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Down syndrome most commonly results from_____
A failure of the twenty-first pair ofchromosomes to separate during meiosis.
Mr. and Mrs. Hopewell are concerned because they have been trying to have a baby for over a year. Which of the following procedures would you recommend to them?
The United States is strongly _______________, whereas most Western European countries lean toward _____________.
Development is best understood as
To detect problems before birth, doctors use
50. By the _________ week of pregnancy, Monica will be able to learn the sex of her fetus.
At 16 months, Brynn is in Piaget’s ___________ stage of cognitive development.
During __________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.
Two-year-old Laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura’s modification of her dropping scheme is an example of
__________ is one of the few health conditions that increase with socioeconomic status.
Which of the following is true about middle-ear infections in middle childhood?
During middle childhood, the eustachian tube becomes longer, narrower, and more slanted, resulting in less frequent middle-ear infections.
A BMI above the ______ percentile for a child’s age and sex is considered overweight; a BMI above the _______ percentile is considered obese.
Obese children tend to
Ten-year-old Nadia enjoys making up games and playing them with her friends. Playing these child-invented games probably allows Nadia to
Piaget regarded __________ as an important achievement of the concrete operational stage because it provides clear evidence of __________.
When Taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over. Which memory strategy did Taylor use?
When Mike had to learn the state capitals, he grouped the states by region to assist his memory. Which memory strategy did Mike use?
Research on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicates that
Quinn knows that he should group items when memorizing lists, but he does not always do so. Quinn is not yet good at
By adolescence, _________ is a strong predictor of academic success.
Research on reading proficiency in middle childhood shows that improvements in __________ releases working memory for higher-level activities.
Most reading experts believe that
Which of the following contributes to the superiority of Chinese over U.S. children’s math knowledge?
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition,
In Sternberg’s triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing
A major shortcoming of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is that
Adoption studies reveal that
School-age children’s attitude toward language undergoes a fundamental shift when they
During the elementary school years, on average, children learn about ________ new words each day.
Studies suggest that the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act
During the school years, children refine their __________, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.
Beginning in middle childhood, children’s self-descriptions start to emphasize
Sociologist George Herbert Mead proposed that a ___________ emerges when children adopt a view of the self that resembles others’ attitudes toward the child.
As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in
Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?
During childhood and adolescence, perceived __________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor.
Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make _________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.
When Tyler receives a high test grade, he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade, he attributes it to not being smart. Tyler has developed
Attribution research shows that
Marlena is enrolled in an intervention program that encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. This approach is known as
Amelia is pushed by an impatient student while waiting in line at the water fountain. As a fifth grader, Amelia is likely to respond by
Andrew has well-developed emotional self-regulation. He feels that he is in control of his emotional experiences. Andrew has acquired
Children and adults with _______ are more likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices.
When classmates are asked to rate each other’s likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.
Rejected-aggressive children are
Which of the following is true about gender typicality?
Mr. and Mrs. Pribesh have begun to change how they supervise their son. While they exercise general oversight, they now allow him to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. The Pribeshes are engaging in
Effective coregulation is based on a(n)
Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to
Research on the long-term consequences of divorce indicates that
Jennifer and Joel’s children reside with Joel and see Jennifer on a fixed schedule. Both parents have an equal say in important decisions about their children’s upbringing. Which type of custodial arrangement do they have?
Research shows that maternal employment
Part-time maternal employment and flexible work schedules are associated with
Children in Western nations mention ___________ as the most common source of their fears.
Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliott’s parents?
Research on child sexual abuse indicates that
Goran is a child victim of war. Research shows that Goran is likely to experience
The best way to reduce the emotional trauma of child sexual abuse is to
Wayne believes that teenagers are naturally rebellious and full of rage because of the biological changes of puberty. Wayne’s beliefs are consistent with the theory that
The _________ is believed to be responsible for the female advantage in average life expectancy.
**Improved nutrition, medical treatment, and sanitation all help account for the dramatic increase in _________ in the twentieth century.
Ray’s actual competence and performance in dealing with life’s challenges indicate his __________ age.
*Quality of life in old age can be predicted by estimating
The _______ lobes of the brain show greater shrinkage during aging.
**The leading cause of blindness among older adults is
Although hearing loss has less impact on self-care than vision loss, it affects
A reduction in the sense of touch primarily affects the
Which of the following is an indicator of survival over the next two years in a very old person?
___________ affect(s) nearly half of older adults at least a few nights per month.
Which of the following aspects of aging is linked to longevity?
Because he has mobility problems, Mr. Dow has a phone that can be dialed and answered by voice commands. This is an example of
Mrs. Nguyen agrees with the following statement: “As I get older, things are better than I thought they’d be.” Mrs. Nguyen’s self-perception
The public health goal of reducing the average period of diminished vigor before death as life expectancy extends is called
Karl, age 78, takes a daily vitamin-mineral supplement. This could result in
Sedentary healthy older adults up to age 80 who begin endurance training
The only leading cause of death that is more prevalent among women is
Mr. Embrel has a blood clot blocking a blood vessel. This is known as
Mr. Tenney has difficulty breathing caused by an extreme loss of elasticity in lung tissue. This is known as
**Which of these is an example of primary aging?
____________ profoundly interferes with everyday competence and leaves an older adult highly vulnerable in the face of an infection, extremely hot or cold weather, or an injury.
**____________ is associated with more rapid cognitive declines in the elderly and an elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
**A form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is
The earliest symptom(s) of Alzheimer’s disease is/are generally
The brain of a person with Alzheimer’s disease is likely to
Michael and Franklin moved into a homelike housing arrangement for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home. This is an example of
Which elder is most likely to enter a nursing home?
____________ memory shows the smallest decline as people age.
Which of the following is true about age-related losses in language production?
Earl has broad practical knowledge, emotional maturity, and the ability to apply his knowledge to make life more worthwhile. Earl is demonstrating
Researchers have described wisdom as
Which of the following is true about Elderhostel, Routes to Learning, and the University of the Third Age?
Mr. Suko is 80 years old. He is argumentative, bitter, and regretful. He has a tendency to blame others for his personal failures. According to Erikson, Mr. Suko’s behavior disguises
According to Erikson, despair occurs
when elders feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.
While 80-year-old Naomi’s contemporaries have died, she faces the reality of death constructively through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful, and gratifying for younger generations. According to Peck, Naomi has attained
Sharon often draws on the past for effective problem-solving strategies and for teaching younger people. Sharon uses __________ reminiscence.
Jim retired from his job at the age of 65. The next year, Jim created a network of volunteers who provide child-care services for economically deprived families. Jim has reached a new phase of adulthood called the _______ Age, which is a time of personal fulfillment.
U.S. elders generally become more religious or spiritual as they age.
Involvement in both organized and informal religious activities is especially high among ____________ elders.
August stops by his mother April’s house every day. If April has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then August withdraws and attends to other jobs. August’s behavior toward April illustrates the
Harriet can handle dressing, shopping, and food preparation by herself. However, Harriet allows her daughter Ada to assist with these activities, leaving Harriet more stamina for gardening. Harriet is managing her aging by
Joy is a senior with limited mobility. Which of the following is more likely to be associated with her positive outlook
her perceived social support from friends and family
According to __________ theory, when society arranges conditions that permit elders to remain engaged in roles and relationships, life satisfaction is improved and social interactions increase.
For older adults with shrinking longevity, social connectedness and gratifying relationships
_____ percent of older adults in the United States relocate to other communities.
The primary reason why more elders in Western countries live on their own today than ever before is
Harry lives in a complex that provides a variety of support services, including meals in a common dining room, along with watchful oversight of residents with physical and mental disabilities. Harry lives in
The elder living arrangement with the most extreme restriction on autonomy is
Couples who divorce in late adulthood constitute ________ percent of all divorces in any given year.
Mr. Dugan belongs to a senior lunch club. The other members of the club, while not intimates, are Mr. Dugan’s
Most elders describe their role as great-grandparent as
The trend toward early retirement may soon reverse because
Many U.S. retirees experience a(n)
For most contemporary elders, retirement
**Mrs. Gandarilla recently experienced the death of her husband. Mrs. Gandarilla experienced
Approval rates for voluntary active euthanasia tend to be higher in
Dr. Summers helps terminally ill patients take their own lives by offering a lethal dose of drugs. Dr. Summers practices
**In line with Kübler-Ross’s observations, research confirms that
Mr. Kominski is in the final days before death. He withdraws into himself for long periods of time. According to Kübler-Ross, Mr. Kominski is experiencing which typical response to the prospect of dying?
Mr. Fiocanni is terminally ill. According to Kübler-Ross, Mr. Fiocanni may experience which typical response to the prospect of death after the other responses fail to postpone the illness?
**According to Kübler-Ross, Mrs. Buffay’s consultation of multiple specialists after her initial diagnosis of a terminal illness is consistent with which typical response to the prospect of death?
Which of the following people will likely experience little or no death anxiety?
Walter states that the thought of never feeling anything again after he dies upsets him. Walter is experiencing
Twelve-year-old Orlando wants to talk to someone about death. Research shows that he probably wants to talk to his
Three-year-old Tristan finds a dead fish on the beach. Although he says that the fish is dead, he asks, “When is the fish going to get up and swim?” Tristan is having trouble understanding the death concept of
An important service doctors and other medical professionals can provide to dying people is
For the purpose of organ donation, what is the standard of death in the United States?
irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem
Mr. Bigelow is in the final stage of cancer. During the first moments in which the regular heartbeat disintegrates, he gasps and has muscle spasms. Mr. Bigelow is experiencing