used to determine the relationship between variables when:
1. Manipulating the variables would be difficult or impossible.2. Manipulating the variables would be unethical.
A research technique which satisfies the following criteria:
1. Random assignment
2. Researcher manipulates the independent variable
Occur when the participant changes his or her behavior because he or she identifies the manipulations in the study.
1. Identity: occurs when different entities receive different scores
2. Magnitude: occurs when the ordering of the values reflects the ordering of the trait being measured
3. Equal Intervals: occurs when a difference of 1 on the scale means the same amount everywhere on the scale
4. Absolute Zero: occurs when a score of 0 indicates complete absence of the trait being measured
between sub design comparing means, 1 IV, 2 levels
Research designs in which each subject is assigned to one level of the independent variable.
Research designs in which subjects receives all independent variable levels
Few extreme low scores
-Fewer subjects; same number of observations
-Greater statistical power
occurs when different entities receive different scores.
this occurs when the ordering of values on the scale represents the ordering of the trait being measured
Correlation between IV levels (within only)
Variability in DV
-IV levels maximizing the effect size
-Lowering variability in the DV
-Increase sample size
the logic of experimentation breaks down if you have a confound because it could either be the confound or the IV responsible for the change in the DV
Mean is more affected by extreme scores
Method of counterbalancing. Assigns treatment orders in grid. (solves practice effects)
occurs when the effect of one independent variable depends on another, inferential stats, when graphed lines touch or are not paralell.
statistic used to indicate strength and direction (+, -) of linear relationship between two variables (measured on interval or ration scale)
as one variable increases, then the other variable also tends to increase. or as one decreases the other also tends to decrease
Proportion of variance accounted for formula
r2 = pvaf
a description of the behavior or abilities of a single casually exceptional individual
Best used to generate hypotheses testable by other methods
Experimental Single Subject Design
designs wher ethe affect of the IV on the DV is examined using one subject
occurs whenthere is a floor or ceiling effect on one of the variable in a correlation
1. Likely chance of Type I and Type II errors
2. Placebo effects are likely
4. Generalization difficulties
Each time period, a different treatment is chosen at random and the behavior being treated is measured. Each treatment is given to the subjects multiple times and the treatment with the best average effects on the behavior is deemed the best treatment
LOOK FOR: several treatments for one behavior