Outer layer of cells (3 life support systems) a) Amnion-protective covering, cushion and temperature regulator b) Placenta- disc shaped mass of tissue, partial filter. Supplies food and O to the fetus and carries away its waste c) Umbilical cord- anchors placenta to developing organism; is a rope of tissue
Primitive spinal cord, brain
3 equal time periods in 9 month prenatal period
White, cheese-like substance, protects skin from being chapped
White, downy hair, helps vernix stick to the skin
Age of Viability
22-26 weeks of age at which fetus can first survive if born early. 50/50 chance after 24 weeks.
Period of Embryo
Most rapid prenatal changes- groundwork for all body structures, internal organs begun Embryonic disk forms three layers a) ectoderm- NS, skin, sensory organs b) mesoderm- muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, excretory system c) endoderm- digestive system, lungs, glands Time during which there are miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) due to chemical abnormalities, life system not developed well etc.
Period of Fetus
Growth and finishing phase. Growth and trimesters. a) 1-12 weeks b) 13-24 weeks c) 25-38 weeks
Prenatal Environment Influences
a) Nutrition- malnutrition can damage CNS (fewer brain cells, lower brain weight also hurts immune system, liver, pancreas etc) Recommended gain 25-30 pounds
b) Emotional stress- higher miscarry rates, premature birth, respiratory ilnesses With stress, blood moves to the mother's system to support her instead of the baby. Less oxygen and nutrients for the baby
c) Maternal age- greatest success rate for women in their 20s.
Any environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal period
Prevalence of birth defects
5-8% of all births
4 Factors that determine impact of teratogens
a) dose b) time of exposure (there are sensitive periods of growth) c) genetic predisposition d) presence of other teratogens
Prescription and Non-prescription meds
aspirin bad! Be careful of using meds without consulting doctors.
Crack, cocaine, heroine. Leads to motor and brain development problems
Leads to low blood plates, delayed growth. Second hand smoke also bad can lead to respiratory illnesses
All types matter equally. Interferes with brain development. Takes high levels of oxygen to break down alcohol. Leads to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.
x-rays, environmental pollution (mercury or lead)
Measles or HIV/ AIDS can get passed on to offspring
Exposure to toxins lead to poor quality sperm (some can even attack) Later paternal age associated with some birth defects.
Surrounding birth. Changing notion of traditional childbirth past- at home current- in hospitals
Concerns of perinatal trends
Treating natural process like a disease Episiotomies- surgical cuts given to everyone Fetal monitoring inhibits mobility
Red, splotchy, swollen eyes, misshapen heads. ~ 20 inches in length ~7.5 pounds Features have appeal
Used to assess newborn's physical conditions HR, Respiratory effect, muscle tone, color, reflect irritability Given x2 (1 min, 5 min) 7-10 a good score. 4 or lower means survival is in doubt
Inborn, automatic response to a form of stimulation. Organized patterns govern movements. Provide adaptive responses to environ before they can learn about the world.
Survival value, precursors of motor skills, remnants of earlier species, duration, helpful for diagnosing neurological problems
Touch- sensitive to touch and pain at birth. Stimulates physical and emotional development Taste and smell- highly developed taste. Newborns attracted to lactating women Hearing- prefer complex sounds, prepared for languages Vision- least mature sense. Cannot focus eyes
16-18 hours a day. Inconsistent pattern. Takes 4-6 months to stabilize sleep patterns REM (active stimulation for brain) non REM body is quieter
Spend 2-3 hours crying/ day Used to communicate physical needs (comfort, hungry, bored) Basic- starts softly builds up Mad- more intense Pain- high pitched Designed to stimulate strong feelings of arousal Comfort with swaddling, rocking, singing
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