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o Make observations then accurately report to others
o Search for discovery and verification of ideas about the world
o Open exchange and competition among ideas
o Peer review of research
Limitations of intuition
*Intuition relies unquestioningly on personal judgment
*Involves cognitive and motivation biases
Involves cognitive and motivation biases
Erroneous conclusions about cause and effect
o Ex: Illusory correlation
o News media, books, government officials
o Religious figures, political pundits
They ALL might not have our best interest in mind
*Doesn’t accept intuition – even their own*Ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic
o Knowledge based on observation
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment
Study of the phenomenon of obedience to an authority figure
tentative statement that something may be true.
systematic body of ideas that
Organize & explain facts or descriptions about behavior
Generate new knowledge by focusing out thinking so that we notice new behavior
Can be modified by new research
If studies provide support for the hypothesis, the theory is proven.
The 3 Principlesof the Belmont Report
The need for research to maximize benefits & minimize risk of participant
· Respect for persons
· Participants are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research
· Informed consent
What are some potential risks in psychological research?
What are some potential benefits in psychological research?
*Focuses on specific behaviors that can be easily quantified
*Assigns numerical values to responses & measure *Uses large samples
*Conclusions are based on the statistical analysis of data
*Small groups & limited setting
*Describe or capture themes that emerge from the data
*Data are non-numerical & expressed in language and/or images
*Conclusions are based on interpretations drawn by the investigator
o Involves using previously compiled information to answer research questions
Researchers make observations in a natural setting over a period of time, using a variety of techniques to collect information
we have atendency to conclude that there must be a causal relationship when we observe the occurrence of two related events.
Accepting the information in a professor's lecture without question is a reliance on______.
John has decided to purchase several copies of a new children’s book because he has a feeling that the availability of this book will be scarce in the future. Which of the following best explains John’s behavior?
provides an objective set of rules for gathering, evaluating, and reporting information.
Which one of the following is NOT true of the scientific approach?
Anything reported by a scientist should be assumed to be accurate.
knowledge be based on observations.
allows publication of only those findings with which other researchers agree.
Which of the following characteristics is true of pseudoscience? The
claims arestated in scientific-sounding terminology and ideas.
-Hypothesis generated are not typically testable.
-If scientific tests are reported, methodology is not scientific & validity of data is questionable.
-Supportive evidence is anecdotal & doesn' t cite scientific references.
-Claims ignore conflicting evidence, & tend to be vague & appear to pre-conceived ideas. Claims are never revised.
The science of psychology strives to ________behavior.
Which of the following is not a goal of science?
Convincingothers that research findings are accurate
Plants that are played music will grow more than plants that are not played music.
Differences in assigned guilt ratings between attractive and unattractive defendants is due toa physical attractiveness stereotype.
In determining the cause of behavior, the principle of _____ considers that when the cause is present, the effect occurs; but, when the cause is not present,the effect does not occur.
covariation of cause and effect
it is important to know the cause of behavior if we want to change a behavior.
A researcher makes the statement, "Breed of dog and ability to learn guide dog skills are related." This statement is called a
A researcher designs a study to examine the relationship between gender & time spent
talking in a group. The researcher states, "In a balanced mixed gender group, males will talk more than females." This is an example of a
“Female defendants will receive shorter prison sentences than male defendants.”
When an interesting discovery, such as Pavlov’s phenomenon of classical conditioning, is a result of an accident or luck, this finding can be attributed to
A(n)_______ consists of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon.
The scientific meaning of the term “theory” is
In which section of a research article would a reader find a summary of the entire project?
Which one of the following statements would be appropriate for the discussion section of a research report?
The present findings suggest that evaluation of the seriousness of an alcohol-related crash may be influenced by the severity of the injuries received by the victim.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ethical principles in the Belmont Report?
describe in detail a particular setting orsituation.
studying well-defined hypotheses underprecisely specified conditions.
Attempts to answer fundamental questions
about the nature of behavior
- Theoretical issues often concern basic
phenomena, such as cognition, emotion,
motivation, learning, psychobiology,
personality development, & social behavior
Conducted to address issues in which there are practical problems & potential solutions
-Neither is considered superior to the other
-Applied research is often guided by theories & findings of basic research
-Findings in applied settings often require modification of existing theories & spur more basic research
-Basic research is crucial to public policy
Darley & Latane
What are the three basis ways of describing results ?
-compare group %
-compare group means
-correlate scores of indivs on 2 vars
A teacher write the results of a test on the board: 7students receives A’s, 10 Bs, 18 Cs, 4 Ds, and 1F. The grade of C would repesent which measure of central tendency?
A correlation coefficient indicates the ______ &________of the relationshop b/t 2 variables?
A correlation coeff is always used to ?
-describe the strength of the relationship b/t 2 variables
A regression equation is sued to?
A professional BB scot uses the batting aves, one base %,throwing ability, & running speed of amateur bb players to predict their success pro bb players. This strategy would be an ex of using___ as a predictor of likelihood of success,
What is the diff b/t descriptive & interential statistics?Descriptive stats-________, while inferential stats________.
Inferential stats allow us to arrive at conclusions about the _______on the basis of ________data.
The statement that the IV had no effect is called the_____hypothesies.
You must choose a significance test to determine if the mean scores of 2 groups are significantly diff. The appropriate test is:
How does sample size affect determinations of statistical significance? The________the sample, the ______________.
If we say we have a statistically signif reseults, we mean the results are?
According to her statistical analysis, an investigator found that significantly more men than women used spanking to discipline their kids.This investigator would?
A researcher assess the length of prison sentence assigned to a physically attractive or unattractive defenedant the reseaecher believers that attractive defenedants will be assigned shorter prison sentences than unattractive defendants. The research hypoth would be?
Juan wants to test the hypoth that the mean amount of sales dollars will vary b/t Oak, wood, & park malls. The appropriate statistical test would be?
Jenny reports that individs who follow her diet plan losemore weight than individs who follow Richards diet plan. In actuality, there is no difference in weight loss bt those jenny’s vs those on richs plans. Jenny claim illustrates a ________error.
A consumer analyst asks particips to rate the comfort of the ride for 2 brands of all-terrain tires: Trail cushion & Mud Handler. Trail was rated more comfortable w/ a mean of 5.5 than Mud w/ a mean of 4.3. The typle 1 error would be to conclude that the Trail was:
Which signif level would minimize the probability of a typle1 error?
A nonsignif (negative) result may be caused by a?
-low sample size
-weak cautious signif levels
- weak manipulation
-true null hypthoesis
A researcher studied influence of crowdin (low, med,high) on reading among 2 types of kids. ½ of the kids randomly assigned to eachcrowd condition were classified as good & ½ poor on test of verbalfluency(assume = #s of ppl in each condition) In this study, each kid read750 words & was tested on it. This is a ________design? This study includes what? 20 poor comprehenders are tested in the low crowdingcondition. How many ids will participate in experiment?
-a subject variable
Sandra has developed a program designed to increase reading scores. She randomly selects 3 students & has them participatein her program. When she compares the mean score from the students who completed her program to 3 students who didn’t, she finds no signif diffs b/t their mean scores. What is most likely the reason for the non-signifresults?
-2x2repeated measures factorial
-there are 2 diff DVs
-gender as a manipulated variable
-2x2 mixed factorial
-4 conditions: presentation rate-slow
-1 manipulated var: presentation rate
-memory & high/low
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