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an extreme and long term form of factitious disorder in which a person produces symptoms, gains admission to a hospital, and receives treatment. …also, Munchausen by proxy is a Factitious disorder where parents make up or produce illnesses in their kids.
The unrealistic interpretation of bodily symptoms as signs of serious illness. It involves preoccupation with fears or beliefs that one has a serious disease, for more than 6 months. The preoccupation persists despite medical reassurance that the disease is non-existent or not serious…a somatoform disorder in which people mistakenly fear that minor changes in their physical functioning indicate a serious disease.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
A dissociative disorder in which a person develops two or more distinct personalities. There is an inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. Also called multiple personalities disorder.
a persistent feeling of being detached from one’s own mental processes or body, where one’s feelings of the self feels unreal or foreign… is a malfunction or anomaly of the mechanism by which an individual has self-awareness. It is a feeling of watching oneself act, while having no control over a situation; a disorder marked by a persistent and recurrent feeling of being detached from one’s own mental processes or body; that is, one feels unreal and alien
A state or episode of euphoria or frenzied activity in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking;illusions of grandeur and risky behavior; often go on manic shopping sprees.
the experience and expression of emotions
a person’s overall emotional state
the person most known for developing and promoting research on the behavioral view of unipolar depression
Cognitive triad for depression
The three forms of negative thinking that theorist Aaron Beck says lead people to feel depressed. The triad consists of a negative view of one’s experiences, oneself and the future.
The perception, based on past experiences that one has no control over one’s reinforcements. “It holds that people become depressed when they think that they no longer have control over the reinforcements (the rewards and punishments) in their lives and that they themselves are responsible for this helpless state.” (book 258).
an inability to experience pleasure
is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elevated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state; “mild mania that does not affect someone’s life”
a chronic mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum, the opposite of hyperthymia, it is considered a chronic depression, but with less severity than major depressive disorder (a mood disorder that is similar to but longer-lasting and less disabling than a major depressive disorder.)
an antidepressant drug (eg imipramine) that has three rings in its molecular structure.; an antidepressant drug that acts by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and thus making more of those substances available to act on receptors in the brain
A treatment for unipolar depression that is based on the belief that clarifying and changing one’s interpersonal problems will help lead to recovery
The tendency of a person to committing suicide; how suicidal a person feels on a set continuum
24-hours-a-day telephone services - callers reach a counselor or paraprofessional (a person trained in counseling but without a formal degree) who provides services under the supervision of a mental health professional
an agreement made with a suicidal person to postpone suicidal impulses by staying in contact with others, removing lethal means from the home, calling hotlines if an impulse arises, staying in the presence of friends/family, getting therapy, etc.
a short period of excessive consumption, especially of excessive alcohol consumption; an episode of uncontrollable eating during which a person eats a very large quantity of food.
A theory that identifies several different kinds of risk factors that may combine to help cause a disorder. The more such factors present, the greater the risk of developing the disorder. Biological, family environment, societal pressure, cognitive disturbances, mood/anxiety (Lecture 2/10)
Physical dependence on a substance, marked by such features as tolerance, withdrawal symptoms during abstinence or both
such excessive reliance on a drug that one makes it the center of one’s life and perhaps builds a tolerance to it, experiences withdrawal symptoms when one stops taking it, or both. Also known as addiction.
An amnestic disorder marked by extreme confusion, memory impairment, and other neurological symptoms; caused by long term alcoholism, and accompanying poor diet, and in turn, a deficiency of vitamin B (thiamine).
upon regular use of a drug, the need of the brain and the body for ever-larger doses in order to achieve the drug’s earlier effects
Unpleasant, sometimes dangerous reactions that may occur when people who use a drug regularly stop taking or reduce their dosage of the drug.
stimulant drugs that are manufactured in the laboratory(i.e. amphetamine (Benzedrine), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and methamphetamine). They increase energy & alertness and reduce appetite when taken in small doses; produce a rush, intoxication, and psychosis in high doses, and cause an emotional letdown as they leave the body., these stimulate the CNS by increasing the release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the brain. Tolerance to these drugs build very quickly.
Drugs produced from the different varieties of the hemp plant, cannabis sativa. They cause a mixture of hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects
An addictive stimulant taken from the coca plant; the most powerful natural stimulant known. *Used by Sherlock Holmes (fictional character) and Sigmund Freud
Substances that primarily cause powerful changes in sensory perception, including strengthening a person’s perceptions and producing illusions and hallucinations. Also called psychedelic drugs. The hallucinogens include LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, and MDMA.
a broad range of drugs in the forms of gases, aerosols or solvents that are breathed in and absorbed through the lungs
Opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin and codeine. Opium itself comes from the sap of the opium poppy.
a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken for its effects as a hallucinogen; in form of dust
the world’s most widely used stimulant. It acts as a stimulant of the CNS, producing a release of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine in the brain. Thus it increases arousal and motor activity and reduces fatigue
reward deficiency syndrome
A condition, suspected to be present in some individuals, in which the brain’s reward center is not readily activated by the usual events in their lives
An ego defense mechanism in which a person fails to acknowledge unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or actions. Central role is to maintain addictive behavior. (Substance abuse lecture)
Behavioral self control training - A cognitive based approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which people are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior and to apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking.
combat: flashbacks, night terrors, nightmares, persistent images and thoughts.
victimization: fear/anxiety, suspiciousness, depression, self esteem problems, flashbacks, self-blame, sleep problems, and sexual dysfunction
terrorism: symptoms linger for years and can occur from watching event on TV. 1/2 of ppl exposed develop PTSD
9. What are the SSRIs?
SSRIs (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition): A group of second-generation antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin activity specifically, without affecting other neurotransmitters
sexual desire disorders
-ex. Hypoactive sexual desire: a disorder of sexual desire where a person has an abnormally low desire to have sex.
sexual arousal disorders
sexual pain disorders
Human sexual response
Hypoactive sexual desire
lack of interest in sex and, in turn, display little sexual activity. People with this disorder still may sitll enjoy and have normal responses to sexual expereinces. (found in about 16% of men and 33% of women)
occurs when a man is repeatedly unabel to reach orgasm or is very delayed in reaching orgasm after normal sexual excitment.
3. What is paraphilia?
-Paraphilia- disorders characterized by recurrent and intense sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors involving nonhuman objects, children, nonconsenting adults, or experiences of suffering of humiliation.
-pedophilia- repeated and intense sexual urges/ fantasies about watching, touching, or engaging in sexual acts with prepubescent children.
Voyeurism- a paraphilia in which a person has repeated and intense sexual desires to observe unsuspecting people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples having intercourse and may act upon desires.
extrapyramidal side effects
a personality disorder in which an individual is so focused on orderliness, perfectionism, and control that he or she loses flexibility, openness, and efficiency [as good as it gets]
a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of clinging and obedience, fear of separation, and a persistent, excessive need to be taken care of [coda]
oppositional defiant disorder; a childhood disorder in which children argue repeatedly with adults, lose their temper, and swear, feeling intense anger and resentment.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder;
disorder in which persons are unable to focus their attention, behave overactively and impulsively, or both.
childhood disorder marked by repeated bed-wetting or wetting of one's clothes
Broad category of disorders beginning in early adulthood, characterized by severe and pervasive impairments in social interaction & communication or the presence of rigid/repetitive behavior, interests, & activities.
Autistic disorder; a pervasive developmental disorder marked by extreme unresponsiveness to others, poor communication skills, and highly repetitive and rigid behavior
a stimulant drug, known better by the trade name Ritalin, commonly used to treat ADHD
a disorder in which people display general intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that are well below average (intellectual disability)
dementia caused by a cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, that restricts blood flow to certain areas of the brain
the field of psychology concerned with the mental health of the elderly.
ii. Smaller temporal lobes and frontal lobes
iii. Smaller amounts of gray matter
iv. Abnormal blood flow in certain areas of the brain
v. Abnormalities of the hippocampus, amygdale, and thalamus, among other brain areas.
At least two of the following:
a)Delusions: A strange, false belief that is held despite evidence of the contrary
b)Hallucinations: The experience of imagined sights, sounds, or other sensory experiences as if they were real.
d)Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior: May include catatonic stupor, rigidity or posturing.
3 important symptoms in BPD:
Most dangerous symptoms:
- affective expression
- interpersonal functioning
- impulse control
a. Frequently bullying or threatening of others
b. frequent provoking of others
c. Using dangerous weapons
d. Physical cruelty
Severe cases may develop into antisocial personality disorder in adulthood
Alzeheimers- typically 8-10 years after onset, some live 20 years after onset
- insidious onset with a generally progressive deteriorating course,
Vascular-- stepwise deteriorating course of intellectual functioning, with "patchy"distribution of deficits
100 points total for attendance in 5 sections
10 points for each additional section
We're required to write 4 essays worth 25 points each (total of 100pts)
Additional essays are worth up to 10 points each
What is “abnormal”?
-a deviation from social norms
-(assumed to be of a psychological origin or psychologically meditated)
Why is "abnormal psych" not the best title for this course?
The term “abnormal” is vague and
allows for stereotyping and
the process (physiology,
structure, results, prognosis… etc.)
-dangerous (potentially) or high risk
-Multi Disciplinary (Biopsychosocial)
The concensus among most researchers that mental disorders have multiple origins/causes/features
-Biological (genetic, nutritional...)
-Psychosocial (temperment, developmental, relationships...)
-Sociocultural (social, economic, cultural...)
principal or primary cause
precipitating cause (piling on stress)
perpetuating (also called "reinforcing") cause (ex- homelessness)
Biology, psychiatric medicine, neurology, neurophysiology, psychology, sociology, anthropology
social work, counseling, psychology, psychiatry, pharmacology, psychiatric nursing, ("mental health professions")
-The process of development influences functioning, prognosis, and intervention
-Disorder is viewed as deviation/dysfunction in one of the fundamental areas of development
-Risk (poverty, violence, genetics)
-Vulnerability (characteristics which increase risks)
1. A history of having experience, witnessed or confronted events involving death serious injury or threat to the physical integrity of self or others. Reaction of intense fear, helplessness, or horror produced by event
2. Event persistently re-experiencing things in at least one of the following ways
a. Recurrent distressing recollections
b. Recurrent distressing dreams, illusions, flashbacks, or a sense of reliving the experience
c. Distress caused by reminders of event
d. Physical arousal produced by reminders of event
3. Persistent avoidance of reminders of the event and a subjective sense of numbing, detachment. Or emotional unresponsiveness.
1) Psychological stress can increase an individuals susceptibility to infectious disease.
2) Medical students receiving hepatitis vaccinations during exam week were shown to produce immature anti-bodies, vaccination during periods of stress make it unlikely that one will develop full protection against hepatitis.
1) In humans, loneliness is associated with a “threat,” or adrenalinlike pattern of activation of the stress response and high blood pressure.
2) The immune responses of long-term caregivers, such as spouses of Alzheimer’s patients, become blunted. Immune responses during marital discord also blunts immune system.
a persistent thought idea, impulse, or image that is experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive and causes anxiety.
a repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that persons feel they must perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety; the response the the obsessive thoughts e.g. checking & rechecking, rituals, cleansing, touching, verbal, counting
repetitive contemplation or reflection, which may become persistent and recurrent worrying; ‘redigesting’ the same thought over and over and reexamining and double checking your thoughts (Lecture 1-27)
A physical illness or ailment that is explained largely by psychosocial causes, in which the patient experiences no sense of wanting or guiding the symptoms (this is somatoform disorder from the book, not somatoform from the lecture)
a disorder suggesting an illness with no identifiable physical cause, in which the patient is believed to be producing or faking symptoms intentionally in order to assume a sick role…. Experience a lot of distress; many people feel don’t have control over the problem of doing this. Often go to extreme lengths to create the appearance of illness.
a state in which some integrated part of a person’s life becomes separated from the rest of the personality and functions independently. A mental process that severs a connection to a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings; A major loss of change in memory, consciousness, and/or identity, without physical causes
A condition described by early Greek and Roman philosopher and physicians as consisting of unshakable sadness. Today it is known as depression.
Believed that maladaptive attitudes, a cognitive triad, errors in thinking, and automatic thoughts combine to produce unipolar depression. negative thinking rather than the underlying conflicts or a reduction in positive rewards, lies at the heart of depression
creativity and mania
internal and external attributions- pg. 258 in book (relates to learned helplessness)
internal: self blame which leads to feelings of inadequacy (depression)
external: other-directed blame which probably does not lead to feelings of helplessness
1. Describe the “DSM checklist” symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
1: Recurrent obsessions or compulsions.
2: Past or present recognition that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable.
3: Significant distresses or impairment, or disruption by symptoms for more than one hour a day.
Describe a biological explanation for OCD.
(1.) Abnormally low activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin and
(2.) abnormal functioning in key regions of the brain the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Caudate Nuclei.. (Studies of twins found that if one identical twin manifests obsessive-compulsive disorder, the other twin also develops it in at least 53% of cases).
Describe the symptoms of hypochondriasis.
(1.) Preoccupation with fears or beliefs that one has a serious disease.
(2.) Persistence of preoccupation despite appropriate medical evaluation.
(3.) Absence of delusions.
(4.) Significant distress or impairment.
Discuss two plausible treatments for hypochondriasis.
medications studies reveal that patients with either of the preoccupation disorders often improve considerably when treated with the same antidepressant drugs that are used for cases with OCD.
cognitive behavioral therapies: where therapists repeatedly highlight bodily variations to clients while, at the same time preventing them from seeking medical attention.
Development of two or more distinct personalities. Where control of the person’s behavior is recurrently taken by at least two of these identities. And there is an inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
Two most prominent symptoms include: (table 7-5 pg. 220)
(1.) Inability to recall important personal information (much more extreme than ordinary ‘forgetfulness’)
(2.) Control of person behavior is recurrently taken by at least two of these identities.
(3.) Presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states.
How are they safe and effective?
ones affecting sleep, activity level, appetite, and negative thinking. They do not affect other mechanisms that may influence suicide, addiction, negative behavior and they do not deplete neurotransmitters all of which are known criticisms of medications used to treat mental disorders.
Why are these medications so popular?
These medications are popular because it is harder to overdose on them than other antidepressants no don’t have side effects like tricyclics (dry mouth, constipation)
Discuss two PROS in using an SSRI for a mild depression.
(1.) SSRIs medication can open a window for therapeutic opportunity, it gives the patient a chance to respond to psychosocial therapy and start recovery process for depression.
(2.) They do not affect norepinephrine or other neurotransmitters.
Discuss two CONS in using an SSRI for a mild depression.
(1.) Some people might experience a reduction in sex drive.
(2.) SSRIs have a delayed and emotional effect of 1 to 4 weeks after optimal blood levels have been attained resulting in “Delayed Learning Effect.”
(3.) They change neurotransmission, but not behavior or thoughts.
What is a mood disorder (define)?
--A mood disorder involves states of persistent positive and/or negative emotion (full or partial manic or depressive syndromes) of sufficient intensity to be maladaptive. *Depression and Mania are the key emotions in mood disorders.
Describe three primary symptoms of a manic episode and three primary symptoms of a depressed episode.
(1.) a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least one week,
(2.) persistence of at least three of the following: inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkativeness than usual, or pressure to keep talking, flight of ideas, distractibility, excessive involvement in pleasurable activates that have high potential of consequences,
(3.) significant distress or impairment.
Beck’s Idea of Cognitie distortion and irrational thinking:
-negative automatic thoughts
Describe the three elements of the Beck’s idea of cognitive triad of negative thoughts
negative view of self, future, and the world.
Describe the four phases of Beck's cognitive therapy for depression.
1.) increasing activities and elevating mood.
2.) challenging automatic thoughts.
3.) identifying negative thinking and biases
4.)changing maladaptive attitudes.
State the diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder (bipolar I);
1. The presence of a manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode.
2. If currently in a hypomanic or major depressive episode, history of manic episode.
3. Significant distress or impairment.
18. Describe the symptoms of anorexia nervosa
(1) Refusal to maintain body weight above a minimally normal weight for age and height
(2) Intense fear of gaining weight even though underweight
(3) Disturbed body perception undue influence of weight/shape on self-eval or denial of the seriousness of current low weight
(4) In postmenarcheal females is amenorrhea.
Describe the symptoms of bulimia nervosa.
(1) Recurrent episodes of binge eating
(2) Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain
(3) Symptoms continuing on an average at least twice a week for three months(4) Undue influence of weight/shape on self-eval.
Describe at least two associated symptoms/difficulties that are similar for these two eating disorders,
disturbed body perception of their body imagestart at high school ages (14/15 to 18/21), when people become more aware of their physical appearance.
- considerable time spent trying to obtain, use, or recover from the substance
- substance use that continues despite its causing or increasing persistent physical or
Describe four treatments for substance dependence.
Psychodynamic therapies try to help clients become aware of and correct the underlying needs and conflicts that may have led to their use of drugs.
aversion therapy (behavioral technique) in which unpleasant stimulus is paired with the drug that the person is abusing.
Behavioral Self Control TherAPY (BSCT)=Cognitive behavioral techniques which helps people track and control their use
Biological treatments include detoxification, antagonist drugs, and drug maintenance therapy.
Describe the use of cocaine
It is often snorted so that it is absorbed through the mucous membrane of the nose. Some users inject cocaine intravenously or smoking it in a pipe or cigarette
Describe the physiological action of cocaine
Increases neurotransmission of dopamine at key neurons throughout the brain. Cocaine prevents the neurons that release dopamine from reabsorbing it, as they normally would do. Cocaine appears to increase the activity of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin in some areas of the brain.
Describe the psychological action of cocaine
At first cocaine stimulates the higher center of the central nervous system, making users feel excited, energetic, talkative and even euphoric. Increasing stimulates other centers of the CNS, producing a faster pulse, higher blood pressure, faster and deeper breathing, and further arousal and wakefulness.
Psychological symptoms include bad judgment, anger, aggression, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and confusion
Describe at least two risks associated with abuse/dependence of cocaine
Regular use may lead to a pattern of abuse in which the person remains under its effects much of each day and functions poorly in social relationships and work. Also cause short term memory and attention
1. Define sexual dysfunction.
sexual dysfunction: a disorder marked by a persistent inability to function normally in some area of the human sexual response cycle.
Describe a particular sexual dysfunction.
Sexual aversion disorder is one type of sexual dysfunction. This is when an individual finds sex distinctly unpleasant or repulsive. More common in women than men, this disorder can pertain to certain parts of sex, like penetration or all sexual desires, including touching and kissing.
Paraphilia- disorders characterized by recurrent and intense sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors involving nonhuman objects, children, nonconsenting adults, or experiences of suffering of humiliation.
Describe a particular paraphilia.
pedophilia is one type of paraphilia. This is when a person has repeated and intense sexual urges or fantasies about watching, touching or engaging in sexual acts with prepubescent children and may act on urges.
Describe two paraphilias.
-Voyeurism- a paraphilia in which a person has repeated and intense sexual desires to observe unsuspecting people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples. having intercourse and may act upon desires.
-Another is Pedophilia, which is when a person has repeated and intense sexual urges or fantasies about watching, touching or engaging in sexual acts with prepubescent children and may act on urges.
Suggest two treatments or interventions that you think would be particularly effective for voyeurism.
Behavior therapy is commonly used to treat voyeurism. The voyeur must learn to control the impulse to watch non