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Expectation about how a behavior operates.
Body of research that describes and explains a wide array behaviors.
Ex: Airplane: Accounts for broad, abstract component of behaviors. General principles of flight.
Never automatically accept the truth if any scientific description, because no one knows how the nature works and any description of a behavior might also be incorrect or and error.
No one already knows how a behavior operates, what factors are that influence it, or what the one correct way to study it is.
Every event can be understood as a sequence of natural causes and effects.
Any conclusions is not a "fact."
The test can potentially show that the hypothesis is incorrect. it.
Can it be possibly proved false?
Are its terms clearly defined?
Possible to devise a test of a hypothesis.
-Can a test be designed for it?
The researcher actively changes or manipulates over variable and measures the participants resulting behavior by measuring another variable.
Participants can be randomly assigned.
Produces conditions to which participants cannot be randomly assigned.
The ability of the statistical test to find an association if one is present.
Powerful tool for producing balanced, representative samples in each condition.
Condition a participant experiences is determined in a random manner.
Ex: "Channel changing is caused by the boring content or commercials"
Ex: "Channel changing occurs more frequently when someone is watching television alone than other people are present"
Description that, by analogy, explains related behaviors.
A set of rules consisting of certain assumptions, attitudes, goals, and procedures for certification and answering questions about nature.
What provides the most convincing evidence, because instead of relying on opinions or intuitions.
Behavior is solely influence by natural causes and does not depend on choice to "free will."
Identifiable, natural causes for every behavior.
Ex: You cannot walk off a cliff and "will" yourself not to fall, because the law of gravity forces you to fall
Suggest that our actions follow some universal plan that is already laid out for us.
Regardless of how complicated nature may appear or how confused we currently are about some aspect of nature, we expect to understand it eventually.
Lawful, determined, and understandable.
To be studied scientifically, and behavior must be assumed.
Leaving your biases and preconceptions behind. Look in all directions, at all possible explanations, when trying to understand a behavior.
Research should not harm each other.
Specific, manner in which the study is set up and conducted.
A design includes the specific situation or sequence of situations under which participants are studied, the way their behavior is examined.
All information is based on observation.
Ex: Observing channel changing.
Observation must be free from bias.
Measurements of a behavior we obtain a score for each participant.
Ex: Counting the number to times someone changes channels during a specified time period results in objective.
Observations are made in a step-by-step fashion.
Eliminating any extraneous that might influence a behavior or confusion. (Scientific Method)
Learn to manipulate the factors needed to produce or modify or eliminate a behavior. (Psychological research)
Ex: While observing whether more boring commercials produce more channels changing, we would try to control how boring the television program is, so that this factor would not influence channel changing.
Empirical, Objective, Systematic, Controlled
Acceptable scientific evidence that's obtained is what?
Learn the causes that determine when and why a behavior occurs.
A statement that explains an event simply be renaming it.
Ex: Caused by motivation to see what is on the other channels--really just another way of saying that people change channels because they want to change channels.
Behavior of knowing when it will occur or what it will bring it about.
How we will see the behavior manifested in the research situation, describing the specific results that we expect in our study.
Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control
To completely understand a behavior, researchers strive to what?
Ex: Studying channel changing simply, because it it interesting and adds to our understanding of behavior in general.
To meet goals of describing and predicting behavior. Characteristics or the situation in which it occurs and allows us to predict when it occurs.
What relies on the scientific method, because it is the best approach for eliminating bias and opinion, for reaching a consensus about how a behavior truly operates and for correcting errors.
Ex: We would specify how frequently channels are changed, weather they are changed during all commercials, weather they are changed at all times of the day and so on.
Learn what a behavior entails and the situation in which it occurs.
Ex: What aspects of the commercial, either present or absent, what causes channel changing and why.
Ex: When channel changing will and will not occur, the amount or degree of the behavior to expect from a particular person, or when and how the behavior will change as a person's physiological, cognitive, social, or environment condition change.
Ex: We want to know how to alter the situation to produce, increase, decrease, or eliminate the behavior.
Ex: The companies that pay for television commercials might conduct WHAT research into channel changing during their commercials so that they can eliminate the resulting problem of wasted advertising money.
Solve an existing problem.
Fits what is already known about the laws of behavior.
-Does it fit with the known information?
Testable and Falsifiable
Ex: We can devise a study to test the channel-changing and we might find evidence indicating they are incorrect.
Precise and Rational
Boring commercial causing channel changing fits with what we already know about behavior and if shown to be correct, will mesh easily with existing knowledge.
Hypothesis that is as simple as possible.
-Does it involve the simplest possible approach?
Two or more procedures that together eliminate competing hypothesis and bolster or conclusions about a particular behavior.
The process of repeatedly conducting studies that test and confirm a hypothesis so that develop confidence in its truth.
Ex: Nature is lawful, it is also consistent.
Literal replication (direct)
Duplication of a previous study.
Conceptual replication (indirect)
Researchers provides additional confirmation of a hypothesis, but does so while measuring the behavior in a different way, examining different types of participants, or using a different design.
Contains research results, terminology, definitions, hypotheses and theories.
Ex: American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society or the Psychonomic Society.
A monthly publication that describes studies recently published in other psychology journals.
Surveys and summarizes a large body of published literature dealing with a particular topic.
A specific group you want to draw a conclusion about.
Ex: College students, senior citizens, young children, etc.
A small subset of the population that is actually studied.
The characteristics and behaviors of individuals in the population.
Simple random sampling
Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
Simple random sampling
Selecting participants so that all members of the population have an equal chance if being selected.
Systematic random sampling
Selecting every nth person from the population.
Abstract term used to summarize and describe behaviors.
Any measurable aspect of a behavior/influence on a behavior that may change.
What are two types of research?
Basic and Applied
Method use to measure variables.
Participants variables we will use to select them.
When a change in one variable is accompanied by a consistent change in another variable.
No two individuals are identical.
Strength of a relationship
A degree consistent associated between the scores on the two variables.
What are 2 reasons that a relationship is not perfectly consistent/weaker relationships?
1. distracting noise while participant rehearsing.
2. individual differences
To apply conclusions to other individuals or situations.
APA ("APA style" or "APA format")
It flows from the general to the specific and back to the general is the organization that psychologist use when publishing research reports in the psychological literature.
A variable that is manipulated to cause a change in a behavior.
Ex: of independent variable
A specific amount or category of the independent variable.
We observe behaviors participants, relationships and situations.
All descriptive design are what?
Participants scores on at least two variables, asking whether a relationship can be found.
The section of what you learned from your literature search.
This section is where you report with very specific details what you did in your study.
Participants in terms of the characteristics we require for them to participate in the study.
Selection criteria Ex:
Deciding gender, age, educational level, and physical requirements of participants.
The ones we aren't aware of that could be influencing the variance in our outcome or dependent variable.
What an important concept that relates to the ability of a study to actually answer the research question being asked?
Ex: dependent variable
Measuring participants' scores.
Designs in which different individuals are assigned to different conditions of the independent variable.
Each participant experiences multiple conditions of the independent variable.
A different group of participants is randomly selected for each condition of an independent variable.
When it is appropriate to use between-subjects design?
To compare one group of participants in one condition to an entirely different batch of participants in another condition.
Ex: To compare one group of participants in one condition to an entirely different batch of participants in another condition.
The results accurately generalize to this population.
Relationship found in a study generalizes to other individuals and situations.
Stands for the number of participants in a study.
Stands for the number of participants observed in the condition.
What are most accurate, and often much easier to perform with (ns)?
A bias that occurs when participants are knowledgeable about research.
Participants are knowledgeable about the research.
Used to help you gain control over undesired behaviors or to help you cope better with anxiety or pain.
Unreasonably hostile feelings oropinions about a social group;prejudice:
Relationship found in a study reflects only the relationship between the variable of interest.
Used to identify participants who meet the selection criteria.
A variable means that we combine scores from the different amounts or categories of that variable.
Involves changing a variable within conditions, so there may be greater variability in the scores within each condition.
Each participant in one condition matches a participant in the other conditions on one or more participant variable.
To control the participant variable of memory ability, we could create 2 samples containing participants who have matching memory abilities.
What prevents confounding and minimizes error variance, but at the cost of reduced external validity
Limiting the population
Limiting the population Ex:
We expect males & females to differ greatly in how hypnosis influence their memory, we might do what? to males only or to females only.
Regardless of the number of trails per condition, we observe the same participants under all conditions to control participants variables.
Participants are measured on the dependent variable before they experience the condition of my the independent variable.
Participants continue to have experiences that can change them and influence their responses.
Subject history Ex:
Changes due to participants' external experiences.
Individual grows older and more mature, he or she changes in ways that influence responses.
Subject maturation Ex:
Changes due to their internal development and growth.
The loss of participants because their participation dies out before the study is completed.
Participants are tested using only some of the possible orders of conditions or trails.
Different participants are tested with different orders so that all possible orders of conditions or trails are present
Different participants are tested using different random orders conditions or trails.
Nonsymmetrical carry-over effects
Occur when the carry-over effects from one order of conditions do not balance out those of another order.
Differences between the individual who participate in a study and those who do not.
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