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Examining the ways in which the body’s makeup helps determine behavior.
Brain, nervous system, muscles, senses, ect
Examines learning, memory, problem, solving skills, and intelligence.
Alice has just delivered her baby; however, because of financial constraints she has to go back to working both of her jobs, and she can’t give her baby the attention and stimulation it needs. Now her baby is suffering from
Study of stability and change in the enduring characteristic that differentiate one person from another
Shared notion of reality, one that is widely accepted but is a function of society at a given time.
Argued that adolescence extends into Emerging Adulthood (late teens to early twenties)
1. Continuity vs. discontinuity in development
2. Importance of critical periods
3. Whether to focus on certain periods or on the entire life span
4. Nature-nurture controversy
Focusing on the inner person -Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control.
Unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior.
A person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong.
Occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not evoke that type of response.
-Watson and his testing on dogs salivating
form of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR) that is identical to or very similar to the unconditioned response (UCR);
A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences.
A formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
Focuses on mental activity.
An approach to development that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model.
Proposed that all people pass in a fixed sequence through a series of universal stages of cognitive development.
An approaches to cognitive development that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information.
Looks at cognitive development through the lens of brain processes.
Suggested that all people have a need for positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be loved and respected.
Focuses on the relationship between individuals and the social context in which they lead their lives.
Urie Bronfenbrenner and Lev Vygotsky
Suggests that five levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals:
Everyday, immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives.
Provides connections between the various aspects of the microsystem.
Represent broader influences, encompassing societal institutions such as local government, the community, schools, local media, and places of worship.
Represents the larger cultural influences on an individual.
Underlies each of the previous systems.
Argued that children’s understanding of the world is acquired through their problem-solving interactions with adults and other children.
Seek to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
Influenced by Charles Darwin and Konrad Lorenz
Observation of a naturally occurring behavior without intervention in the situation.
Involve extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals.
Group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic.
Reports electrical activity within the brain recorded by electrodes placed on the outside of the skull.
Constructs an image of the brain by combining thousands of individual X-rays taken at slightly different times.
Provides a detailed, three dimensional computer-generated image of brain activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain.
Participants are subject to natural conditions
Behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age. Measures change over time.
People of different ages are compared at the same point in time. Provides information about differences in development between different age groups.
-Cluster of cells in the ovum split off within first 2 weeks of fertilization making 2 genetically identical zygotes
-Twins are genetically identical
-Differences are influenced by environmental factors
-Two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at the same timeNot Identical
-increase with fertility drugs
-increase with age of female
-increase with genetic tendencies
-depend on racial tendencies
African Americans more likely to have multiple births
Outer layer that will form skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, brain and spinal cord
· Cells in sense organs that translate messages into neual impuslses that are sent to the brain
· Weakened magnitude of a sensation resulting from prolonged presentation of the stimulus
· Specialty area of psychology that studies sensory limits, sensory adaptation, and related topics
· - The 125 million cells located outside the center of the retina that transduce light waves into neural impulses, thereby coding information about light and dark
· Nerve that carriers neural messages about vision to the brain
· Theory of color vision conteding that the eye has three different kidns of cones each of which responds to light of one rang of wavelength
Spiral structure of the inner ear tha tis filled with fluid and contains the receptors for hearing
· One of the membranes that separate the two tubes of the cochlea dn on which the organ of Corti rests
· Snesory receptor cells at the base of hairs that detect pressure
· Tendancy for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations
Our motivational and emotional states influence our perceptions
There is not a simple relation between the physical stimulus and what we perceive
Three linked bones of the middle ear, which pass sound waves to the inner ear.
· Membrane that relieves pressure form the vibrating waves in the cochlear fluid
sensory receptor in the cochlea that transduces sound waves into coded neural impulses
· Three nearly circular tubes in the vestibular organ that informa the brain about tilts of the head and the body
sensory receptor cells that detect pressure
1. Regulation of pain in the brain stem
2. Regulation of pain in the spinal cord
3. Peripheral regulation of pain
1. Brightness constancy
2. Color constancy
3. Size constancy
4. Shape constancy
1. Texture gradient
2. Linear perspective
4. Speed of movement
6. Aerial perspective
8. Vertical position
1. Positive reinforcement
2. Negative reinforcement
1. Fixed ratio
2. Variable ratio
3. Fixed interval
4. Variable interval
Reinforcement schedule in which the reinforce is given only after a specified number of responses
Reinforcement schedule in which the reinforce is given after a varying number of responses have been made
Reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given following the first response occurring after a predetermined period of time
1. Escape conditioning
2. Avoidance conditioning
1. The use of punishment is reinforcing to the punisher
2. Punishment has a generalized inhibiting effect on an individual
3. Sometimes physical punishment can cause a child to dislike the punisher or react aggressively
4. Criticism is often a positive reinforce that increases the rate of the behavior the criticism follows
5. Punishment can suppress bad behavior, but it doesn't teach how to act appropriately
1. Don't use physical punishment
2. Punish immediately after bad behavior
3. Positively reinforce appropriate behavior
4. Don't punish people, punish specific behaviors
5. Don't mix punishment with rewards for the same behavior
6. Don't back down from punishment
1. Classical = association between 2 stimuli and operant = association between a response and the resulting consequence
2. Classical = controlled by the autonomic NS and operant = controlled by the somatic NS
3. Classical = UCS is paired with the conditioned stimulus and operant = reinforcing consequence occurs only if the response being conditioned has just been emitted
1. The way info is recalled
2. The form in which info is stored in memory
3. The reasons that forgetting occurs
4. The physical location of these functions in the brain
Where are memories stored in the brain for STM and LTM?
STM: stored in the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex
LTM: first integrated in the hippocampus and then transferred to the areas of the cerebral cortex involved in language and perception for permanent storage
1. Sensory register
§ The part of the limbic system that plays a role in memory and the processing of emotion
Mental processes of perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering, knowing, deciding, and so on.
1. Cognition processes information
2. Cognition is active
- obtained through senses
- transformed through interpretive processes of perception and thinking
- stored and retrieved through the processes of memory
- used in problem solving and language
3. Cognition is useful
1. Superordinate concepts are very inclusive
2. Basic concepts are of a medium degree of inclusiveness
3. Subordinate concepts are the least inclusive level of concepts
1. Basic concepts share many attributes
2. Members of basic concepts share similar shapes
3. Members of basic concepts often share motor movements
4. Basic concepts are easily named
1. Formulate the problem to decide what kind of problem we face
2. Evaluate the elements of the problem to decide what info and tools we have to work with
3. Generate a list of solutions and evaluate them
The combination of responses or ideas in novel ways
Thinking that is logical and conventional and that focuses on a problem
EX: solving an algebra problem
Suggested creative problem solving occurs in 4 steps:
2. Incubation: period of rest
3. Illumination: sudden insight
4. Verification: testing the solution