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Which of the following is a conditioned reinforcer?
Which of the following would most likely be used in a discrete trial procedure?
running down a runway to gain access to food
Behavior changes due to learning
must be enduring and due to interaction with the environment.
Which of the following is the simplest form of elicited behavior?
What is the correct pathway of the neural signal in a reflex arc?
afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron
Of the following, which is not a reflexive behavior?
maintaining attention when driving
Which of the following is true regarding any given modal action pattern?
involves species-specific responses
A relatively complex pattern will be presented to the infants, hopefully eliciting visual attention. What do you predict will happen with repeated presentations of the complex visual stimulus?
The infants will increase, then decrease, responding.
Which of the following is a true statement about habituation?
decreases responsiveness to a stimulus with repeated
A loud tone is repeatedly presented to a group of rats. Initially, there is a large startle response that decreases across trials. The response decrease across trials may be due to
c. sensory adaptation.
*d. All of the above
According to Groves and Thompson (1970), which of the following is true?
Habituation and sensitization processes occur in different parts of the nervous system.
According to the dual-process theory, each presentation of a given stimulus activates
the S-R system
After you habituate to the sound of one clock’s chime, you may not respond to the chime of another clock. This is due to
Applying a shock to the tail of the Aplysia
increases responding to stimulation of both the siphon and mantle
A hungry rat is exposed to a red light, followed by brief access to food. After several such trials, the rat approaches the light bulb when it is illuminated. In this example, the light is
a conditional stimulus
While pressing the lever at a steady rate, the rat is presented with a tone-light stimulus that had been previously paired with foot-shock. When the tone-light stimulus is on, the rat decreases its rate of lever pressing. This decrease is an example of
The suppression ratio equals ________.
CS responding / (CS responding + pre-CS responding)
The greatest amount of fear is indicated by a suppression ratio of ________.
No fear is indicated by a suppression ratio of ________.
In order for food to be presented in an autoshaping procedure, the pigeon must do which of the following?
There are no requirements for the pigeon.
Taste aversion learning can occur under which of the following circumstances?
after just one CS-US pairing
The interstimulus interval refers to which of the following time periods?
between the start of the CS and the start of the US
A rat is exposed to a three-second red-light stimulus. A short while later, a food pellet is delivered to the rat. This is an example of
Which of the following best describes backward conditioning?
The CS follows the US.
Which of the following best describes the “trace interval” in trace conditioning?
the time between the end of the CS and the start of the US
A buzzer sounds every time food is made available for a pigeon. The buzzer starts when food is in the hopper, and stops when food is removed. The food is available for 3 minutes. This is an example of
The difficulty in investigating inhibitory conditioning of rabbit eyeblink responses is that
there are low baseline levels of eyeblinking in rabbits
Which of the following is not a result of Pavlovian sexual conditioning in males?
more reproductive frustration
A rat is given 20 exposures to a red light cue. Then, the red light is presented paired with food delivery. Compared to a rat that did not receive the initial 20 exposures, this rat took a long time to develop a CR to the red light. The slower learning is due to
the latent-inhibition effect.
Which of the following is a function of preexposure to the CS or the US?
retards later associative learning
Increasing CS or US intensity has which of the following effects?
speeds associative learning and makes the final level of conditioned responding greater
Higher-order conditioning demonstrates which of the following?
After training, a CS can function as a US.
The blocking effect demonstrates which of the following?
that CS-US pairings are insufficient for associative learning
According to Kamin, the blocking effect occurs because of which choice below?
Stimulus A predicts the US, and the subject is not surprised by the arrival of the US in later trials.
Each of two stimuli fully predicts the presentation of a food pellet when presented alone. When the two stimuli are presented together followed by a food pellet, the associative value
of both stimuli decreases.
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, inhibition is which of the following?
the opposite of excitation
Which model suggests that whether conditioned responding reflects excitation or inhibition depends on the excitatory value of the CS and the excitatory value of contextual cues present during training?
the comparator hypothesis
The comparator hypothesis predicts that the best means of extinguishing inhibitory responding is to
present the CS+ alone
The cats in Thorndike’s puzzle boxes were able to escape more quickly over successive trials. Thorndike interpreted this performance change to reflect
According to the law of effect, which of the following elements is not a component of the conditioned association?
When shaping the behavior of an organism, you must
set each criterion so that at least some of the existing
The major advantage of free-operant methods over discrete trial procedures is that
free operant methods provide the opportunity to observe changes in the likelihood of behavior over time.
A positive contingency between a response and an appetitive stimulus is also known as
A positive contingency between a response and an aversive stimulus is also known as
A negative contingency between a response and an aversive stimulus is also known as
A negative contingency between a response and an appetitive stimulus is also known as
The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
punishment decreases the target response, while negative reinforcement increases the target response.
According to the text, an unpleasant outcome is technically termed which of the following?
Which of the following is true of the nature of the instrumental reinforcer in conditioning procedures?
Both the quality and quantity of the reinforcer are important
According to Skinner, superstitious behavior is due to
Which of the following is thought in part to have helplessness as a mechanism of its development?
For 30 ten-minute trials, a rat received a food pellet every other lever press. This rat was on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
If a ratio requirement is increased from an FR 100 schedule to an FR 500 schedule, the subject will often pause periodically before completion of the ratio requirement. These pauses are due to
the ratio strain
Which of the following describes behavior reinforced on a fixed interval schedule?
checking the refrigerator to see if the jelly is done
A cumulative recorder marks a scalloped pattern of responding when subjects are on a
fixed interval schedule
Your friend is taking a class with exams scheduled every three weeks. You expect that he will study
very little following an exam but with increasing rates at the end of the three weeks.
Learning ultimately has to be measured by
changes in behavior or the product of behaviors
Because learning cannot always be seen immediately, the definition of learning also includes
potential to engange in a particular behavior
Performance could be measured by all of the following except
individual's subjective report of what she thinks she can do.
The big disadvantage of naturalistic observation is
the inability to rule out experimental confounds
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment is the
An experiment has two groups of rodents. Group A receives reinforcement (food) for every 20 presses of a lever. Group B receives reinforcement for every 40 presses of a lever. The researcher is interested in the rate of responding (pressing the lever). The independent variable is
the frequency of reinforcement as a function of the number of lever presses.
Research that compares different groups of animals is referred to as
between group designs or research
Slot machines work because
reinforcement is provided on a variable ratio schedule
_____________ behavior is simply the process of the experimenter (or animal trainer) reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior.
Bees and other social insects display highly complicated behavioral sequences to convey information to other members of their species. This behavior appears to be
hard wired by biology
Compared to birds and insects, the best description of human behavior is
human behavior is more flexible
When an organism's response to a repeated stimulus decreases with repeated presentations of the stimulus we call the process _____________.
According to the Dual Process Theory, if H exceeds S then you will observe ________________.
a decrease in the intensity or frequency of the behavior
moves towards the lever and even presses it when you sit down. Within the classical conditioning paradigm, your sitting down is functioning as
Why would Skinner argue that the example used in Item 17 is not an example of classical conditioning?
because the response involved striated muscles and skeletal movemen
Classical conditioning works best when
the CS precedes the UCS
The perspective that behavior is directed to maximize pleasure and minimize pain is referred to as
B. F. Skinner's approach is referred to as radical behaviorism because he advocated
studying only the antecedents and consequences of behavior
Darwin's theory of evolution postulates that _______ change(s) through evolution
both physiology and mental capacities in animals and humans
A fixed action pattern is a behavior that
is innate and demonstrated by all members of the species
The basic finding of Rescorla and Wagner was
the CS has to have a contingent relationship the UCS or learning doesn't occur
According to the Comparator Hypothesis
If the CS is stronger (produces more excitatory value) than background cues then excitatory conditioning will occur
A distribution in performance which occurs when ratio requirements are very high or are raised abruptly is referred to as
The reinforcement schedule that is characterized by a cumulative record demonstrating a scalloped pattern is the
Sometimes they let the dog out after 30 minutes of barking, sometimes it might be 90 minutes of barking, ... it just depends on how much they can stand. After a year or so of this, they find that their dog's barking when crated is
very resistant to extinction
_____________ is an instructional procedure used in behavioral psychology, experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. It involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior
____________ conceived of all motivation as coming originally from biological imbalances or needs. The organism was thrown into movement (was motivated) when it needed something that was not present at its current location
_____________ (and other behaviorist) defined a positive reinforcer in terms of its effect. That is, a stimulus that followed a behavior and increased the probability of that behavior occurring is a positive reinforcer.
In some cases, self-stimulation even involves injurious behaviors like head banging. The teacher decides to ignore the self-stimulation behavior. The likely result is
the self-stimulation will not extinguish and ignoring it will not have any effect
In Pavlovian conditioning, extinction involves repeated presentations of the __________ in the absence of the __________
conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
John Watson's behavioral perspective argued that learning could be best understood by studying
directly observable and measurable behaviors
Learning that a skull and crossbones means poison, that sour smelling milk is spoiled milk, and that a certain cologne belongs to a loved one are all examples of _______ behaviors
Punishment is a procedure in which a subject _______ every time the subject performs a particular response
c. has a desirable outcome removed
d. experiences an aversive event
*e. both C and D are forms of punishment
The phenomenon by which a person experiences the opposite effects of a drug in the presence of cues associated with the drug is called
conditioned compensatory responding
The issue of preparedness in learning is connected to
whether the selected behavior tends to be easy or hard to learn based on the organism's evolutionary predispositions
Since watching the movie, you experience an increased heart rate whenever you hear the Psycho music. This pairing of the music and the murder scenes is an example of the _______ pairing procedure
presents both the CS and US at irregular and non-optimal timing intervals, subjects eventually learn that the US is unpredictable but that the CS predicts that the US will not happen. This inhibitory conditioning procedure is referred to as _______ training.
a researcher first pairs a light with a shock for 20 trials, and then pairs a light-and-tone compound with the same shock. When the rats are tested with trials of the tone only, the light only, and the light-tone compound only, the researcher finds that the subjects show fear responses with
the light only and the light-tone compound, but not the tone only
Modern discussions of long-term memory use the term _______ to refer to a memory representation that is activated by stimulus presentation.
listening to a new song on the radio, the driver behind you accidentally hits your car. You suffer whiplash, minor bruising, and are terribly frightened by the accident. Weeks later, you still get anxious when you hear the song that was on the radio at the time of the accident the car that hit you
The pain and fear you experienced from the collision would be classified as the
The song playing on the radio at the time of the accident would be classified as the
*c. conditional stimulus.
The fear you now experience whenever you hear the song that was playing at the time of the accident would be classified as the
Short-term memory can be characterized as
a. the function that allows a subject to process or actively think about an association.
b. having a limited capacity to process associations.
c. having a short duration unless the association is being rehearsed.
*d. All of the above
Operant behavior is so named because the behavior
itself produces a specific consequence
The process of reward is defined by
the effect of the outcome on behavior
Extinction is basically
the acquisition of a competing or alternative expectation
Generalization is a process by which subjects respond
in a similar fashion to similar stimuli
The typical conditioned emotional response preparation involves a CS that signals
Autoshaping is a procedure in which
the CS acts like a sign stimulus with minimal training
But when you walk into the kitchen you sometimes catch Sam on the table. He jumps down as soon as he sees you and runs away
You have become a discriminative stimulus for Sam
Individuals who have problems with recognizing social cues (social discriminative stimuli) will frequently
have social problems
A pigeon has learned to peck at a key when the key is lit because the response (pecking) results in the delivery of food. The pigeon doesn't peck when the key is not lit. You then start to pair a tone with the lit key
The tone will not become a functional discriminative stimulus
For instance, when you tell a ribald (dirty!) tale to friends at a party, but refrain from doing so at a church gathering. Why do most of us learn to make this discrimination
We are reinforced for telling ribald jokes at parties and punished for telling ribald jokes at church
The stimulus control of behavior is measured by comparing the behavior of interest in the
presence and absence of the (test) stimulus
A change in responding related to changes in a stimulus is called ________________
Salience refers to the _________________________
the intensity of the stimulus
A _______________ shows the relationship between the probability of response and stimulus value
Compared to a novice, the stimulus generalization gradient for an expert will be
Jenkins and Harrison's research demonstrated which of the following?
training a response to one tone (1000 Hz) and not reinforcing a response to a S- (950 Hz) resulted in the steepest stimulus discrimination gradient
The theory that discrimination training results in differential responding to S+ and S- because of excitation of responding to stimulus S+ and inhibition of responding to stimulus S- was proposed by which learning theorist
The results of research by ____________ supports the theory that stimulus discrimination training produces BOTH excitatory conditioning to S+ and inhibitory conditioning to S- .
Honig et al. (1963)
Certain types of stimuli are more likely to gain control over the instrumental response with positive reinforcement than with negative reinforcement was demonstrated by Foree and LoLordo. This phenomena illustrates:
that learning has to be considered within the context of the behavioral capabilities of the organism (the species)
Dobrzecka, Szwejkowska, & Konorski (1966) demonstrated that there was a relationship between the components of an auditory cue (quality and location) and the ________________.
type of response learned (left/right or go/no-go)
A flat generalization gradient indicates that
no discrimination learning has occurred
According to your instructor (refer to the notes on memory), the type of learning that most of this course has covered is
basic associative learning or learning skills and habits
In the older modal model of memory, the first stage (with the shortest) duration was ________________
________________ involves several process and components. Information can also be pulled from LTM and used to solve problems.
start looking for your book but you can't find it. You start to think about where you put the book as you walked to pick up the phone. You specifically are using the ___________ part of Working Memory
According to Milekic and Alberini, learning of new information is transformed into long-lasting memory through a process known as _______________, which requires protein synthesis
A negative contingency between a response and an appetitive stimulus is referred to as
you review the behavioral record and determine that the child's frequency of verbal behavior has declined by 25%, You conclude that social praise is functioning as a
Negative reinforcement involves the
removal of an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior
A critical difference between avoidance learning and punishment is that in _____________ taking a specific action prevents the aversive stimulus.
You have learned that when you walk across a wool carpet when the air is very dry, you build up a static electrical charge and you feel a shock when you touch your door knob. If you touch the door knob and jump back when you are shocked, you are exhibiting
*d. learning of a CS-UCS association (classical conditioning).
A child touches a hot stove and suffers a minor but painful burn. She doesn't touch the stove again. This is an example of learning produced by
Which of the following is NOT associated with effective punishment
the punishment is signaled by a discriminative stimulus
Which of the following is NOT associated with ineffective punishment
the punisher being severe
Which of the following is NOT an example of a secondary aversive stimulus?
Removal from a reinforcing environment and being sent to one's room is a common procedure used to control children's behavior. The procedure is known as Time Out or
If punishment is effective, it needs to be paired with
positive reinforcement for other behaviors
Brogden, Lipman, and Culler (1938) did some of the earliest research on Avoidance Learning. They found that the
the instrumental conditioned group had a higher percentage of CRs
Signaled avoidance learning typically involves having an animal in a shuttle box. The box consists of two compartments separated by a barrier. A CS (e.g. tone or light) is presented and the animal can escape the shock by
jumping from one side of the box to the other
In the two-process theory of learning. The signal that shock is going to occur functions as a
In the two process theory of avoidance. What is the cause of the fear that the animal is escaping from
Kamin, Brimer, & Black (1983) found that animal who were trained to avoid shock on 27 consecutive trials showed ___________ conditioned suppression to the avoidance signal when compared to those trained to a criterion of 9 consecutive avoidances
The two-process theory predicts that after initial acquisition, the avoidance response should go through cycles of extinction and re-acquisition. This is
known as asymptotic avoidance performance and does not always happen
What were the attitudes of Skinner and Thorndike towards punishment?
Both Skinner and Thorndike were opposed to the use of punishment
Tom's father usually tolerates Tom's playing video games with the volume very loud. However, if Tom's father has had too much to drink, he gets angry and punishes Tom for having the volume of the video too loud. Based on the research, we would predict
Tom's dad's drinking will become a discriminative stimulus in an avoidance learning paradigm
Marie finds staying at home aversive (she is 14 and want to go to the mall with her friends) and after 3 weekends of being grounded on Friday and Saturday night, she finishes her research paper and is allowed to go to the mall on weekends. This is an example of
The first component of the two-process theory of avoidance is
conditioning fear to the CS
Lesions of the amygdala produce an animal that
appears relatively fearless
Primary Laws-Contiguity, Similarity, Contrast
Secondary Laws-Repetition, Salience, Competition with prior learning experiences
Eichembaum 1999-monkey shown series of two shapes and trained to pick one over the other, final trial includes one novel pairing
Hull claims equal picking because habit strength is same for each
Tolman claims animal will make inference
Brogden 1938-light paired with tone-no response
tone paired with food-approach to cup
Hull claims no relfex was modified, no response
Tolman claims approach (L-T, T-F, F-L)
Performance in this maze- integrating the cues, making a map of the maze and referring to the map to guide its behavior.Performance in this maze depends on integrating the cues, making a map of the maze and referring to the map to guide its behavior.
1. Reinforced Alternation – studies DURATION
2. Non-spatial Radial Arm Maze – studies SPAN
3. Radial Arm Maze – studies CAPACITY and SELECTIVE ATTENTION
4. Stroop Test – studies SELECTIVE ATTENTION
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