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Human thought and processes of knowing
who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders; can prescribe medication.
Has training in area of social work (M.S.W.) and often has a professional license to practice (L.C.S.W.)
Individual is studied in greater detail, researchers try to learn everything they can about the individual.
Ask questions about topic researchers are studying via telephone, Internet, or a questionnaire.
A measure of the relationship between two or more variables.
The variable that is manipulated, it is independent of anything participants do.
The measure used to evaluate the manipulation of the independent variable.
Random assignment to conditions is the best way to assure control over extraneous variables or confounding variables (variables that interfere with each other, and/or on
the variable of interest)
Receives no treatment or treatment that should not have an effect
Can be controlled through single-blind (participant “blind” to treatment/condition) and double-blind studies where the experimenter measuring the dependent variable does not know the treatment/condition associated with the data
Process where animals or people who know they are being watched will not behave normally.
When the person doing the observing has a particular opinion about what he or she expects to see.
The direction of the relationship and its strength.
produce myelin in the central nervous system
produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system
Part of the hindbrain that controls heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing.
Plays a role in our learning, memory, and ability to compare sensory information to expectations.
Part of the forebrain that regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sexual drive, and aggression we feel.
Connects left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Part of the forebrain that relays information from sensory organs to the cerebral cortex.
Part of the hindbrain that controls balance and maintains muscle coordination.
Part of the hindbrain that relays messages between the cerebellum and the cortex.
A system of nerves running from the hindbrain and through
the midbrain to the cerebral cortex, controlling arousal and attention.
control, fear response,
and interpretations of
nonverbal emotional expressions.
Primary cortical component of
the limbic system, involved in emotional and cognitive processing.
Located right on top of the sinus cavity on each side of the brain directly beneath the frontal lobes, the olfactory receptors send their neural signals directly up to these bulbs, bypassing the thalamus, the relay center for all other sensory information.
the scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior influence and are influenced by social groups; area of psychology in which psychologists focus on how human behavior is affected by the presence of other people.
Process by which information from the outside world enters the brain.
Process of converting outside stimuli, such as light, into neural activity.
The lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time the stimulation is present.
·the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging informationThe brain ignores stimuli that are being sensed, but do not change
· The tendency of sensory receptors to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchangingReceptors less responsive to the stimulus, and therefore no longer send signals to the brain
Iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment.
Changes shape to bring objects into focus.
Central area of retina; greatest density of photoreceptors.
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye; there are no photoreceptor cells here.
Jelly-like liquid that nourishes and gives shape to the eye.
Bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina.
Clear liquid that nourishes the eye.
Its muscles control the size of the pupil.
Anna is having a conversation with her 5-year-old daughter, Iris. She and Iris talk about school, friends, and what she will have for dinner tonight. Iris asks if she can have chicken, and Anna says, “I am impressed. Just a few years ago you hated chicken. Remember that?” Iris, looking unsure, indicates that she does not recall.
Which of the following is Iris probably experiencing right now?
Occurs as the eye recovers its ability to see when going from a brightly lit state to a dark state.
First proposed by Thomas Young in 1802 and later modified by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1852, this theory proposed three types of cones: red cones, blue cones, and green cones, one for each of the three primary colors of light.
· theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green
o Light of any color can be matched by the additive mixture of these 3 primary colors
o Most known facts about color blindness are explained well
Occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed.
Based on an idea first suggested by Edwald Hering in 1874, there are four primary colors: red, green, blue, and yellow. The colors are arranged in pairs, with each member of the pair as opponents. Red is paired with its opponent green, and blue is paired with its opponent yellow. If one member of a pair is strongly stimulated, the other member is inhibited and cannot be working - so there are no reddish-greens or bluish-yellows.
· based on the idea that there are four primary colors: red, green, blue, and yellow. The colors are arranged in pairs (red with green and blue with yellow) and if one member of a pair is stimulated, the other member is inhibited.Explains why the afterimage will be the complement of the color originally starred at
The visible, external part of the ear that serves as a kind of concentrator, funneling the sound waves from the outside into the structure of the ear.
The short tunnel that runs down to the tympanic membrane, or eardrum.
Snail-shaped structure, which is filled with fluid. When the oval window vibrates, it causes the fluid to vibrate. This fluid surrounds a membrane running through the middle called the basilar membrane.
An idea proposed in 1863 by Hermann von Helmholtz and elaborated on and modified by Georg von Békésy that suggested the pitch a person hears depends on where the hair cells that are stimulated are located on the organ of Corti.
States that pitch is related to how fast the basilar membrane vibrates. The faster this membrane vibrates, the higher the pitch; the slower it vibrates, the lower the pitch.
Developed by Ernest Wever and Charles Bray, which accounts for pitches from about 400 Hz up to about 4000, where auditory neurons take turns firing.
Special kinds of neurons found in the mouth that are responsible for the sense of taste.
skin senses (having to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain), the kinesthetic sense (having to do with the location of body parts in relation to each other), and the vestibular senses (having to do with movement and body position).
Method by which the brain takes all the sensations a person experiences at any given moment and allows them to be interpreted in some meaningful fashion.
The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same size, regardless of its distance from the viewer (or the size of the image it casts on the retina).
The tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change.
a Gestalt principle of perception, the tendency to perceive objects
that are close to each other as part of the same grouping; physical or
People’s tendency to perceive things a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations.
The use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole. This is also a form of perceptual expectancy.
Analysis of smaller features and building up to a complete perception.
Your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment, which you use to organize your behavior.
When there is a shift in the quality or pattern of your mental activity.
· shifts in the quality or pattern of mental activity
o Hypnotic state
o Meditative state
o Increased alertness
o Divided attentionSleep
Cycle that takes “about a day” to complete; comes from two Latin words, circa (“about”) and diem (“day”).
Brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only seconds.
Proposes that animals and humans evolved different sleep patterns to avoid being present during their predators’ normal hunting times, which typically would be at night.
States that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body.
A relatively psychologically active type of sleep when most of a person’s dreaming takes place.
Spans from lighter stages to a much deeper, more restful kind of sleep.
Smaller and faster brain waves, typically indicating mental activity.
Brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep.
Brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep.
Long, slow brain waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep.
The inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep.
Increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM
sleep on earlier nights.
A rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.
o Voluntary muscles are supposed to be paralyzed but aren’t
o As a result, people move around / act out dreams (often nightmares)
o Rare disorder
§ More common among men over 60But cant impact young men and women too
Relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully.
Occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep.
The inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep.
Disorder in which the person stops breathing for 10 seconds or
o Disorder for which people stop breathing for nearly ½ a minute or moreIt can hurt your heart and you won’t sleep well at all
Sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning.
A state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
Assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation.
Where one part of the mind is aware of actions/activities taking place, while the “hypnotized” part is not.
Chemical substances that alter thinking, perception, memory, or some combination of those abilities.
Condition occurring when a person’s body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug.
The decrease of the response to a drug over repeated uses, leading to the need for higher doses of drug to achieve the same effect.
Physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems.
o Symptoms begin to occur when lack of the drug is present. Body is adjusting to the absence of the drug.Fatigue, agitation, anxiety, etc
The belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being.
Drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system.
Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system.
Drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication.
o Drugs that can alter and distort perceptions of time & space, alter mood, produce feelings of unreality, & cause hallucinations; alter perception of reality and can cause false sensory messagesVary in how addictive they are
Stimulants that are synthesized (made) in laboratories rather than being found in nature.
A natural drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant.
o Euphoria and increased energy
o Also, paranoia and vascular problems (including risk of heart attack and stroke)Used to be used for pain relievers, but the bad side effects weren’t known in the past
o Easy to get addicted to, very hard to quitTreatment can help
A mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, and several other plant-based substances.
o Mild stimulant
§ 90% of Americans use it
o If use regularly and quit, can get withdrawal symptomsPeople have died from overdoses
Drugs that have a sedative (sleep-inducing) effect; major tranquilizers.
Drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress; minor tranquilizers.
The chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter.
o Most commonly used (and abused) depressant
Substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived.
Class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.
Narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain.
Narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive.
A synthesized from a grain fungus called ergot; powerful synthetic hallucinogen.
Synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects.
Designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects.
Drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
Mild hallucinogen (also known as “pot” or “weed”) derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant.
§ act on receptors for cannabinoidsMost commonly used illegal drug
Even after her girlfriends reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and his friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends.
This is an example of:
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.
an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of the concept.
Erik dropped a note under his car seat and couldn't find it. He looked all through the glove compartment for a flashlight so that he could get a better look under his seat. He later realized he could have just held his cell phone under the seat to help illuminate the area.
This is an example of: