# PSYCH 301 Study Guide (2013-14 Cooper)

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- Iowa State University
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- Psychology 301
- Cooper
- PSYCH 301 Study Guide (2013-14 Cooper)

**Created:**2013-11-20

**Last Modified:**2014-06-13

#### Related Textbooks:

Basic Statistics for Psychology-Identity

-Magnitude

-Equal Intervals

-Absolute Zero

Examples: Fahrenheit temp and Celsius temp

example: basketball rankings, class rankings

No arithmetic operations are meaningful.

true scores will not..

measurement error will not..

..correlate with measurement error

..correlate with measurement error

2. ethical skepticism

3. utilitarian (cost/benefit)

2. right and welfare of participant will not be affected

3. not reasonably possible to obtain informed consent w/o ruining the study

DABC

CDAB

BCDA

2. Manipulation is unethical

used to determine the relationship between variables when:

1. Manipulating the variables would be difficult or impossible.

2. Manipulating the variables would be unethical.2. Researcher manipulates IV

A research technique which satisfies the following criteria:

1. Random assignment

2. Researcher manipulates the independent variable

Examples: annual income, hours of sleep for all people

Occur when the participant changes his or her behavior because he or she identifies the manipulations in the study.

1. Identity: occurs when different entities receive different scores

2. Magnitude: occurs when the ordering of the values reflects the ordering of the trait being measured

3. Equal Intervals: occurs when a difference of 1 on the scale means the same amount everywhere on the scale

4. Absolute Zero: occurs when a score of 0 indicates complete absence of the trait being measured

Examples: height (within sex), IQ scores

between sub design comparing means, 1 IV, 2 levels

finding no effect of the IV on the DV but when in reality a effect exists

Unlike experiments, the correlational approach does not allow a researcher to determine whether there is a causal relationship.

-As such, there must be at least some hypothetical facts that would prove the theory false.

-it must always be possible to prove a scientific theory false.

SUM: (x-meanx)^{2}

^{}

Research designs in which each subject is assigned to one level of the independent variable.

Research designs in which subjects receives all independent variable levels

Few extreme low scores

-Fewer subjects; same number of observations

-Greater statistical power

*preferred over between subjects design

Therefore, p is not true"

Both valid and useful to science because it can be used to prove theories false

Q is not True

Therefore, P is not true.

-Both valid and useful in science. Science works by using it to prove other theories false.

Both valid and useful to science.

Science works by using modus tollens to prove theories false.

usually set to .05

Therefore, p is true.

Invalid form of argument

Therefore, p is true"

Invalid form of argument because a correct prediction does not prove the theory to be true (it is logically impossible to prove a theory true)

Q is true

Therefore, P is true

-invalid form of logic because it is logically impossible to prove that a theory is true.

Affirming the consequent is an invalid form of argument. Because it is invalid, this means it is logically impossible to prove that a theory is true.

However, if a theory makes a prediction, and the prediction is true, then it increases our belief in the theory a little bit.

Therefore, q is true"

Valid form of argument but not useful to science because it assumes theory is true

P is true

Therefore, Q is true.

-if the first two statements are true. then the conclusion must be true.

- it is a valid argument but not useful to science because it assumes that the theory is true.

Modus ponens is a valid argument, but is not useful to science because it assumes the theory is true.

occurs when different entities receive different scores.

this occurs when the ordering of values on the scale represents the ordering of the trait being measured

2. Confounds – a nuisance variable that varies non-randomly with the IV

Confounds can produce both type 1 and 2 errors.

Confounds can produce both type 1 and 2 errors.

Ex. Vitamin C on math scores 340, 678, 932