the probability statement tells you that the odds are 5 out of 100 (.05) or less that the differences are due to chance, the results are considered statistically significance
* the differences observed between two groups are so large that it is highly unlikely that those differences are merely due to chance.
-four impt issues
1. informed consent:
*the brain’s special capacity for modification and change
*wiring and rewiring our brain
usually stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles, learning, and memory. People with Alzheimer disease, have an acetylcholine deficiency.
it is found throughout the CNS,it is important in the brain because it keeps many neurons from firing. In this way, it helps control theprecision of the signal being carried from one neuron to the next.
-Low levels of GABA are linked to anxiety. Valium and other antianxiety drugs increase the inhibiting effects of GABA.
inhibits the firing of neurons in the CNS, but excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract.
-Stress stimulates the release of norepinephrine
Little norepinephrine is related to ____, too much triggers, ____, _____
Little norepinephrine is related to depression, too much triggers,agitated, manic states.
Low levels of dopamine are associated with ___ ___, physical movement deteriorate. High levels of dopamine are associated with _______.
Low levels of dopamine are associated with Parkinson Disease, physical movement deteriorate. High levels of dopamine are associated with schizophrenia.
involves the regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Regulating the states of sleep and wakefulness, it teams with acetylcholine and norephonephrine.
-Low levels are associated with depression.
are natural opiates that mainly stimulate the firing of neurons. It shields the body from pain and elevates the feelings of pleasure.
aka electroencephalograph (EEG), which records the electrical activity of the brain. Electroencephalograms can assess brain damage, epilepsy, and other problems.
-is based on the metabolic changes in the brain related activity.
-PET measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain and then sends this info to a computer for analysis.
-Because glucose levels vary with the levels of activity throughout the brain, tracing amount of glucose generates a picture of activity levels throughout the brain.
When part of the brain is working, oxygenated blood rushes into the area. When an area of the brain is hard at work, there is essentially a surplus of oxygenated blood. This extra oxygen allows the brain activity to be imaged.
medulla, cerebellum, and pons:
plays an important role in motor coordination
relays information between the brain and the eyes and ears.
diffuse collection of neuron involved in arousal and stereotyped patterns such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend to a sudden noise
-is a forebrain structure that sits at the top of the brain stem in the central core of the brain.
-It serves as a very important function relay station, functioning much like a computer network.
-It sorts out information and send it to the appropriate places in the forebrain for further integration and interpretation
monitors three pleasurable activities—eating, drinking, sex—as well as emotion, stress, and reward.
-rewards and pleasures
--intracranial brain stimulation and reward
The most important area involves cells in the lateral hypothalamus and fiber systems extending from the midbrain to areas in the anterior areas of the brain.
-. More recently, it has been discovered that there aredifferent systems involved in “wanting” and “liking”.
This finding has important implications for understanding substance abuse. In long term drug addicts there is a strong wanting but diminished liking of the drug.
loosely connected network of structures including the amygdala and hippocampus that play important role in memory and emotion. Located under the cerebral cortex
has a special role in storage of memories. People who suffer extensive hippocampal damage cannot retain any new conscious memories after the damage.
control of voluntary muscles, intelligence, and personality
an area in the left hemisphere of the brain, play an important role in production of speech
*epinephrine: gets a person get ready for an emergency by acting on smooth muscles,the heart, stomach, intestines, and sweat glands
*norepinephrine also alerts the individual to emergency situations by interacting with the pituitary and the liver
The hypothalamus can produce a suppression of the immune system in three different ways:
1. The hypothalamus can stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal cortex to release cortisol.
2. The hypothalamus, via the sympathetic nervous system, can stimulate the adrenal medulla to release adrenalin and noradrenalin
3. The hypothalamus, via the sympathetic nervous system, can directly suppress lymphocyte activity in the lymph nodes
*controls facial expression of emotion
*left side of face contains more emotional info
*more time looking at left side of face of others
-ocused on detail analysis
is the process of receiving stimulus energies from theexternal environment
-stimuli consist of physical energy (light, sound, heat),detected by sense organs
-when the receptor cells have registered a stimulus, theenergy is converted to an electrochemical impulse.
is the process of organizing and interpreting sensoryinformation to give it meaning
sensory receptors register info about the externalenvironment and send it up to the brain for analysis and interpretation
- is initiated by stimulus input, it means taking in infofrom the environment and trying to make sense of it
processing of perceptual info that starts out withcognitive processing at the higher levels of the brain
-start with some sense of what is happening and applythat framework to info from the world. These cognitive processes includeknowledge, beliefs, and expectations.
-doesn’t start with the detection of a stimulus
-based on prior knowledge
Weber’s law: the principle that twostimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amt) to be perceived as different.
four possible outcome in signal detection:
1. Hit (tumor present and doctorsays “yes, I see it”
2. Miss (tumor is present and doctorsays “no, I don’t see it”
3. False alarm (tumor absent anddoctor says “yes, I see it”
4. Correct ejection (tumor is absentand doctor says “no, I don’t see it”
a change in the responsiveness of the sensory systembased on the average level of surrounding stimulation
--adaption to temperature in the shower
--the smell of Thanksgiving dinner to you so you enterbut not the cook that spent the whole day cooking
--adapting to the dark when you turn out the lights
the receptors in the retina that process info aboutcolors, requires more light than rods. Functions during the daytime
theory stating that color perception is produced by threetypes of receptors (cone cells in the retina) that are particularly sensitiveto different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths
size constancy, shape constancy, and brightness constancy
theory that stating that perception of a sound’sfrequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires, up to 5000 Hz
-higher frequency sounds cause the auditory nerve to firemore often than do lower frequency sounds
Pain: the sensation that warns us thatdamage to our bodies is occurring.-phasic
learning in which a connection, or an association, ismade between two events
1. classical: organisms learn the association between twostimuli, as a result organism learnto anticipate events. Watching a scary movie, tensions building
2.operant: organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence
in a classical conditioning is the initial learning ofthe stimulus- response link, which involves a neutral stimulus being associatedwith an unconditioned stimulus and becoming the conditioned stimulus thatelicits the conditioned response.
-learning a new response
loss of an acquired response
-the weakening of the conditioned response in the absenceof the unconditioned stimulus
the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli andnot to others
-In Pavlov experiment the dog learned how to associatethe bell with food and not any other sounds
the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to theoriginal conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to theconditioned response.
EX: we don’t have to learn how to drive all over againwhen we change cars or drive down a different road
Thorndlike’s principle that behaviors followed bypositive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negativeoutcomes are weakened.
rewarding approximations of a desired behavior
+ reinforcement:following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of thebehavior. Positive reinforcement can be classified as
the use of reinforces that are learned or conditioned;getting a pat on the back, praise, and eye contact, money for making As
Conditioned emotional response (CER):
-CER is a learned emotional fear response that can beused to measure degree of fear
-suppress high responding by inducing fear associatedwith an aversive stimulus
*measure the degree of fear bymanipulating stimulus
Stage 2. Mythical-Literal Faith (Middle Childhood)
(1) Quasi-logical thought is concrete, that is, based on experience with little consideration of context. (2) Stories are interpreted literally. God is a parent figure. Parents are godlike.
Stage 3. Synthetic-Conventional Faith (Adolescence)
Stage 4. Individuative-Reflective Faith (EarlyAdulthood)
Stage 5. Conjunctive Faith (Middle Adulthood)
(1) Open consideration and acknowledgement of paradox and opposing ideas and perspectives. (2) Increasing awareness and acceptance of one’s limitations and finiteness.
Stage 6. Universalizing Faith (Late Adulthood)
(1) Transcending specific belief systems, including one’s own, to achieve a sense of oneness with all people. (2) Commitment to eliminating ideological and social barriers that divide people.
The manner in which words are arranged to form sentences.
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