1) Father of Modern psychology 2) Opened up the first lab dedicated to psychological studies 3) Believed psychologist should look into a persons consciousness 4) Started the school of "structuralism" in psychology 5) Measured a persons consciousness by measuring ones reaction time to a particular stimulus. This experiment was breaking news because it showed that psychologist could measure things such as a persons consciousness.
Father of modern psych.
Studied basics of the mind
A persons subjective experience of the world and the mind
The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
William Wundt, Edward Titchener.
analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
introspection. reaction time experiment. Element and consciousness. elemental sensations/feelings
the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. involved breaking consciousness down into elemental sensations and feelings
The systematic examination by individuals of their own thoughts and feelings about specific sensory experiences
the subjective observation of one's own experience/thoughts/feelings
viewing a stimulus, then reconstructing sensations after.
the subjective observation of one's own experience.
thinking about our own emotions
1) Liked art, but went to medical school and taught at Harvard 2) Disagreed with wundt about being able to break down a persons consciousness into separate parts (introspection) 3) developed functionalism psychology
agreed with Wundt on introspection, but not breaking consciousness down to elements. functionalism- how mind works to adapt in natural environment, was inspired by charles darwin's Natural selection
First American psychologist-Functionalist
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
How does mind work, how does it change/adapt? Mind is a flow streaming, so breaking up the conscious is not effective (structuralism)
the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
The study of the function of the mind
1) Proposed that psychologist focus on studying behavior 2) believed behavior was influenced greatly by the environment 3) developed behaviorism
John B. Watson
Mind is a black box, you cannot study what is inside it, you can only study what people DO.
Conditioning babies (classical) - Little Albert B
Father of Behaviorism. Little Albert.
an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior - "Stimulus-Response". "Study of directly observable events."
John Watson. then BF Skinner. objectively observe behavior. You can measure behavior. disagrees with introspection. (structuralism and functionalism) focus on what ppl DO not EXPERIENCE.
approach that advocates the psychologists should restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
Observable actions of humans and other nonhuman animals
Scientific study of behavior and its enviro. determinant
abnormal behavior is learned
1) helped to develop behaviorism even more 2) preformed the Skinner box test "a conditoning chanmber" 3) believed in operant conditioning 4) believed people could be controlled by just affecting their environment 5) thought a Utopian like society could be formed 6) people did not like he was taking away free will from humans
focused on consequences such as punishment and reinforcement using the Skinner Box
Behaviorism. Skinner box
What section of psychology dominated the field from 1930s-1950s?
Why did Behaviorism become less popular after the 1950s?
it ignored the mental processes (such as how children learn language) and the evolutionary history of the organisms it studied.
1) dealt with patients who had hysteria 2) used hypnosis to get people out of their hysteria 3) Believed that many peoples hysteria could be traced back to a disturbed childhood 4) discovered the unconsciousness of a person 5) developed Psychoanalytic theory
Founder of Psychoanalysis, focused on the unconscious mind
believed abnormal behavior was caused by unconscious feelings, thus the goal of psychotherapy was to make these conscious
the mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness
Freud, Psychoanalysis. Part of the mind the operates below/outside of the conscious yet influences our behaviors, feelings, and thoughts.
part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
A family of theories originated by Freud that focuses on unconscious motivation shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors
an approach that emphasized the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
Sigmund Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental process in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
The study of the mental processes involved in knowing
scientific study of how mind process information, memory, solving problems, language. more scientific aspect than just plain behaviorism.
the scientific study of mental processes; including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning; involved in knowledge
the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning.
The study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning.
studied memory through short stories and noted the errors that participants made in recall. Also stated that memory/knowing is based on attitudes, experiences and behavior
The study of the brain and nervous system and how they relate to behavior
Looking at why certain behaviors exist through evolutionary adaptions. (whats the advantage of liking certain things)
John Garcia. also inspired by Darwin. This psych. explains mind and behavior in terms of the adpative value of abilities that are passed down from the past generations. Like how the rats that were born in the Lab are nauseated by the sewer smell because their past ancestors can detect that.
explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive values of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection.
A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection.
Approach to psychology in which we believe we can only understand behavior in the context of ethnicity, culture, and gender (our place in our environment).
We can only understand behavior in the context of culture, ethnicity, and gender.
A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of parts
psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rathe than the sum of its parts (Gestalt means whole in German)
maintained that our sensations are actively processed according to consistent perceptual rules that result in meaningful whole perceptions or gestalts
A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon. when we gather empirical evidence related to an idea and then modify the idea to fit the evidence
hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon. framework for explaining various events
a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomena.
Frameworks for explaining various events
if, then, statement. Educated guess
falsifiable prediction made by a theory
a falsifiable prediction made by a theory... falsifiable is the critical part here because when testing it you should know what you should or shouldn't observe if the statement is true
falsifiable prediction made by a theory. testable prediction derived from theory.
a falsifiable prediction made by a theory
Testable prediction derived from theories (Must be falsifiable)
Goals of psychological research
ask people to answer written questions
A set of questions presented to a respondent
Case studies (case method)
A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual
1) using senses to learn about events/object
2) observations are made through measurements,
use of one or more senses to gather information
Measurement: defining and detecting
1) operational definition: a description of a property in concrete measurable terms
2) Empirical method: are a set of rules and techniques for observation
Measures muscle contractions under a persons skin
A device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin.
Measurement: Validity, reliability, and power
1) Validity: the extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related
2) Reliability: The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
3) Power: The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition
Measurement: Demand characteristics
Are those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should (Psychologist try to avoid this)
Measurement: Observer Bias
When the observers themselves are biased in their observation because they are specifically looking for what they ought to see, and not just what is really occurring. This is why observers themselves are often in the dark about the experiment.
descriptive statistics and inferential statistics
1. descriptive: statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data
ex. mean, frequency
2. inferential: techniques that allow us to study a sample and then make generalizations about a population
ex. correlation, t-test
square root of the variance, of how much on avg the points differ from the mean
a statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution
involves examining research data and results to determine what conclusions reasonably can be drawn to support or refute a stated hypothesis
A method of selecting a sample in which members are purposely selected to create a sample that represents the population on some characteristic(s) of interest.
the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
Entire group studied
A data collection technique that involves direct questioning of individuals about their behaviors and attitudes
Two variables are said "to be correlated" when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with the variations in the value of the other
How are correlations found?
1) measure a pair of variables 2) Remeasure these pair of variables till you have a set of data 3) Try to discern a pattern in the series of measurements
Connection between two variables
What is the difference between a positive and a negative correlation
1) positive correlation: describes a "more-more" or "less-less" scenario
2) Negative correlation: describes a "more-less" or "less-more" term
How can correlations be measured?
used to describe the strength of the effect in either a correlation or an experimental study; "r" +1 thru -1 (0 = weakest)
What is perfect correlation?
What is a strong correlation?
What is a moderate correlation?
What is a weak correlation?
something that produces an effect on another variable
the variable that is manipulated in an experiment
One that we are changing
the event or condition that is measured or observed when the results are gathered
depends on variations in 1st variable
the variable that is measured in a study
a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group
a problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group
every member of the population has an equal probability of being chosen to participate in the survey
the most "accurate" way to represent a population. every person has an equal chance of being selected. still this could be skewed. but it doesn't matter
a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
assigning research participants to groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences among the groups
helps us infer cause and effect. ex. splitting a group of kids that have married parents or a single parent into two groups. Random assignment makes sure that scientists don't put all kids with single parents in one room, unless that was done coincidentally by random assignment.
a procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group
the process of assigning subjects to experimental treatments randomly
What is the reason why we should rely on random sampling to make good inferences about populations?
1. Random sampling eliminates bias in the selection process of samples.
Why is the failure to sample randomly not always a problem?
sometimes similarity of a sample and a pop no matter - flyin pig
when ability to generalize an experimental result is important psychologists use same procedures on diff samoles
sumtimes similiarities of sample and pop is a reasonable assumption
SINGLE AND DOUBLE BLIND PROCEDURES
SINGLE: PROCEDURE TO ENSURE PARTICIPANTS ARE NOT AWARE OF THE OF THE GROUP OR CONDITION
DOUBLE: PROCEDURE TO ENSURE PARTICIPANTS AND THE RESEARCHER DIRECTLY INVOLVED ARE UNAWARE OF THE CONDITIONS
Subjects are observed in their natural environment
a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.
Observing in natural habitat
how can demand characteristics be avoided?
What are the three properties of a good measure?
1. Validity (measurements and property have to be related)
2. reliability (must be consistent)
3. Power (must be able to properly measure)
Why is it important for subjects to be "blind"?
To obtain their true behavior
Whats the difference between match samples and match pairs?
Matched samples: a technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable
Matched pairs: A technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable
Establishes the causal relationship between variables
a technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
Goal is to establish casual connections
What are the two main features of an experiment
2. random assignment
The creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine causal powers
Use suicide to manipulate world, make a statement, have the last laugh, get back at someone.
what are the three main steps in doing an experiment?
1. the manipulation of the independent variable
2. measure the other variable [dependant variable]
3. check to see whether our manipulation produced changes in the variable we measure
the extent to which we can draw causal inferences about our variables
the characterisitics of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables
A property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal typical, or realistic wat
a property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way.
Why is external validity not always important?
Because it is rare that a psychological study is trying to recreate a real world scenario
What are three features of ethical research?
respect for persons
research should be beneficent (should attempt to maximize benefits and reduce risks to the participant)
research should be just (should distribute benefits and risks equally to participants without prejudice toward particular individuals or groups)
A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has be informed of all the risks that participation may entail
Explaining to participants, at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired.
a verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study
Misleading participants about the true nature of a study being done on them. This is only allowed in certain instances and can never deceive them about the amount of physical or psychological harm/pain
When is it mandatory that a participant be debriefed?
If he/she is deceived in anyway before or during the study
Psychologist are obligated to keep private and personal information obtained during a study confidential
what are psychologists expected to do when they report the results of their research?
nerve cells handle information processing at the cellular level of the brain (send and receive messages)
cells that are highly specialized to receive and transmit information from one part of the body to another
Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks
cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing techniques
The part of the neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keep the cell alive
the part of a neuron that coordinates information-procesing tasks and keeps the cell alive
The part of the neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body
Receives information from neurons and relays it to the cell body
The part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles or glands
Transmits information to other neurons, muscles and glands
An insulating layer of fatty material. This fat is made up of glial cells that are supporting cells. AKA they do a variety of things such as digest parts of dead neurons and provide nutritional support for neurons
protective coating that speeds transmission
an insulating layer of fatty material
Who brought psychology to America?
Who were the two Greek psychology thinkers and their beliefs?
Plato: nativism... certain kinds of knowledge are innate/inborn
Aristotle: tabula rasa and philosophical empiricism... knowledge by experience
mind and body exist independently but mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior
theory of the brain that specific mental abilities are localized in specific regions of the brain and can be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull. quickly discredited
scientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, & intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull
*pseudoscience, but helped advance study of brain
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics are located in specific parts of the brain.
Paul Broca worked with a patient who damaged ________ of his brain and the result was _________. This patient was referred to as _____.
a small part of the left side in the frontal lobe... he could no longer produce speech and only said "tan" but could understand speech... Tan
Who made psychology be seen as a science? and how?
Hermann von Helmholtz and Vilhelm Wundt. Measured speed of nerve impulses in response to a stimulus and opened first psych lab making psych an independent field of study
structuralism, founding Father of psychology. first psych lab. Uni of Leipzig
First Psychology laboratory in Leipzig. Founding psych as a discipline. -Structuralism
Sigmund Freud. understanding human behavior by studying the unconscious that shapes our feelings, thoughts, behavior.
psychotherapy. therapeutic approach that focuses on bring the unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness. patients recall past experiences, dreams, fantasies and psychoanalysts interpret them
a type of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts
born with anger but suppressed as a child
try to go back and make the unconscious, conscious
expand ego's control
punish role of harsh superego
free association, dream analysis, interpretation
goal is insight and catharsis (emotional release) – recovering unconscious conflicts and motives
A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
Study of the unconscious aspects of the mind
goal is insight and catharsis
goal is insight and catharsis
used "talking cure"
Client would lye on the couch and the analyst would make comments from time to time
to uncover the role of unconsious mind and early life experiences in behavior; Sigmund Freud
Goal is insight and catharsis (telling emotions)
goal is insight and catharsis
Resistance - a sign that you were getting close to the anxiety provoking material
Transference - treating the therapist as if they were a parent or lover
goal is insight & catharsis - means of treating ppl w/hysteria; not quick therapy - lie on couch 4-5 a week 4-5 years; therapist doesn't say much; FREUD; explores childhood events; unconscious motives
experiments with dogs salivating and making human infants fear white mice, effects on environment.
classically conditioned dogs - food=salivation
Skinner box, with rat and food pellets. Action.reward. reinforcement, repeat the things that were rewarding and stop doing things that weren't
Social learning theory, BOBO doll experiment. Kids act aggressively if they saw a grown-up act that way.
What is Bandura known for?
social cognitive theory, social learning is how we learn by watching other people
observational learning; we learn by watching others
self-system - how we think about ourselves; do we see selves as effective or ineffective?
who developed the structuralist approach?
who opened the first psych lab?
Wilhelm Wundt, this made psych an independent field of study
an approach to the psychology field that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily experiences. taking parts of the brain out in rats to see how they run the maze experiment. Karl Lashley wanted to know which specific part is for memory/learning.
An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes.
a field that studies the links between cognitive processes and brain activity. PET scans,
field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
who first used introspection in order to analyze the elemental breakdown of consciousness?
Wilhelm Wundt, and structuralists
what was Wundt's experiment?
used reaction times to examine a distinction between perception and interpretation of a stimulus
who brought structuralism to the United States?
where did Titchener have a psych lab?
Cornell University, in USA
What was the difference between Wundt's structuralistic approach and Titchener's?
Wundt emphasized a relationship between elements of consciousness and Titchener focused on identifying the elements
why were there many skeptics of structuralism causing it to fade? who was a skeptic?
because of introspection, so every scientist saw something different using this approach. William James a skeptic
who taught the first university course on psychology?
William James taught it at Harvard
How did James view consciousness?
a flowing stream of thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and sensations
who developed functionalism?
what are the simple ways to define/differ structuralism and functionalism?
structuralism = structure of mental processes.... functionalism = function those mental processes serve
who inspired William James's idea for functionalism?
Charles Darwin and his theory of natural selection: that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other feature to be passed on to subsequent generations
who set up first psychology research lab in North America?
G. Stanley Hall at John Hopkins University
who founded the first psychology journal in the United States?
G. Stanley Hall
who founded American Psychological Association, first national organization of psychologist in the United State?
G. Stanley Hall
what was the dominant approach to psychology in North America?
From german psychologists. study how the environment around someone could increase their ability in doing an activity. causes and consequence on interpersonal behavior. how other ppl affect other ppl
the study of the causes of consequences of interpersonal behavior
branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment
A subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior.
A sub-field of psychology that studies the causes of consequences of interpersonal behavior.
how our behavior is affected by other people (real or imagined)
the attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
The attempt to understand and explain how our behaviors are influenced by other people
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality
temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
Physical ailments that don't have a physical cause (psychological). Hypnosis was studied as a cure (Freud and Charcot)
What/who was it that sparked the interest for Freud in psychology?
physicians studying patients with hysteria whose symptoms disappeared when hypnotized and then reappeared again. This showed that during consciousness we are only aware of "me" or "self", but there are other conscious levels not aware of each other's existence.
What did Freud theorize was the underlying meaning to most problems?
can be traced back to childhood experiences (usually sexual) that person couldn't remember, lost memories revealed the presence of an unconscious mind.
who developed the psychoanalytic theory?
who developed the therapy of psychoanalysis?
who was the first psychoanalyst?
the study how different cultures reflect psychological differences within ppl
the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
Why was Freud's psychoanalysis therapy too racy for scientific discussion?
Freud would explore a patient's early sexual experiences and unconscious sexual desires to explain their unconscious. very controversial for those days
who pioneered the more positive movement of humanistic psychology?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Roger
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasized the positive potential of human beings
An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human behavior.
what are 2 differences between psychoanalysis and humanistic psychology?
1. psychoanalysis emphasized limitations, problems, and a forgotten past while humanistic psychology that focused on people's desire to grow to full potential
2. psychoanalysis called people "patients" and humanistic psych called them "clients" giving more equal footing
what makes behaviorism more objectively measurable than structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis
rather than studying what's going on in people's minds, you study what you can see with their behavior
what psych approach involves introspection?
who suggested studying people's behaviors, behaviorism?
What are the two notions that are the building blocks of behaviorism?
a stimulus and a response
what is behaviorism sometimes called?
"stimulus-response" or "S-R" psychology
What experiment is Watson famous for?
teaching "Little Albert" to fear a harmless white rat through conditioning
What did Watson do that he was forced to leave his psych position?
became romantic with his student, Rosalie Rayner, so left and got a job working for a New York advertising agency using psych in the marketing world
What was B.F. Skinner's new kind of behaviorism?
he developed behaviorist principles that would explain how people "learned" to act in situations
aka Skinner box, apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals (ex: rat would have food delivered when pushed a lever, would press lever until no longer hungry)
the consequences of behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again
reinforcement given immediatly after the desired behavior
The consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again.
any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it; INCREASES THE LIKELIHOOD OF A RESPONSE OCCURRING
who developed the principle of reinforcement?
who made the statement... "free will is an illusion, and we are actually responding to present and past patterns of reinforcement, we do things in the present that have been rewarding in the past"? Why didn't society like this?
Skinner... society didn't like it because is was giving away free will and calling for a manipulative society. But Skinner saw it as a way society could benefit if they understood how behavior is generated
errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
Errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjective experience differs from reality.
who developed Gestalt psychology?
Who studied the human cognition's limits and found that we can pay attention to and briefly hold in memory 7 pieces of information?
physiological psychology which grew into behavioral neuroscience
links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
before "brain-scanning" techniques, how did psychologists figure out what brain regions were involved with producing different abilities?
they relied on such things as birth defects, accidents, and illnesses that caused damage to specific brain regions and than deduced which region was involved in which ability
who was the first psychologist to pay attention to the influence of culture on psychology
thos who believe that traits are fixed, stable things and thus people should not be expected to change
people who believe that traits are subject to change esp improvement
who wrote first psychology textbook?
who is known as the father of modern psychology?
who was the first American psychologist?
whose work did John Watson build off of?
Ivan Pavlov and his classical conditioning in dogs
Did Freud use hypnosis as part of his psychoanalysis?
No not much, but other psychoanylists did
What did Bartlett Study?
He studied the cognitive and social processes of remembering. He discovered the people couldn't remember a story if it was unpredictable. He came up with the idea that memory is influenced by knowledge, beliefs, hopes, desires, etc.
An approach that traces the sequence of mental operations involved in cognition.
An approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior.
psychological perspective emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society's demands, and early family experiences... Freud
regards perrsonality as formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness; motives that can also produce emotional disorders
personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness--motives that can produce emotional disorders
an approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings, and desires, largely operating outside of awareness-motives that can also produce emotional disorders
the science of behavior and mental processes
the scientific study of mind and behavior
branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms.
the study of biological processes, especially in the human body.
the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions
the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
accurate knowledge is acquired through observation. essential element to the Scientific Method.
"Founder of Psychology"
Interested in mental reactions times in response to visual or audible stimuli.
Defined psychology as the study of consciousness
(Edward B. Titchner)
even our most complex conscious experiences can be broken down into elemental structures of sensations and feelings
a set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence
through empiricism, we form theory, then we make hypothesis and we test it out. We then reivise theory. Identify the problem, collect info, draw conclusions, revise theory.
anything perceptible to the senses
sensory input from the environment
what is "the rule of parsimony" and who is it credited to?
begin with the simplest theory possible only adding complexity when necessary. credited to 14th century logician William Ockham
importance of how behavior functions to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments
who is considered the father of the scientific method?
Structuralism and Functionalism
both thought psych should focus on conscious experiences
No longer exist as a school of thought
a set of rules and techniques for observation of events and collection of data and means logical reasoning
a set of rules and techniques for observation
emphasized role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality.
what are the three things that make people especially difficult to study?
1. complexity... 500 million interconnected neurons
2. variability... no two individuals the same
3. reactivity... people act different when observed
(John B. Watson)
focus on overt behavior (observable and objectively measured and verified)
Studied how behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental influences.
Growth and self-direction
Behavior shaped and maintained by external causes
psychologists identify themselves based on 1. perspective and 2. specialty area
Neuroscience (Biological perspective)
study of the nervous system (especially brain)
emphasize the importance of
1. unconscious influences
2. early life experiences
3. interpersonal relationships
in explaining behavior
unconscious motives explaining our drug use and addiction; perhaps trying to satisfy an unconscious longing
study how behavior is acquired or modified by environmental causes.
1. the motivation of people to grow psychologically
2. influence of interpersonal relationships
4. reaching ones potential
Positive Psychology Perspective
1. study of positive emotions
2. psychological states
3. positive individual traits
4. social institutions (personal happiness, optimism, wisdom)
how mental processes influence behavior
how cultural factors influence patterns of behavior
people work harder when alone than with a group in US & Europe, but in China its the opposite.
People work less hard in groups when no one person's efforts are identified
We don't work as hard when we're part of a group (Tug of war)
when we are part of a group, our individual contributions are harder to identify, so it's easier to slack off
We also don't want to work harder than others in the group
perform better when alone; when we're part of a group we don't try as hard
if given a task to do by themselves, will do better/ try harder than if they would do the same thing in a group
*in a group, hard to identify role, so don't try as hard b/c our efforts don't seem essential compared to others
application of the principles of evolution
Four goals of Psychology
4. Control or Influence
observe behaviors in natural settings
(realistic & ethical)
a theory, method, or practice that promotes claims in a way that appears to be scientific & plausible even though evidence is lacking or nonexistent (ex. magnet therapy)
in-depth investigation of an individual, family or social unit (Used in rare or extreme cases)
studying one significant person for an extensive time throughout their life.
Studies involving the intensive observation of a single participant over an extended period of time
+ info from large group
- some people lie
use representative sample
random selection- everyone has chance to be chosen
show how strongly 2 factors are related
# indicator of strength
range from -1 to +1
(# = strength, +/- = direction)
a measure of the direction and strength of a correlation, which is signified by the letter r.
produce hormones involved in human stress response
(sex organs) glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes
- ovaries (estrogen & progesterone)
- testes (androgens - testosterone)
cortical localization (phrenology)
the notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain
a.k.a. localization of function
Human connectome project
goal: map the millions of miles of neural connections among the 100 billion neurons in the human brain
Brain's ability to change function & structure
brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas
brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice or environmental influences
Juggling & Brain Plasticity
showed that learning a new skill produces structural changes in the human brain (areas increase)
the development of new neurons
* in the hippocampus & olfactory bulb
Parts of the Brainstem
Hindbrain and Midbrain
connects the spinal cord w/rest of the brain. Contains structures that regulate basic life functions
ongoing part of spinal cord. coordinates info coming into and out of spinal cord. Consist of cerebellum, medulla, pons, reticular formation.
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
Coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
Controls respiration, alertness, and motor skills
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord; the reptilian brain
controls vital life functions such as breathing & circulation (situated above spinal cord)
connects medulla to 2 sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body
2-sided structure @ back
- responsible for muscle coordination & maintaining posture & equilibrium
*alcohol affects this region
Reticular formation in the hindbrain
network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention, arousal & sleep
middle and smallest region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information
consist of tectum and tegmentum
Sits atop the hindbrain (relatively small)
substantia nigra (midbrain)
involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine - producing neurons
includes cerebral cortex & limbic system structures
*largest and most complex (90%), contains centers for complex behaviors & mental processes
Cerebral cortex, subcortical structures(limbic system): emotional, cognitive functions, and motor
Cerebral Cortex (Forebrain)
wrinkled, outer portion of the forebrain, contains most sophisticated brain centerss
Corpus callosum (cerebral cortex)
thick band of axons that connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres & acts as communication link b/w them
each hemisphere divided into 4 regions/lobes
temporal, occipital, parietal, & frontal
near temples, primary receiving area for AUDITORY information
@ back of hemisphere, primary receiving area for VISUAL information
above temporal lobe & processes somatic sensations (touch, temperature, pressure, info from muscles & joints)
largest lobe, processes VOLUNTARY muscles movements & involved in thinking, planning and emotional control. (1/3 hands, 1/3 facial muscles)
group of structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation learning and memory
curved, forebrain structure that is involved in learning and forming new memories
*neurogenesis takes place here
processes sensory info for all senses except smell & relays info to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus (Limbic system)
regulates behaviors related to survival, peanut-sized
almond-shaped cluster of neurons in brain's temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses (especially fear)
"His" & "Her" Brains?
1. Men's brains tend to be larger
2. Women have higher proportion of gray matter to white matter
3. Male brain more asymmetrical & functions are more lateralized (men use one side, women use both)
Controls left side of body, left handed; music/art, space, imagination and fantasizing, body control & awareness.
particular brain areas are associated w/specific functions
Pierre Paul Broca
damage on lower left frontal lobe = patients who had difficulty speaking but could comprehend written or spoken language
damage on left temporal lobe = patients had difficulty understanding spoken or written communications, but could speak - didn't make sense
lateralization of function
notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain
the partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language b/c of brain injury or damage.
difficulty in producing or comprehending language
surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum (used to stop seizures)
proved effects of split brain reconfirmed specialized language abilities of the left hemisphere
Reading & Writing
emotional tone of speech
population and sample
population is the whole population so we take samples to represent the population.
choosing individuals for an experiment because they are conveniently there. Like a random sample of students from ONE school to represent the whole population of students is a con. samp.
why is random assignment important
It equally separates all other possible influences on the test.
A definition that identifies an object by what it does or by the conditions that create it. So how is something defined? ex. Kids who are violent. the operational definition could be that they kick and scream when communicating with others.
a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
correlation is not causation. 3 explanation
a causes b
b causes a
and there is a 3rd variable.
measures of central tendency
Mean, mode, median
measure of variability
3 rules for the ethical treatment of research participants
1. participation must be voluntary. respect for persons 2. participation should not harm the participants . benefit 3. anything participants reveal about themselves must be kept confidential . just
People who begin in your research study different from those who finish
continuation of spinal cord. Controls heartbeat, breathing/respiration, circulation. Part of Hindbrain. Involuntary
coordinates heart rate, circulation and respiration
an extension of the spinal cord into the skill that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
Extension of spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
An extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration. The reticular formation lies within the medulla.
regulates sleep, wakefulness, and arousal. cluster of neurons inside medulla. filters incoming stimuli by ignoring irrelevant background stimuli.
regulates sleep, wakefulness, and arousal
a brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal
Small cluster of neurons that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal
smaller/damaged = extrovert b/c need to do more for same amount of arousal
regular/larger = introvert b/c don't need to keep self entertained for same amount of arousal
The reticular formation
A brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal, filter's information.
Hindbrain and brain StemStops you from sleep walking. generates dreaming from REM sleep. Also relays info from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. sleep, swallowing bladder control.
acts as a bridge between the cerebellum and other stuctures
a brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
Structure that relays info from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain (Pons=bridge)
Relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain, controls arousal & wakefulness, stops motor behavior during dreams.
hindbrain. Controls balance/automatic motor behavior.
controls motor skills
a large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills
Large structure that controls fine motor skills (balance)
Controls motor function, coordination, balance, and some memory
process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light, sound, heat or pressure
process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations
specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to a particular form of sensory stimulation
process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system
point at which a stimulus is strong enough to be detected b/c it activates a sensory receptor is called a threshold
smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half of the time (varies between people)
smallest possible difference b/w 2 stimuli that can be detected 1/2 the time (noticeable difference)
holds that the size of the just noticeable difference will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus (sensation is relative)
detection of stimuli that are below the threshold of conscious awareness; non-conscious perception
a thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
mere exposure effect
finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus increases a person's preference for that stimulus.
Mere Exposure Effect
Tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking
The Mere Exposure Effect
The more we are exposed to something, the more likely we are to like it
mere exposure effect
repeated exposure increases attractiveness
mere exposure effect
the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
mere exposure effect
is the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus ti increase liking
mere exposure effect
repeated exposure to a stimulus increases its attractiveness; familiarity builds attraction
mere exposure effect
*repeated exposure to a stimulus increases its attraction
*familiarity builds affection
decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
- relative to duration of exposure
distance from one wave peak to another
clear membrane covering the visible part of the eye that helps gather and direct incoming light
opening in the middle of the iris that changes size to let in different amounts of light
colored part of the eye, which is the muscle that controls the size of the pupil
white portion of the eye
transparent structure behind the pupil that actively focuses, or bends, light as it enters the eye
process by which lens changes shape to focus incoming light so that it falls on the retina
the process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information
new schema, new info
thin, light-sensitive membrane, located at the back of the eye, that contains the sensory receptors for vision
long, thin, blunt sensory receptors of the eye that are highly sensitive to light, but not to color, & are primarily responsible for peripheral vision and night vision (adapt slowly to change in light amount)
*about 125 million
short, thick, pointed sensory receptors of the eye that detect color & are responsible for color vision & visual acuity (fine details and in bright light)
- adapt quickly to changes in light
*about 7 million
area of retina without rods or cones where optic nerve exits the back of the eye (no photoreceptors, so its a blind spot)
point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, producing a small gap in the field of vision
specialized neurons that connect to the bipolar cells in the retina; bundled -form optic nerve; do preliminary processing in retina
in retina, specialized neurons that connect the rods & cones with the ganglion cells
visual processing in the retina
Has only one dendrite and a single axon
thick nerves that exit from the back of the eye & carries visual info to the visual cortex in the brain
point in the brain where the optic nerve fibers from each eye meet & partly cross over to the opposite side of the brain
perceptual experience of different wavelengths of light, involving hue, saturation (purity), and brightness (intensity)
property of wavelengths of light known as color; different wavelengths correspond to our subjective experience of different colors
property of color that corresponds to the purity of the light wave
- highly saturated = vivid, rich
- less saturated = faded, washed out
perceived intensity of a color, which corresponds to the amplitude of the light wave.
- high amplitude = high degree of brightness
trichromatic theory of color vision
theory that the sensation of color results b/c cones in the retina are especially sensitive to red light, green light, or blue light. (long, med, short wavelengths)
color blindness (trichromatic)
one of several inherited forms of color deficiency or weakness in which an individual cannot distinguish b/w certain colors
the theory that color vision is the product of opposing pairs of color receptors, red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white; one is stimulated, other is inhibited
Opponent Process Theory
Solomon; emotional stimuli elicit primary and secondary processes; secondary process in CNS attempt to maintain homeostasis; over time primary process decreases in strength and secondary process strengthens
Who made the opponent process-theory
-emotional stimuli elicit primary and secondary processes
-riding roller coaster 1st time vs 5th time (see the difference)
visual experience that occurs after the original source of stimulation is no longer present
technical term for the sense of hearing
physical stimuli that produce our sensory experience of sound
the intensity or amplitude of a sound wave. measured in decibels
intensity or amount of energy of a wave, reflected in the height of the wave; amplitude of a sound wave determines loudness
unit of measurement for loudness
larger decibel = louder
relative highness or lowness of a sound, determined by the frequency of a sound wave
the rate of vibration, or the number of sound waves per second (measured in hertz)
distinctive quality of a sound, determined by the complexity of the sound wave
part of the ear that collects sound waves
consists of the pinna, ear canal and eardrum
tightly stretched membrane at the end of the ear canal that vibrates when hit by sound waves
part of the ear that amplifies sound waves;
consists of 3 small bones : hammer, anvil and stirrup (each bone sets the next in motion)
part of the ear where sound is transduced into neural impulses;
consists of the cochlea and semicircular canals
separates the middle ear and the inner ear
the coiled, fluid filled inner-ear structure that contains the basilar membrane and hair cells
membrane within the cochlea of the ear that contains the hair cells
the hair-like sensory receptors for sound, which are embedded in the basilar membrane of the cochlea
bones in middle ear damaged - hearing aide can help
damage to hair cells or auditory nerve
hearing aide CANT help
outermost layer of the brain. responsible for complex perception, emotion, movement, and thought.
outermost part of the brain, split into two hemispheres (right and left)
the outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres
Highest level of the brain
Responsible for most complex aspects of perception, emotion, movement, and thought
left side of brain controls right, right controls left.
axons that link the left and right sides of brain together. largest commisures is corpus callosum.
regulates smooth muscle movement
Parkinson's Disease - damage to the Basil Ganglia
Huntington's Disease - born with disorder, late onset of disease
front of parietal lobes; processes information about body sensations
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sends messages out to the body
the view that the basilar membrane vibrates at the same frequency as the sound wave
- explains low frequency sounds transmitted to brain
view that different frequencies cause larger vibrations at different locations along the basilar membrane
- explains high frequency
frequency and place theories
both involved in explaining our discrimination of pitch
technical name for sense of smell
technical name for sense of taste
lack of ability to smell
enlarged ending of the olfactory cortex at the front of the brain where the sensation of smell is registered
directly link the brain & outside world
chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information & affect the behavior of other animals of the same species (social & sexual status)
activated by the chemicals in food/drink
important receptor converts pressure stimulus into neural messages relayed to brain (unevenly distributed)
the long distance the electric signal goes through within neuron, dendrite, cell body, axon.
unpleasant sensation of physical discomfort or suffering that can occur in varying degrees of intensity
electrical signal from between neurons and synapse
specialized sensory receptors for pain that are found in the skin, muscles & internal organs
fast & slow pain systems
- fast A-delta fibers
- slow C-fibers
neurotransmitter that is involved in the transmission of pain messages to the brain
Neurotransmitter. Voluntary motor skill. attention, learning, memory. serves many function. Alzheimer's, deterioration of Ach, cause it's related to memory.
gate-control theory of pain
theory that pain is a product of both physiological & psychological factors that cause spinal gates to open & relay patterns of intense stimulation to the brain, which perceives them as pain
sense of location and position of body parts in relation to one another
sensory receptors, located in muscles & joints that provide info about body position & movement
sense of balance, or equilibrium
2 sources : semicircular canals & vestibular sacs
-Neurotransmitter whose release is stimulated by nicotine
-heroin/opiates induce release of dopamine
-cocaine binds to the dopamine transporter protein, preventing dopamine reuptake
regulates motor behavior, pleasure, emotional arousal. high level- schizophrenia, low leverls- parkinson;s
Primary role is in motivated behaviors (pleasure). It plays a role in motor behavior, motivation and sexual arousal. Because its relationship to pleasure is a key reason for which people get addicted to things
a neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal
A neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal; low levels associated with schizophrenia & high levels associated with Parkinson's disease.
perception of info by some means other than through normal processes of sensation
scientific investigation of claims of paranormal phenomena & abilities
prevents reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. Agonist
dopamine agonist (increasing activity in that system)
can be addictive
what humans primarily rely on to identify an object
learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior
learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior; REINFORCE BEHAVIOR BY REWARDING BY APPROXIMATION
we automatically separate elements of a perception into feature that stands out (figure) and its background (ground)
mood, sleep , emotion, appetite. elevates mood, helps elevate mood if depressed (prozac-Agonist). blocks reuptake of serotonin.
a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggressive behavior
similarity, closure, good continuation, and proximity
use of visual cues to perceive the distance or 3-D characteristics of objects
Monocular cues (one eye)
1. relative size
3. aerial perspective
4. texture gradient
5. linear perspective
6. motion parallax
2. binocular disparity
uses principle of binocular disparity to create the perception of a 3D image
perception of motion
we assume background is stationary
tendency to perceive objects, especially familiar objects as constant & unchanging despite changes in sensory input
the perception of an object as maintaining the same size despite changing images on the retina
influences moodand arousal. heighten awareness of danger. increase heart rate.
Controls alertness and arousal. Used especially in times of fight or flight.
a neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal
A neurotransmitter that influences mood & arousal involved in vigilance
the perception of a familiar object as maintaining the same shape regardless of the image produced on the retina
the misperception of the true characteristics of an object or an image
slows transmission of information. Inhibitory. too little can cause neurons to overactive. Alcohol
the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
gamma-aminobutyric acid; primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
processing information for the senses of vision, hearing and touch
relays and filters information to the cerebral cortex
a subcortical structure that relays information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex
Relays and filters info from the senses
Transmits info to the cerebral cortex
Are what the myelin sheath is composed of. They are responsible for digestion of dead neurons and provide physical nutrition.
support cells found in the nervous system
provide support/nutrients for neurons
support cells found in the nervous system; the type of cells that make up a myelin sheath.
Describe how messages are passed on to next neuron (The Synaptic Junction)
the intersection between one axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (the junction)
the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another
Nucleus of the cell body
Holds the genetic material of a neuron
Has extensive tree branching of dendrites
Have triangular cell bodies and one long dendrite with smaller dendrites around it
How does the information within and between neurons proceed?
Conduction and transmission
An electrical signal that goes from the dendrites, to the cell body, and then to the axon
The transmission of chemical signals between neurons and synapses
The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neurons cell membrane
positive ions outside axon
negative ions inside axon
the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane
-neuron at rest
- (-70 mv)
-inside cell membrane has a negative charge (filled with K+ and negatively charged A- ions) while Na+ and Cl- ions are outside of the membrane
the charge on the inside of a cell is negative (-70 mV) and is positive on the outside. K+ flow freely
Inside: Na+ low, K+ high, Cl- low, A- high
Outside: Na+ high, K+ low, Cl- high
What concentration of ions are inside the cell during resting potential
High amounts of K+ ions and A- protein ions.
What kind of ions are outside the cell (synaptic junction) during resting potential?
High amounts of Na+ and Cl- ions
What is the net charge for resting potential
It is slightly negative
electrical signal sent by a neuron
an electric signal that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse
Brief change in the electrical charge
Inside becomes positively charged (Depolarized)
-cell membrane becomes temporarily permeable
-brief change in electrical charge
-the cell is depolarized (inside becomes positively charged)
-The Action potential- the neuron fires
-all or non principle
What causes an action potential?
An all or nothing electric stimulation of the neuron shuts down the K+ channels & opens the Na+ channels, allowing Na+ to rush in and increase the positive charge inside the axon relative to the outside triggering the action potential.
How does the action potential get initiated?
A positive charge is created inside the axon by closing the potassium channels and opening the sodium channels
How is the action potential reversed?
A chemical pump shoots out the NA+ ions and brings in the K+ ions
Why is an action potential an all-or-nothing event?
If a stimulation is below the thresh hold of an action potential it will not go off and if it goes above (no matter how above it goes) the same action potential will be obtained
The time in which another action potential cannot occur because to many K+ are outside the axon and to many NA+ are inside the axon
the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
Nodes of Ranvier
-Spaces between Schwann cells on axon
-Action potential jumps from node to node
Form of conduction that is characteristic of myelinated axons, in which the action potential jumps from one node of ranvier to the next
What is the process of chemical signaling?
Draw it out
Activates muscles to initiates motor behaviors. It also is involved in learning, memory and sleeping.
Too little: Alzheimer disease
Too much: depression
a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control
involved in many functions such as voluntary motor control; also contributes to the regulation of attention, learning, sleeping, dreaming, and memory.
Excitatory neurotransmitter: stimulates the messages of the brain. To much can cause seizures! It is used to stimulate an action potential.
a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain
The primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Is the exact opposite of Glutamate, it is a inhibitory neurotransmitter. Plays a role in inhibiting action potentials.