Driving force behind behaviors that make us pursue certain and avoid others.
Acting out what is actually motivating us.
*Performance ='s motivation X ability
literally means "standing still" controls body functions, for ex) telling you when your hungry and turning off other that need is satisfied.
Value of some variable that body is trying to maintain. for ex) Body Temperature.
"learned behaviors" ex) walking, talking, etc.
believed that motivation comes from positive and negative things in the environment.
Believed that ppl will work harder for something they believe is reachable vs. something that is not and put very little effort at all.
believed we are motivated by instance, but later realized that it was learning not instance.
1) Instinct theory 2) Maslow's Need Hierarchy theory
Maslow's Need Hierarchy theory
1) physiological needs ( Hunger, thirst) 2) Safety Needs ( housing, money) 3)belongingness and love needs ( intimacy) 4) esteem needs ( respect from peers) 5) self- actualization needs ( creative art, service to others) ** satisfy one level at a time. if interrupted by anything such as hungry after eating you MUST START OVER!!
1) Inputs- what you put into the relationship 2) Outputs- what you get out by putting your effort in. 3) Comparison other- you have a person that you compare yourself too. 4) outcomes/ inputs ration (O/I)
outcomes/ inputs ratio (O/I)
O/I ='s comparison other ( its "all good") O/I > comparison other ( greater than his, great!) O/I < comparison other ( less than his, bad!) ** in the case of being less than four things can happen**
theory of motivation which suggests that conscious goals regulate much human action, particularly performance tasks.
Four things to make goals work
hierarchy of goals
velocity vs acceleration (on affect of mood)
a positive or negative feeling state that typically includes arousal, subjective experience, and behavioral expression; also called AFFECT.
5 basic emotions
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemes
adapting one's current understandings (schema) to incorporate new information.
children developing the fear of strangers. beginning about 8 months
kids see object and if you put it behind your back they think it has literally disappeared. dont have the brain to understand that its still there in reality.
ppl ideas about there own
an emotional tie with another person
shown in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
types of attachment
1) secure- readily comforted
2) avoidant- shut off need for attachment
3) ambivalent- difficulty being soothed
4) disorganized- behave in contradictory ways
** but attachment is NOT destiny, only probability (look at study in book)
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. ex) language, some kids dont learn language at the right age and have problems later in life.
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
a person's characteristic reactivity and intensity
parents impose rules and expect obedience
" why? because i said so"
submit to children's desires
make few demands
use little punishment
parents are both demanding and responsive
set rules, but explain reasons
use it or lose it!
james- lange theory
a theory of emotion asserting that emotion originates with peripheral arousal, which people then label as an emotional state
a theory of emotion asserting that emotion- inducing stimuli elicit both emotional experience and bodily response.
schachter-singer theory aka two factor theory
the theory which asserts that emotion involves cognitive interpretation of general physiological arousal
the role of thalamus in processing emotion
processes and routes sensory information directly to the amygdala.
the role of amygdala in processing emotion
1) quick response of fear; no thinking
2) second process is slower and a more thorough cognitive appraisal, involving a thalamus to the cortex to the amygdala.
the process by which children look at there parents and incorparte them in our own lives.
didnt mature into adult.
behavioral medicine, health psychology, occupational health psychology.
** all types of health psychology.
major categories of stressors
1) Life events- death in the family; virtually any change in your life neg or pos.
2) acculturative stress- the stress people experience while trying to adapt to a new culture.
3) catastrophes- rare, unexpected disasters. EX) japan getting hit by tsunami.
4) daily hassles- the small but irritating demands that characterize daily life.
type a & b personalities
A) a pattern of behavior and emotions that includes ambition, competitiveness, impatience, and hostility.
B) one of the most thoroughly researched links between personality and health.
A&B- in contrast to his own type B pattern, a man fishing in a boat nearby exhibited type a behavior.
fighting stress (coping)
coping- the ways people deal with stressful situations; aka coping mechanisms.
enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances.
"act like a kid", when your nervous.
the basic defense mechanism that banish anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, memories from conscious.
Want to see the other 55 Flashcards in psych 201?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!