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health care system in which all necessary services for an individual patients are supposed to be coordinated by a primary care provider
- goals are to coordinate services for an existing medical problem and to prevent future medical problems
in response to growing diversity this emerged to examine the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature, and treatment of abnormal behavior.
plays a key role in emotional memory
Neurotransmitter involved in feelings of satisfaction, pain suppression, regulates sleep, appetite, sexual behavior. Decreased levels may lead to depression.
addresses the reliability and validity limitations of DSM- IV- TR and the dimensionality- versus- discrete- category problem. Moreover, the task force and work groups have been conducting extensive literature reviews and overseeing field studies to help develop a DSM that reflects recent insights, research findings, and clinical concerns.
a compulsive behavior--> a psychological condition in which a person does a behavior compulsively, having an overwhelming feeling that they must do so.
a neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression and panic disorder. Linked to unipolar depression.
a disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both. Obsessions and compulsions feel excessive/ unreasonable, cause great distress, take up much time, or interfere with daily functions. It is classified as an anxiety disorder because the obsessions cause intense anxiety, while compulsions are aimed at preventing/ reducing anxiety.
The adrenal cortex releases stress hormones called corticosteroids that act on other body organs to trigger arousal and fear reactions.
One route by which the brain and body produce arousal and fear.
(and eating disorders) dysregulation of the HPA axis a relevant factor capable of influencing the onset and the course of ED.
disorders marked by major changes in memory that do not have clear physical causes. In such disorders, one part of the person’s memory typically seems to be dissociated, or separated, from the rest.
somatoform disorders in which people suffer actual changes in their physical functioning.
a somatoform disorder marked by pain, with psychosocial factors playing a central role in the onset, severity, or continuation of the pain.
fake, harmless treatment or substance used a control which participants believe are real.
-common in drug trials; sugar pills
an indirect form of dominance - dominating belief theory that overshadows fringe belief
Abnormal behavior is caused by faulty conditioning and learning patterns. The environment shapes personality
peoples reaction to a major stressor in their lives with extended and excessive feelings of anxiety, depressed mood, or antisocial behaviors.
a region of the brain in which impulses involving excretion, sexuality, violence, and other primitive activities normally arise.
this hysterical pattern was first described by Pierre Briquet in 1859. To receive this diagnosis, a person must have a range of ailments, including several pain symptoms (headaches & chest pain), gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea and diarrhea), a sexual symptom (erectile or menstrual difficulties), and a neurological symptom (double vision and paralysis).
a person not only forgets the past but also travels to a new location and may assume a new identity.
A term once used to describe what are now known as conversion disorder, somatization disorder, and pain disorder associated with psychological factors.
(hypochondriasis & body dysmorphic disorder) People misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms or features no matter what friends, relatives, and physicians may say. They cause distress and their impact on one’s life differs that of hysterical disorders.Treated with antidepressant drugs that would be helpful in cases of OCD, exposure and response prevention. Behavioral-Cognitive approach: identify, test, and change their distorted thoughts.
period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least one week.- At least three Sx: inflated self-esteem, no need for sleep, talkative, racing thoughts, distractibility, excessive risk involvement
A hormone released by the brain’s pineal gland when a person’s surroundings are dark, but not when they are light. High melatonin occurs in the winter and causes us to slow down, have less energy, and need more rest.
refers to prolonged emotion that colors the whole psychic life, when disturbed, can involve excessive depression or elation(or both) ex) general climate
A second-generation antidepressant (SSRI).
is a mood disorder in which mood episodes are related to changes in season.
A group of second-generation antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin activity specifically without affecting other neurotransmitters. (ex: Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro.)
therapists reintroduce depressed clients to pleasurable events and activities; appropriately reinforce their depressive and nondepressive behaviors; and help them improve their social skills.
viewed unipolar depression as resulting from a pattern of negative thinking that may be triggered by current upsetting situations.
an antidepressant of the SSRI class. Used for the treatment of major depression, bulimia nervosa, OCD, panic disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It is the third most commonly prescribed anti depressant, after sertraline
t affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression or anxiety.Lexapro is used to treat anxiety in adults. Lexapro is also used to treat major depressive disorder in adults and adolescents who are at least 12 years old.
an episode of uncomfortable eating during which a person ingests a very large quantity of food.
a theory that identifies several kinds of risk factors that are thought to combine to help cause a disorder. The more factors present, the greater the risk of developing the disorder.
multidimensional risk perspective - a theory that identifies several different kinds of risk factors that may combine to help cause a disorder. The more such factors present, the greater the risk of developing the disorder. Includes psychological problems (ego, cognitive, mood disorders) and sociocultural conditions (societal, family, multicultural pressures.)
a part of the brain that helps regulate various bodily functions, including eating and hunger.
a brain region that depresses hunger when activated.
Weight set point-the weight level that a person is predisposed to maintain, controlled in part by the hypothalamus. “weight thermostat”
behavioral and cognitive interventions that are designed to help clients appreciate and alter the behaviors and thought processes that help keep their restrictive eating going. Clients are typically required to monitor their feelings, hunger levels, and food intake. Cognitively, they are taught to identify their “core pathology”- the deep belief that they should be judged by their shape and weight and ability to control physical appearance.
clients are instructed to keep diaries of their eating behavior, changes in sensations of hunger and fullness, and their feelings, therefore they can observe their eating patterns and recognize the emotions/situations that trigger binging. Cognitively, they learn to recognize and change maladaptive attitudes toward food, eating, weight, and shape.
Grammy-winner singer and actress, she suffered from both anorexia and bulimia nervosa in her teen years. She began her road to recovery at age 18. Now fully recovered, she is a extremely healthy and has run several marathons.
weighing procedure in which the results are hidden from the eating disordered patient.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is used to treat the mental and emotional elements of an eating disorder. This type of therapy is done to change how you think and feel about food, eating, and body image. It is also done to help correct poor eating habits and prevent relapse.
lead singer of the soft-rock brother-and-sister duo “The Carpenters”, ied from medical problems relating to anorexia in 1983 at the age of 32. She was admired by many as a wholesome and healthy model to young women everywhere.
A famous singer who battled both anorexia and bulimia nervosa for over 7 years.
According to the World Health Organization, people whose BMI is above 25 are overweight; those with a BMI above 30 are considered obese. By such standards, one-third of adults in the United States are overweight or obese.
A self-help organization that provides support and guidance for persons with alcohol abuse or dependence.
stimulant drugs that are manufactured in the laboratory. Some common examples are amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. First produced in the ‘30’s to help treat asthma, they soon became popular among people trying to lose weight, athletes seeking an extra burst of energy, soldiers, truck drivers, and pilots trying to stay awake, and students studying for exams through the night. Most often taken in pill or capsule form, although some people inject the drugs intravenously or smoke them for a quicker, more powerful effect.
a form of psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort. This conditioning is intended to cause the patient to associate the stimulus with unpleasant sensations in order to stop the specific behavior. For addiction, it works on changing positive emotional associations with the sight, smell and taste of alcohol or other drugs.
a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which people are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior and to apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking
the world’s most widely used stimulant. Around 80% of the world’s population consumes it daily. Most of this caffeine is taken in the form of coffee, the rest is consumed in tea, cola, energy drinks, chocolate, and numerous prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as excedrin.
a dramatic withdrawal reaction experienced by some people who are alcohol-dependent. It consists of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations. Also called alcohol withdrawal delirium. A small percentage of people who are dependent on alcohol experience this particularly dramatic withdrawal reaction.
These types of drugs slow the activity of the central nervous system. They reduce tension and inhibitions and may interfere with a person’s judgement, motor activity, and concentration. The three most widely used groups of depressants are: alcohol, sedative-hypnotic drugs, and opioids.
Systematic and medically supervised withdrawal from a drug.
neurotransmitters that help relieve pain and reduce emotional tension. They are sometimes referred to as the body’s own opioids.
a cluster of problems in a child, including low birth weight, irregularities in the head and face, and intellectual deficits, caused by excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy. 1 out of every 1,000 babies is born with this syndrome.
free-base is a technique for ingesting cocaine in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame, and inhaled with a pipe. Millions of people use crack, a powerful form of free-base cocaine that has been boiled down into crystalline balls. It is smoked with a special pipe and makes a crackling sound as it is inhaled.
One of the reasons drugs produce feelings of pleasure is because they increase levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine along a “pleasure pathway” in the brain that extends from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens and then to the frontal cortex. This activation of pleasure centers plays a role in addiction.
one important group of neurons to which ethyl alcohol binds are those that normally receive the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA carries an inhibitory message, when it is received at certain neurons. When alcohol binds to receptors on those neurons, it apparently helps GABA to shut down the neurons, thus helping to relax the drinker.
a substance that causes powerful changes primarily in sensory perception, including strengthening perceptions and producing illusions and hallucinations, also called psychedelic drugs. These include: LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, MDMA.
A center for helping former drug addicts, prisoners, or others to adjust to life in society.
A drug that is injected into one's veins.
one of the cannabis drugs, derived from buds, leaves, and flowering tops of the hemp plant cannabis sativa.
a powerful amphetamine drug that has experienced a surge in popularity in recent years, posing major health and law enforcement problems. Around 0.2 % of the population use it currently.
Ecstasy. It is also known as X, Adam, hug, beans, and love drug. This laboratory-produced drug is technically a stimulant, similar to amphetamines, but it also produces hallucinogenic effects and so is often considered a hallucinogenic drug.
a highly addictive substance derived from opium first in 1804, that is particularly effective in relieving pain. Named after Morpheus, the Greek god of sleep, this drug relieves pain even better than opium did and initially was considered safe.
A severe, potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs, marked by muscle rigidity, fever, altered consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction.
An alkaloid (nitrogen-containing chemical) derived from tobacco or pro- duced in the laboratory.
opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin, and codeine.
a highly addictive substance made from the sap of the opium poppy. Opium has been in use for thousands of years.
Taking two or more drug at a time. Psychologically addicted to being in an intoxicated state without a preference for one particular substance.
Falling back into an addiction after a period of recovery.
An approach to treating alcohol abuse that is similar to behavioral self-control training but also has people plan ahead for risky situations and reactions.
A place where people formerly dependent on drugs live, work, and socialize in a drug- free environment.Also called a therapeutic community.
A condition, suspected to be present in some individuals, in which the brain’s reward center is not readily activated by the usual events in their lives.
A number of theorists further believe that when substances repeatedly stimulate this reward center, the center develops a hypersensitivity to the substances. Neurons in the center fire more readily when stimulated by the substances, contributing to future desires for them. This theory, called the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction, has received considerable support in animal studies. (ex: wanting a smoke even after 50 years of being sober)
Stimulants are substances that increase the activity of the central nervous system, resulting in increased blood pressure and heart rate, greater alertness, and sped-up behavior and thinking. Among the most troublesome stimulants are cocaine and amphetamines, whose effects on people are very similar. When users report different effects, it is often because they have ingested different amounts of the drugs. Two other widely used and legal stimulants are caffeine and nicotine
when persons rely on the drug excessively and chronically and in so doing damage their family and social relationships, function poorly at work, or put themselves and others in danger.
a pattern of behavior in which people organize their lives around a drug, possibly building a tolerance to it, experiencing withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking it, or both. Also known as addiction.
In pharmacology, an increase of effects that occurs when more than one substance is acting on the body at the same time.-A small dose of one drug mixed with a small dose of another can produce an enormous change in body chemistry.
The main active ingredient of cannabis substances.
the adjustment that the brain and the body make to the regular use of certain drugs so that even large doses are needed to achieve the earlier effects. When people develop tolerance, they need increasing doses of a drug in order to keep getting the desired effect.
This reward center apparently extends from the brain area called the ventral tegmental area (in the midbrain) to an area known as the nucleus accumbens and on to the frontal cortex. A key neurotransmitter in this pleasure pathway appears to be dopamine. When dopamine is activated along the pleasure pathway, a person experiences pleasure.
consists of unpleasant and even dangerous symptoms: cramps, anxiety attacks, sweating, nausea. These occur when individuals suddenly stop taking or cut back on the drug.
Popular singer was caught in a web of substance abuse: binges on alcohol and other drugs. Winehouse died at age 27 from alcohol poisoning; brought along by binge drinking.
An American singer and songwriter who struggled with heroin addiction, illness, and depression throughout the last couple years of his life. (One of Cobain’s top hits is titled Lithium-after the controversial bipolar drug.) In 1994, Cobain was found dead in his apartment- he had committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
An American musician, songwriter, and singer. Hendrix was known for his use of psychedelic drugs, most commonly LSD. Hendrix was also a heavy drinker, smoked cannabis and used amphetamines, especially during tours. While checking through Canadian customs, authorities arrested Hendrix for drug possession after finding a small amount of heroin and hashish in his luggage. Hendrix died while choking on his own vomit after overdosing on barbituates.
was a famous fictional character who was shown frequently abusing cocaine, making him the first popular figure to abuse the drug.
Was a famous and talented singer who recently died. Houston battled alcohol and drug addiction, most famously her problem with free-base cocaine (crack).
The inability to experience pleasure from activities that are usually found enjoyable. Anhedonia can be a characteristic of mental disorders including mood disorders, schizoaffective disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia. (An example with ANNE, from the clip of the elderly woman we watched who had battled depression for years).
(1 of the dysfunctions from the “desire phase” of sexual dysfunctions) People lack interest in sex and, in turn, display little sexual activity. When these individuals do have sex, their physical responses may be normal and they may enjoy the experience. May be found in as little as 16% of men and in around 33% of women.DSM-IV: A persistent or recurrent deficiency of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity. Significant distress or interpersonal difficulty.
the experiencing of sights, sounds, or other perceptions in the abscence of external stimuli
People with schizophrenia may not be able to think logically and may speak in peculiar ways. These are called formal thought disorders. They are the most common formal thought disorder, rapidly shift from one topic to another, believing that their incoherent statements make sense. A single, perhaps unimportant word in one sentence becomes the focus of the next.
antipsychotic drugs: drugs that help correct grossly confused or distorted thinking. The first to be discovered were phenothiazines, used to help calm patients about to undergo surgery. Chlorpromazine, “provokes not any loss of consciousness, not any change in the patient’s mentality but a slight tendency to sleep and above all ‘disinterest’. The drugs later discovered in the 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s are now referred to as ‘conventional’ antipsychotic drugs, in order to distinguish them from ‘atypical’ antipsychotics (aka second generation antipsychotic drugs). The conventional drugs are also known as neuroleptic drugs because they often produce undesired movement effects similar to the symptoms of neurological diseases. Among the best known conventional drugs are: thioridazine (Mellaril), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), and haloperidol (Haldol). Research has shown that antipsychotic drugs have reduced symptoms of schizophrenia by 65 percent.
“We can’t control the wind, but we can adjust the sails.” We can’t prevent or cure mental illness, but we can de-stigmatize and treat it. It is the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to improving the lives of individuals and families affected by mental illness. It has over 1,100 affiliates in communities across the country who engage in advocacy, research, support, and education. Members are families, friends, and people living with mental illnesses such as major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder.Tony said the motto is “You are not alone.”
a thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion. thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs, or beliefs of conspiracy concerning a perceived threat towards oneself. Making false accusations and the general distrust of others also frequently accompany it. For example, an incident most people would view as an accident or coincidence, a person might believe was intentional.
a type of program used to treat mental illness and substance abuse. In partial hospitalization, the patient continues to reside at home, but commutes to a treatment center up to seven days a week. it focuses on the overall treatment of the individual, and is intended to avert or reduce in-patient hospitalization.
according to dopamine hypothesis, Schizophrenia results from excessive activity of dopamine. Antipsychotic drugs bind to dopamine receptors and block dopamine from binding to them, preventing neurons from firing.
A personality disorder marked by a general pattern of disregard and violation of other people’s rights
avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. typically displays pattern of anxious and fearful behavior.
basic structure of personality may consist of five “supertraits” or factors--neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Each of these traits then consist of subfactors. (ex: Anxiety and hostility is a subfactor under neuroticism). It is argued that it’s best to describe all people with personality disorders as being high, low, or in between the five supertraits, and to drop DSM’s use of personality disorder categories.
Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder.Behaviors of these people are so dramatic, emotional, or erratic that it is almost impossible for them to have relationships that are truly giving and satisfying. These disorders are more commonly diagnosed than the others. Only the antisocial and borderline personality disorders have received much study, partly because they create so many problems for other people.
Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder.People display odd or eccentric behaviors that are similar to but not as extensive as those seen in schizophrenia, including extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and peculiar ways of thinking and perceiving things. Such behaviors often leave the person isolated
features of depression in elderly are the same as in young people, with feelings of profound sadness and emptiness; low self-esteem, guilt, and pessimism. it is particularly common among those who have recently experienced a trauma, such as loss of a spouse or friend or development of a serious physical illness.
Insomnia is more common among older persons than younger ones. Elderly are particularly prone to this problem because of medical ailments, pain, or depression and anxiety. Another common sleeping disorder is breathing-related sleep disorder, a respiratory problem in which the person is periodically deprived of oxygen to the brain while they sleep, so that they always wake up.