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This temporary loss of cognitive ormotor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences wastermed?
This part of the mind that operatesoutside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, andactions is commonly termed?
Who coined the term
Freud believed that all thoughtsand actions are determined by?
Which of the followingpsychological theories is known as the one that emphasizes "freewill"?
This early field of study believedthat experience could be analyzed successfully by breaking down very basicelements in the human experience. Usually by applying introspection to do so.
William James wrote the Principlesof Psychology and founded this early field of study?
The "father" ofpsychology and founder of the first psychological laboratory was?
Behaviorism helped make psychologya
“I am primarily interested inthinking processes; I am a _______ psychologist.”
Developmental psychologists studythe effects of __________ on behavior.
b. learning disabilities
In my experiment, I am going to investigatehow sleep affects anxiety. The number of hours of sleep the subjects have iscalled the __________ variable?
A testable prediction about therelationship between at least two events, characteristics, or variables.
To estimate the degree of therelationship between birth order and achievement motivation, a researcher woulddo a(n) __________ study.
In the traditional learningexperiment, the effect of practice on performance is investigated. Performanceis the __________ variable
_______aremore general explanations about behavior and events. For example, if I see manypeople scream in pain when they touch a flame, I could theorize that extremeheat causes pain
A major disadvantage of theexperimental method is that?
The conditions that a researcherwishes to prevent from affecting the experiment are called?
CognitivePsychologists have historically studied what type of processes?
When researchers want to manipulate an independentvariable, how many groups (at least) should the researcher create?
______refers to the extent to which a test or other instrument is consistent in itsmeasures. For example, a weight scale can be judged reliable if measures for a25-pound weight do not vary over time or change for subsequent weightings.
All tests are designed to measuresomething; hopefully something specific. If the test does indeed measure whatit is intended to measure, then we can say that the test is ___________.
A few seconds before your new clockradio sounds its alarm, it makes a tiny click. You've recently noticed that you wake up right after theclick and before the alarm, even though you previously never woke up to anything but the alarm itself. Theclick is acting as _________
What is a third-variable problem?
What is sensation?
What is perception?
The process by which a single neuron relaysmessages to other neurons is called?
Each of Bailey's siblings have verypale skin, despite the fact that their father has a darker complexion.In this situation, the genes that affect pale skin pigmentation are highly______.
The part of the brain situatedimmediately above the spinal cord that contains the brain stem and cerebellum, is the first to develop.
A(n) ______ is a positively chargedimpulse, that sends an electrical signalalong the length of a neuron’s axon to a synapse is called a(n)?
What is a mirrorneuron?
A neurotransmitter that regulatesmotor behavior, motivation,pleasure, and emotional arousal.
Which neuronal process is
“use it or lose it” most applicableto?
As part of the limbic system, the_____ attaches significance to previously neutral events that are associatedwith emotions, and emotional memories: specifically fear,punishment, or reward.
A major sensory integration andrelay center in the forebrain, sometimes referred to as the brain’s sensoryswitchboard.
Aninsulating layer of fatty material that is wrapped around the axon toincrease the efficiency and transmission of the neuron, is called?
The first neurons appeared insimple invertebrates, called?
The hypothalamus plays a major role inthe regulation of basic drives. What are the four f’s?
A stroke or other damage in thisarea can lead to deficits in hearing and language.
To examine patterns of electrical activity inthe brain during different periods of consciousness, who could use an__________.
A railroad foreman, named PhineasGage, suffered damage to a large part of his brain responsible for emotionalregulation, planning, and decision making all located in the ________
phantom limb syndrome?
The brain is remarkably adaptiveand the functions of areas that are damaged may be taken over by other areas ofthe brain. What is the term for this phenomenon?
Contralateral control refers to?
Identical twins largely sampled and studiedin psychological research. Why?
The branch of the autonomic nervoussystem that has an arousal function on the body’s internal organs, speeding upbodily processes and mobilizing the body.
Victoria’s friends describe her asbeing somewhat odd on occasion. When asked what she thinks about their newfriend Birken, she describes him like as having, “a colorful red voice” andthat “all of his words smell a little “cherry” to her. What rare condition does she happento have?
How doesthe process of accommodation work in the eye?
What is the just noticeabledifference threshold?
Amplitude is to loudness, assound-wavefrequency is to _______.
What are the
five basic taste qualities people can distinguish?
What is the difference between
The timbre of a sound is determined by its:
Damage to the basilar membrane is mostlikely to affect one’s _____.
Which of the following is a chemicalsense?
Where is the fovea located?
____ is the Gestalt tendency to group like objects together in visual perception.
What is the Gestalt law of figureand ground?
List the fiveGestalt laws of organization.
Which Gestalt law of organizationis this an example of?
What is a color
These chemical receptors, called _____, fortaste in the tongue and in the roof and back of the mouth that are sensitive tothe qualities of sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami.
One of our senses is surprisingly tied to memory.
Whichsense is that?
If you move your watchband up yourwrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This bestillustrates?
Although Alex is clearly sleeping,when Katrina pokes him in the ribs, Alex rollsover. This demonstrates that Alex is?
Recent research has indicated there are two dimensions of themind: ______ and agency.
The four basic properties ofconsciousness include______, unity, selectivity, _______.
What do we call the state ofconsciousnesswhich occurs as we begin to fall asleep?
True or false: REM sleep ischaracterized by high amountsof brain activity?
Daydreaming and nighttime dreamingare both considered ______ states of consciousness
Which of the following is NOTassociated with REM sleep?
The_____ includes all the mental processes that are not experienced by a personbut that give rise to the person’s thoughts, choices, emotions, and behaviors.
Namethe mostcommonly used depressant, responsible forreducing the activity of the central nervous system?
The brain's chemical message system!
Kaylynntakes a pill at a party and, 30minutes later, feels a strong positive, emotional connection with other peoplethere. Which drug did Kaylynn probablytake?
Baileyloved her VirginiaSlims. Shementions to her friends Mary Kate and Ashley that every time she catches asniff of a VirginiaSlim shebegins to crave one, even though she has not had one in five years. Thiscraving is due to what:
Themyopia theory of alcohol action suggests theappearance of unusual behaviors while drinking reflects the fact that alcoholhampers attention, resulting in ______ responses in response to complexsituations.
While Charles is a long-distancetruck driver, the sleep disorder that would be most dangerous to him is:
Ifyou wake sleepwalkers, they probably will report that they were dreaming.
Hearingone's name even when it is not part of the relevant conversation is called ______ effect.
As a manager of a new movietheater, Ralph arranged to have messages about popcorn and candy flashed on the screen during the movie topromote concession sales. Messages like this are called:
Who stated that dreams served as “wish fulfillment”?
Inthose who are susceptible to hypnosis, pain can be effectively controlled andusing hypnosis.
The ability to store and retrieve information; also the storage of what has been learned or remembered.
Theprocess by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduringmemory is called?
Youlearn French in high school 10 years ago. You travel to Paris, and at theairport a customers officer asks you a question in French. You recall thecorrect answer from your study of the language and answer the officer. This isan example of which one of the functions of memory?
Youare taking a psychology class. During lecture, you listen, take notes, andthink about how the information is related to you. These are all examples of______ information into memory. When you read the textbook and your notes andrehearse the information from class, you are working on ______. During a test,you must remember the information, which is called ______.
It is helpful that local phonenumbers are only seven digits long because seven items is the capacity of:
The process of keeping informationin short-term memory by mentally repeating it is called:
The location in which informationcan be kept for hours to years is known as the ______ memory store.
Robert, a successful businessman,was driving to work one day when he was in a terrible car accident. He nowcannot remember any new pieces of information for more than a few seconds.However, he is able to remember everything before the accident perfectlyclearly. Robert’s condition in an example of (think 50 first dates):
_____ memory is the type of memorythat describes how tasks can be learned even if the person cannot explicitlyremember when or where he learned the task.
After practicing how to tie hershoes for months with her mother, Sara can now easily tie her shoes by herselfwithout purposely thinking about the steps. This capability is an example of:
List the seven sins of memory.
Sara took four years of Spanish inhigh school and two years of Spanish in college. Nevertheless, only a yearafter she graduated from college she realizes that she remembers very little ofthe Spanish language, illustrating:
Give an example of the sin ofcommission known as suggestibility:
i.e. telling someone that a car “smashed”into another car, even though they barely touched, leading them to think it wasgoing faster than it was.
Yo-Yo Ma, a world-famous musician,left his multimillion-dollar cello in the trunk of a taxi. What might havecaused him to forget something so important to him?
Victoria’s parents suggestrevisiting a vacation spot that they went to five years earlier. Victoriarecalls vividly an unpleasant experienceon that vacation; she immediately refuses to go this time and insists on goingsomewhere else. What type of memory does she use to arrive at her strongopposition to his parent’s proposition?
Thedistorting influence of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on the recallof previous experiences is called: ______
______ are mental frameworks formedfrom our experiences with the world that help us interpret, store, and rememberrelated experiences, concepts, and behaviors.
True or False: Episodic memoryallows us to engage in mental time travel.
A speck of dirt that gets into youreye will naturally cause a blinking reflex. The speck of dirt is a(n)?
You watch a horror movie, and youare scared. Running through the background music is a sustained, high-pitchednote on a violin. The next day, you are watching a drama that has a similarhigh-pitched violin in the background music, and you feel scared. Which processexplains this effect?
When your dog’s veterinarianadvised you to feed your dog in the morning instead of in the evening, it tookseveral days for your dog to stop salivating late in the afternoon as youstirred around in the kitchen. This is an example of:
Burger Barn is your favorite restaurant, and lately you’ve noticedthat every time you walk by there on your way to class, your mouth starts tosalivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, the sight of therestaurant is the ______; your salivation is the __________.
Oneday, in the midst of his babbling, baby Berry uttered the sound “mama” in thepresence of his mother. Berry’s mother screamed in delight. This noise startledbaby Berry; he stopped uttering that sound for quite some time, illustratingthe effects of:
When Snookie goes out into the sun,she puts on sunglasses to reduce the glare. What type of reinforcement orpunishment is this?
The first time Victoria drankTequila, she became quite sick. Now when she has a cocktail, she looks fordrinks without Tequila. In this example, what could we call her reaction toTequila?
If salivation is an unconditionedresponse, what would food be considered?
Whatis the difference between primary and secondary reinforces Give an example ofa secondary reinforcer.
Primaryis most immediate and reinforcing, secondary comes after. Example of secondaryreinforcer could be i.e. money!
Mariaand Carlos purchase a toy airplane for their newborn’s crib to keep hisattention. After a period of time, the infant may stop paying attention to theairplane. This is an example of?
Jean Piaget called the idea thatobjects continue to exist even when they are not visible _______.
The ability to use another person’sas useful information about the world is known as:
The psychologist who developed theso-called “strange situation” to study the bond that forms between infants andtheir primary caregivers was: ________. She found that a majority of Americaninfants display a______.
Morality is determined primarily bythe extent to which it conforms to social rules in the _____ state of moraldevelopment.
A heart begins to beat during whichstage of prenatal development?
Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitivedevelopment include sensorimotor, ________, concrete operational, formaloperational.
Younger adults experience fewernegative emotions than older adults.True or False?
According to Kohlberg’s theory, aperson who determines morality by using principles that reflect core values isin the _______ stage of development.
An initial stage of learning. Aresponse is established and then strengthen eventually stimulus comes to revokea conditioned response.
Positivereinforcers _____ and negative reinforcers ______ the future probability of thebehavior that led to these respective consequences.
What type of learning is IvanPavlov well-known for?
How do people learn from operantconditioning?
Trueor false: The smallest meaningful units of language are morphemes.
3 month old Josh frequently makes“ooh aaah”sounds as a form of communication. What is this type of language called?
A dog has four legs, a collar, twoears, barks, and is loyal to its owners. This mental classification of a dog isknown as?
In comparison with other species,what is unique about human language?
Simonis meek, tidy, quiet, and overly concerned with order and detail. When giventhe choice of guessing if Simon works at the library or at the hospital, mostpeople guess the library, even though the hospital employs more people. Theguess that Simon works at the library is due to:
True or False: Behavioristexplanations (think Skinner) of language development emphasize how language isacquired through shaping and reinforcement.
Active maintenance of information inshort-term memory is referred to as ______ memory. Also, this type of memoryexperiences the greatest amount of decline the older one gets.
Fill in the missing prenataldevelopment stage:________,embryonic, fetal.
According to Erik Erikson’s stagesof human development, which stage are most adolescents in, and why?
Young Frank goes to the humanesociety for the first time an notices that his mother pets the cats from frontto back. When he pets the can, he is learning through what mechanism of sociallearning theory?
Dexter buys his wife a single redrose for no particular reason while shopping. Realizing that he doesn't own a vase, he also buys the only one the supermarket has, which israther expensive. Upon coming home, his wife says, “Thank you for the rose, butis the vase really necessary? We can just put it in one of your many empty winebottles that litter the kitchen.” Chad’sfailure to realize that a wine bottle can serve as a makeshift, yet romantic,vase is an example of?