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-Identity
-Magnitude
-Equal Intervals
-Absolute Zero
used to determine the relationship between variables when:
1. Manipulating the variables would be difficult or impossible.
2. Manipulating the variables would be unethical.A research technique which satisfies the following criteria:
1. Random assignment
2. Researcher manipulates the independent variable
Occur when the participant changes his or her behavior because he or she identifies the manipulations in the study.
1. Identity: occurs when different entities receive different scores
2. Magnitude: occurs when the ordering of the values reflects the ordering of the trait being measured
3. Equal Intervals: occurs when a difference of 1 on the scale means the same amount everywhere on the scale
4. Absolute Zero: occurs when a score of 0 indicates complete absence of the trait being measured
between sub design comparing means, 1 IV, 2 levels
SUM: (x-meanx)^{2}
^{}
Research designs in which each subject is assigned to one level of the independent variable.
Research designs in which subjects receives all independent variable levels
Few extreme low scores
-Fewer subjects; same number of observations
-Greater statistical power
occurs when different entities receive different scores.
this occurs when the ordering of values on the scale represents the ordering of the trait being measured