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to break the ice between client and therapist
what you do may be influenced by how you see yourself and how you are seen by others. This means that your self-perceptions and others’ perceptions have
convergent validation is seldom an effective tool for assessing the validity of personality judgments
cohort effects refer to differences in personality between people of different historical generations
if test scores go down as anxiety goes up, then
test scores and anxiety are negatively correlated
psychologists expect to reach a final answer to their research questions
the personality coefficient is similar in size to the situation coefficient
which of the following is NOT one of the concerns associated with the practice of null-hypothesis significance testing?
the smaller the sample size, the easier it is to find a significant effect
what is the first step in the empirical method of scale construction
gather lots of items
people low in agreeableness tend to have greater risks to their cardiac health
measurements of weight are made on what kind of scale?
a ratio scale
at the heart of aggregation is the idea that
random errors cancel each other out
a test created using the rational method yields what kind of data?
empirically developed tests have created some serious legal problems for companies that administer such tests to employees or potential hires
a strong handshake is a reliable indicator of honesty
self-fulfilling prophecies are more technically known as
the technical meaning of reliability concerns
how much measurement error is present in your assessment instrument
Self-monitoring seems to be an important quality of a good personality judge for both men and women
according to the text, if peers based judgments on reputation and not observation, then researchers should find
equal agreement for both observable and unobservable traits
researchers usually agree about the interpretation of a result
which of the following illustrates converging criteria that could be used to establish the accuracy of a personality judgment
the trait of neuroticism is associated with unhappiness
a researcher constructs a scatter plot and notices that it shows a linear trend such that scores on the X axis increase as scores on the Y axis decrease. The correlation coefficient that describes the relationship between X and Y should therefore be negative
what are the steps in the realistic accuracy model (RAM) of personality judgment
as described in the text, according to some researchers, the TAT measures ___, whereas questionnaire-based measures predict ___.
what people want; how motives are expressed
as part of a research project, a participant carries a handheld computer (e.g., palm pilot) that signals her at random times throughout the day. at those times, the computer presents a series of questions for her to answer regarding her current activities. This is an example of ___ data.
both correlational studies and experimental studies attempt to measure the associations between variables
according to the text, it is reasonable to first assume that almost all psychological findings lack generalizability
we need to collect clues about personality because
personality is something hidden that resides inside an individual
personality psychologists adhering to the ___ approach focus on psychic energy, the workings of the unconscious mind, and the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict
it is only possible to improve personality accuracy at the utilization stage
which of the following attributes seem to be consistently related to being a good judge of personality
conscientiousness and intelligence
according to research that shows a link between a trait’s observability and the accuracy with which it is judged, which of the following traits would be easiest to judge accurately?
the factor analytic technique of test construction is designed to
identify groups of test items that seem to be alike
in current psychological research, men are more likely to participate in studies than women
according to the BIS/BAS two-dimensional model, someone who is high in BIS and high in BAS would be considered?
according to Freud, the internal structure of the mind consists of
the id, ego and superego
the basic developmental task of the phallic stage is
the ac question of gender identity
when a Freudian refers to “psychic conflict”, he or she means that one individual’s
id, ego and superego are in conflict with each other
adult behavior, according to Horney, is based on efforts
which of the following is TRUE regarding the exotic becomes erotic model of sexual orientation development described in the textbook?
the model proposes that all people are physically aroused by novelty
which statement best summarizes psychoanalytic thinking about mental energy?
Freud believed that mental energy was limited, whereas modern psychoanalysts believe that the mind’s processing ability is limited
what book marked the beginning of evolutionary thinking?
Darwin’s origin of species
the chemicals that are released from the hypothalamus, the gonads, and the adrenal cortex?
what is the best description of the role that testosterone plays in personality?
it acts as an energizing factor that accentuates existing behavioral tendencies
Alder was interested in neurotic needs
according to the article in the funder and ozer reader, fraternities with higher average testosterone levels tended to be
more rambunctious than other frats
given Snyder’s description of self-monitoring, you would expect someone who is a low in self-monitor to be ___ than a high self-monitor
Given Snyder’s description of self-monitoring, you would expect someone who is a low in self-monitor to be ________ than a high self-monitor.
· easier to judge
the meta-analysis of mean-level changes in personality across the life span suggests which of the following?
most mean-level changes in personality occur in young adulthood
displacement, condensation, and symbolization are all secondary process think techniques
according to Melanie Klein, the ___ position refers to a child’s desire to
Worship and protect the good parts of an object because they fear losing them.
a scientist who tries to determine how differences in a particular trait are correlated with differences in a particular gene is using what method
the association method
what gene seems to be related to the trait of neuroticism
according to Erikson, adolescents are likely to face a(n)
brian and matt both just flunked out of college. Brian is sure he did not flunk and that he really is going to graduate. Matt simply refuses to think about what just happened. Brian is using the defense mechanism of ___ and matt is using ___.
men and women seek essentially the same thing. Both are trying to increase the likelihood they will produce viable offspring who will survive.
which statement is TRUE regarding the influence of Freud
Freudian ideas continue to influence psychology today
low levels of cortisol are associated with which psychological disorder
Freud’s anal stage corresponds to Erikson’s stage of
autonomy versus shame and doubt
Freud believed that Leonardo da Vinci’s prolific scientific investigations were subliminations of his frustrated sexual passions
experienced the same forbidden impulse the joke expresses
if it trait is influenced by genes, then it ought to be more highly correlated across pairs of ___ than across pairs of ___.
Identical twins; fraternal twins
Victorians criticized Freud’s theory as too unscientific
hospitalized mental patients tend to get low scores on the self-monitoring scale
according to the object relations theorist D. W. Winnicott, the purpose of a transitional object is
to compensate for the fact that we cannot have our loved ones with us all of the time
which of the following traits is largely independent of integrity tests?
leaving a disproportionate amount of libido behind at a childhood stage of development is called
two-year-old jonathan knows he is not allowed to have a second piece of candy. When his mother is distracted, he takes another piece out of the candy jar, just to see if he can get away with it. Johnathan is the ___ stage of development
how much genetic material you share with someone you might help
which of the following Freudian ideas is NOT supported by modern research
the items on the California Q-set were designed by a team of researchers and practitioners who generated a comprehensive set of terms sufficient to describe people
in the middle age, we experience the psychosocial crisis of ___, according to Erikson
generativity versus stagnation
in middle age, we experience the psychosocial crisis of ___, according to Erikson
“Freudian slips” are also known as
one criticism of traditional Freudian theory is that it is not parsimonious (or at least parts of it are not parsimonious). This means that is
is overly complex
Kevin is placing a personal ad in the local paper. According to evolutionary predictions about mate selection, what will he most likely mention when describing himself?
his financial resources
according to one survey of employers, seven out of the top eight qualities sought in new employees involved
juan pushed a terrible childhood experience out of his awareness and now is not able to recall it in adulthood. Which defense mechanism is he using?
joe developed a fixation in the phallic stage. When he experiences a great deal of stress at work, joe will likely become
uninterested in sex
jung’s distinction between people who are oriented outwardly toward the jung’s distinction between people who are oriented outwardly toward the
the extraversion-introversion dimension of the big five
which of the following is NOT accurate regarding structured interviews
the method corrects for many of the limitations of S data
as a person becomes an expert in an area, he or she will begin to ___ to help organize the information
use larger chunks
nima moved to the U.S. when she was 5 years old, and she gradually adopted the language, attitudes, and styles of American culture. The process through which nima became Americanized is known as
john argues that a particular culture’s distinctive view of reality simply exists and believes that there is no way to meaningfully address the origin of cultural differences. John seems to subscribe to which philosophical tradition
mike thinks that sitting around contemplating the meaning of existence is a waste of time. He spends his life concentrating on developing his career, building a bigger house for his family, and enjoying himself. Sartre and other existentialists would say that mike is
living in bad faith
what disorder might represent an extreme or exaggerated version of traits associated with “marching to a different drummer” or acting original and somewhat idiosyncratically
Salvatore Maddi believed the most severe existential pathology was
a person who know that he is hostile and aloof is said to have ___ knowledge about himself
which childhood illness may have a link to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
the out group homogeneity bias refers to the tendency to view one’s own group as having members that differ widely from each other while believing individuals from other groups are “all the same”
the highest need proposed by Maslow was
in Pavlov’s famous studies, when the presentation of meat was frequently preceded by the sound of a bell, dogs
suicide and self-mutilation are characteristic of which personality disorder
the idea that all cultural views are equally valid and that it is ethnocentric to think otherwise is called
sally is very concerned with abandonment and her partner’s lack of commitment to their relationship. She is high on which personality dimension
according to the goal circumplex model, goals related to helping one’s community are high on what dimension
the American south has a separate “culture of honor”, distinct from the rest of the U.S., which requires members to be more tolerant of insults
a study in china showed that information about ___ is remembered as well as information about the self
Steven believes that intelligence and ability can change with experience. Steven has a(n) ___ theory of ability
which theorist would most likely make the statement that stress is valuable for optimal psychological development
which two individuals are credited with turning existentialism into a more optimistic view of life?
what country had the highest levels of self-compassion
a culture that stresses that “tall poppies are cut first” might be high in which cultural dimension
researchers have yet to find evidence for the self-reference effect in china
according to distinctions between types of idiographic goals, a ___ is something you think about, whereas a ___ is something you do
current concern; personal project
the key target for psychotherapy, according to Bandura, is
based on research related to self-determination theory, which individual is likely to report the highest level of well-being
the person focused on personal growth
Csikszentimihalyi’s concept of flow is analogous to
an optimal experience
bicultural individuals often have difficulty quickly switching cultural frames of reference
___ consists of your biological experiences and ___ consists of your psychological experiences
cross-cultural psychology has examined differences in the way that members of various cultures think. Some research suggests that people from collectivist cultures think___ than those from individualistic cultures
what term refers to Bandura’s idea that the self-system, environmental factors, and behavior are all dynamically interlinked
according to the text, accurate self-knowledge is a hallmark of mental health
positive psychologists usually argue that true happiness comes form overcoming important challenges. This idea is quite similar to Sartre’s conception of
hallucinations are associated with schizoid personality disorder but not schizotypal personality disorder
all languages have terms for traits such as talkative, timid and diligent
dollard and miller view psychological conflict as the result of
when a new mobile is first hung over baby jessica’s crib, she looks at it frequently. After several weeks pass, she spends hardly any time looking at the mobile. Jessica has become ___ to the mobile
according to research and theory about goals, it is most advantageous to have the ability to
shift between short and long term goals
men who suffer from histrionic personality disorder might project a hyper masculine attitude and brag about their athletic abilities
knowing how to ride a bike is an example of declarative knowledge
what term describes a person who typically expects the worst so that they can be surprised or even relieved when the worst does no happen
which of the following is NOT a philosophical underpinning of behaviorism
members of asian cultures find it more acceptable to deal with controversial issues in bigger meetings than individuals from the united states
vertical society tend to believe that individuals are importantly different from each other
which of the following is one of the diagnostic criteria of OCPD
individuals who are high in the trait of narcissism might seem charming and attractive on the first impression
the basic idea behind empiricism is that
everything we know is the result of our experience
someone who absolutely must have a relationship where they are uncritically accepted is likely to have which personality disorder
the purpose of a basic approach (or paradigm) is
great strengths are usually great weaknesses
the unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt
to explain whole, functioning persons in their social context
in observing human behavior, it is impossible
to understand everything about a person all at once
which of the following is NOT one of the basic approaches to personality
personality psychology emphasizes how people are ___, whereas subfields such as cognitive and social psychology emphasize how people are ___.
different from each other; similar to each other
___ theories of personality apply the insights and methods derived from the study of perception, memory, and thought to the study of personality
learning and cognitive
jeff suspects that his roommate’s sexist jokes may indicate that his roommate has some hidden, unconscious hostility toward women or that he feels very insecure around women. Jeff’s analysis suggests a ___ approach to personality.
psychologists following the phenomenological approach
are concerned with our conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will
the personality paradigm that focuses on rewards and punishments is know as the ___ paradigm
advocates of any particular basic approach to personality historically
claimed that their approach explains everything worth explaining
personality is an individual’s characteristic patterns of
all of the above ( behavior, emotion, and thought)
which of the following is not part of the psychological triad
personality psychology shares with clinical psychology
a common obligation to try to understand the whole person
personality psychologists who adhere to the ___ approach focus on identifying, conceptualizing, and measuring the ways in which people differ psychologically from one another
what two topics are covered under the phenomenological approach
humanistic and cross-cultural perspectives on personality
the trait approach, the behaviorist approach, and the psychoanalytic approach
address different sets of questions about human psychology
personality psychology and clinical psychology overlap most often when approaching
imagine that a researcher conducts a study and finds a statistically significant correlation between eating pizza and aggression. However, there is no real association between eating pizza and aggression in nature. What kind of error has this researcher made
type I error
a personality description of a client by her or his therapist is an example of ___ data
according to the text, the goal of a scientific education is
to teach what is known and how to find out what is not yet known
because jesse’s teacher believes that he is intelligent, she challenges him with extra assignments and generally encourages his curiosity. At the end of the school year, jesse performs better on the school’s achievement test than any other student. Jesse’s enhanced performance was likely due to the
a teacher is mistakenly told that one of his students is intellectually gifted. However, by the end of the year, this student has actually made substantial gains in her standardized test scores. This is an example of what psychological phenomenon
dr. rogers tries to motivate aggression in the laboratory by manipulating the room temperature. If this is the only way that dr. rogers tries to motivate aggression, the results of her studies may lack.
generalizability over stimuli
reports of the number of times a subject told a joke in a day
which of the following is the biggest concern that funder has about the use of deception in psychological research
the use of deception may actually harm psychology and psychological researchers
the principle of aggregation holds that random errors often become magnified when averaged together
according to principles described in the text, it would be relatively difficult to create a reliable measure of
attitudes toward paperclips
what is the goal of the dissertation in the process of scientific education
to demonstrate that the future scientist can contribute something new to the field
which formula in psychometrics quantifies the principle of aggregation
according to the text, the tendency of a group of people who lived at a particular time to differ in some way from those who lived earlier or later is called a
which type of data is likely to be the most subjective and judgmental
a researcher wants to evaluate the correlation between extraversion and happiness. What is the null hypothesis in this analysis
extraversion is uncorrelated with happiness
psychology is relatively unique among the sciences because it uses the case method
on Friday, terence completes the self-monitoring scale and receives a score of 49. on the following Tuesday, he fills out the scale again and receives a score of 28. terence’s scores on the self-monitoring scale do not appear to be
dr. jones measures aggression by counting the number of times a research participant hits an inflatable “bobo doll”. If this is the only way dr. jones measures aggression, the results of his studies may lack
generalizability over responses
validity is much easier judge than reliability
the implicit associations test (IAT) yields what kind of data
personality trait measurements are typically made on what kind of scale
an ordinal scale
a test created using the empirical method yields what kind of data
the improvement in reliability gained by adding additional “good” test items can be precisely calculated using what formula
according to situationists, the upper limit of personality coefficients is estimated as
According to situationists, the upper limit of personality coefficients is estimated as
not all items on objective tests are absolutely objective
sally found that neither caffeine nor extraversion predicted problem soving by themselves; however, she found that they both worked together to predict problem soving. This is an example of what kind of an effect
a true interaction
a variable that influences the association between two other variables is called a(n) ___ variable
the person-situation debate reflects deep-seated views about human nature
funder strongly believes that Mischel conducted an unfair literature review in personality and assessment
when taking a(n) ___ test, a person interprets an ambiguous stimulus in order to express the inner workings of her or his mind
there is a tendency to equate a situationist perspective with a more optimist view of the world
which of the following would be an example of using a moderator variable approach to improve the predictability of behavior from personality
determining if the behavior of high self-monitors is less consistent that that of low self-monitors
according to the analogy drawn in the text between situational effects on behavior and scud missiles, situations are powerful because they
seem to have inconsistent effects
which of the following is NOT a limitation of the factor analytic approach
the factors are only as good as the criterion groups used to validate the factors
individuals high in the trait of extraversion tend to die younger than individuals who are lower in extraversion
which of the following is the strongest situation
how should you act in everyday life according to the “transparent self” theory of psychological health
conceal very little from those around you
the basic reason that research on the accuracy of personality judgments experienced a lengthy hiatus between 1955 and the mid-1980s was that
researchers lacked a consensual criteria for determining the accuracy of a personality judgment
judgments other people make of your personality are known as
according to the text, what term describes a context where social norms tend to restrict what people do?
a strong situation
teachers show an increased willingness to ignore disciplinary problems in these students
research on expectancy effects has provided a clear estimate of the size of the effect in real life
based on recent research, what approach for job interviews might be the best
face to face interviews
researchers know a great deal about the characteristics of good judges of personality
imagine that judgments of extraversion correlate with the number of parties that people attend over the course of four years of college. Researchers would therefore say these judgments have
participants in a recent study were shown composite faces from targets that scored extremely low or high on personality dimensions and then asked to judge the target. Which two traits had the highest levels of accuracy
extraversion and agreeableness
to evaluate accuracy in personality judgments, researchers often want to know if personality judgments have predictive validity
which of the following traits would be hardest to judge
in making an overall judgment of your personality, which person should be most accurate
a lifelong best friend
the philosophy of constructivism is widespread in modern intellectual life
which of the following was NOT mentioned as a potential moderator of accuracy
the age of the target of the judgment
general patterns that emerge
peoples scores on one of the factors do not predict their scores on any of the other factors
efforts by researchers to develop a list of items that would adequately
a failure to feel an emotional response to loved ones
testosterone can be influenced by the outcome of a sporting event
introverts react more strongly than extraverts to sensory stimulation
there is little evidence for segregation by gender in the playgroups of
severe mental retardation
According to psychoanalytic theory, no action is ever random.
all of the following Freudian ideas were reinterpreted by David Funder in the textbook EXCEPT
compared to Freud, ego psychologists pay a good deal of attention to
which of the following is NOT one of the neurotic needs Horney theorized
according to Melanie Klein, a child who idealizes a parent also
the idea the men and women each have a masculine and a feminine side is liked to Jung’s ideas about
the extraversion introversion dimension of the big five
which of the following concepts is NOT associated with Adler
even more neo-Freudians rely on information from ___ to test or verity their ideas
the Jungian classification of the four basic ways of thinking
the Rep test is used to evaluate whether an individual is fully functioning person
Csikszentmihalyi concluded that the best way that someone can spend their time is in
according to the hierarchy of needs, people must feel that they belong before they can self actualize
according to existentialist philosophy, the opposite of living in bad faith is
the time, place and circumstances into which you happened to be born is called
brad tends to avoid anything that could be stressful or challenging, preferring to live life with familiar activities, experiences, and people. The psychologist Salvatore Maddi would likely suggest that brad is lacking
Andrew watched himself in the mirror and was overcome with the remarkable insight that he was observing himself in the mirror. Andrew is experiencing
low levels of these traits reduce intrapersonal contact and disease risk
“loosing face” is a primary danger in what type of culture
the ecological approach attempts to find physical reasons for cross-cultural differences
which of the following people is likely to be the most individualistic
what term describes someone who is low in emotional intelligence
personal projects are similar to the concept of life tasks
which two dimensions are included in the goal circumplex model
self transcendence versus physical self; extrinsic versus intrinsic
tell themselves to slow down and think more deliberately
what two types of processes are included in most dual process models
the experiential system is more recent in evolutionary terms than the rational system
which of the following is the best way to get information into long term memory
explicit self knowledge
provide individuals with opportunities for success
personality trait terms are used less frequently in India than in Europe
searched for ways to think well themselves; did not show this response
narcissism might be a conflict between implicit and declarative self esteem
what is actually measured by the implicit association test
jacks friends don’t hink he is very smart; however, jack thinks that he is quite intelligent. Jack would most likely be considered high in which personality dimension
what does it mean to say that certain personality disorders are ego syntonic
people who have them do no think anything is wrong
the DSM explicitly links low economic status with antisocial personality disorder
dependent, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive
which disorder seems to be linked with economic status and urban settings
Which of the following is good practice for interpreting correlations?
Which of the following is a limitation of projective tests?
The sole basis on which items are selected for empirically derived personality scales is whether
Traditionally, the usual practice in evaluating the degree to which behavior is affected by the situation has been to
According to the text, what is the last step in a factor analysis?
The arguments in Mischel’s Personality and Assessment concerning the ability of traits to predict behavior were based on
What term refers to a limit on the generalizability of a particular research conclusion?
Positive emotionality in Tellegen’s three-factor model is closest to which trait in Eysenck’s model?
According to the text, the two larger purposes for measuring traits are to
Julie is a serious and conscientious employee; however, with her friends at happy hour on Friday afternoon she is the life of the party. According to Snyder’s theory, Julie would most likely be
· a high self-monitor
Which of the following is NOT a positive correlate of authoritarianism?
· preference for weak political candidates
The plasticity factor covers both extraversion and openness.
Research on authoritarianism helps explain the behavior of the people in Germany in the 1930s.
Steve is extremely deferential to his boss. He complies immediately with orders and never questions the decisions his boss makes. In his role as plant supervisor, Steve enjoys giving orders to the people he supervises and he gets very angry if they question those orders. Steve is probably a(n)
The most important advantage of Q-sorting is that it
· forces the judge to compare all the items directly against each other.
Which Big Five domain captures a tendency to experience positive emotions?
When compared to high self-monitors, people who score low in self-monitoring tend to
· masturbate less often.
Sammy is concerned about whether or not relatively extraverted adolescents become relatively extraverted adults. Sammy studies what kind of personality stability?
· rank order
The lower your score is on measures of psychological health and well-being, the
· higher your score is on neuroticism.
· conservatives; pseudoconservatives
Low self- monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to be described as
Cross-cultural research on the Big Five suggests that
· the central attributes of personality are generally similar in other cultures but there are important differences.
Early reports about personality and emotional changes in Phineas Gage after his accident led
· neurosurgeons to perform lobotomies to control maladaptive behavior.
The neurotransmitter dopamine is associated with systems that
· respond to reward.
The neurotransmitter serotonin is associated with the reward deficiency hypothesis.
High levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________, and low levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________.
· stress, anxiety, and depression; impulsivity and sensation-seeking
Introverts are more chronically aroused than extraverts.
The chemicals that are released from the hypothalamus, the gonads, and the adrenal cortex are called
Which glucocorticoid hormone is involved with the fight-or-flight response?
Which of the following was NOT one of bodily humors?
According to Galen, an excess of yellow bile would cause a person to be
· angry and bitter.
Damasio’s patient named Elliott had brain damage to the same region that was injured in Phineas Gage.
Research on brain asymmetry indicates that
· an especially active left frontal lobe may be associated with a propensity to feel emotions such as happiness and enjoyment.
What is the oldest brain imaging technique?
· electroencephalography (EEG)
What term describes the junction between two neurons?
The importance of integrated systems in the functioning of the brain suggests why the results of psychosurgery are often erratic.
What term refers to brain regions that have been injured, removed, or destroyed?
Which of the following is NOT indicated by a heritability statistic?
· whether genes and environments interact to produce behavior
A researcher who attempts to show how self-serving biases may have facilitated survival is taking a behavioral genetic approach.
When personality psychologists measure trait differences in extraversion, what kinds of direct observations are they making?
· phenotypic observations
So far, evolutionary psychology has been much more concerned with the origins of ________ than with ________.
According to evolutionary explanations of mate selection, women and men seek essentially the same thing from a mating partner—an increased likelihood that the partner is physically attractive.
It is widely argued the single genes have strong links to personality attributes.
There is evidence that particular genes are related to certain personality characteristics and psychological difficulties.
If there is no phenotypic variation in a trait, then the heritability of that trait will be approximately
What is the precise meaning of a heritability coefficient?
· the proportion of total variance in a trait that is due to genetic influences
A recent study indicates that a serotonin-related genetic allele seems to influence the development of depression in conjunction with
The heritability of IQ is higher in impoverished families than in more economically advantaged families
Monozygotic (MZ) twins share ________ percent of the genes that vary across individuals and dizygotic (DZ) twins share, on average, ________ percent of the genes that vary across individuals.
· 50; 25
According to a recent study, the kind of depression that follows failure, such as a job loss, is characterized by
· fatigue, pessimism, and guilt.
Across a wide variety of cultures, ________ are more likely than ________ to place a higher value on physical attractiveness.
· men; women
What is the starting point of the exotic becomes erotic model of sexual orientation development described in the textbook?
· biological variables such as prenatal hormones and genes
When placing personal ads, women are more likely to specify that they are seeking someone who is ________, whereas men are more likely to specify that they are seeking someone who is ________.
· older; younger
According to the text, what are the four key ideas of psychoanalytic theory?
What differentiates secondary process thinking from primary process thinking?
· Primary process thinking is impulsive, whereas secondary process thinking is rational
According to Freud, slips of the tongue reflect primary process thinking.
Which part of the personality is responsible for creating defense mechanisms?
Most psychoanalysts have never exposed themselves to psychoanalysis as a patient.
One criticism of psychoanalytic theory is that it
· relies too heavily on case study evidence.
Which defense mechanism is based on the id’s primary process thinking?
Another name for a modern-day psychoanalyst is a(n) ________ psychologist.
Which aspect of humor would Freudians likely find the most interesting?
· the fact that most jokes involve sexual or hostile impulses
The genital character type
· is psychologically well-adjusted.
One explanation of violent homophobia is that it is the result of
· reaction formation.
According to Freud, the process of psychological development is driven by the
· investment and redirection of psychic energy
Ego psychologists believe that the most important function of the ego is compromise formation.
Freud made a distinction between libido and sexual energy.
Zeke has just found out that his brother has been killed in a plane crash. His first response is, “No, not John; he’s not dead.” According to psychoanalytic theory, Zeke is experiencing the operation of a(n)
· defense mechanism.
What is a common first reaction to the diagnosis of a fatal illness?
· denial of the diagnosis
The defense mechanism of ________ keeps forbidden thoughts, feelings, and impulses out of awareness by replacing them with their opposites.
· reaction formation
When you deal with an unpleasant or threatening feeling by turning it into a more objective thought, you use
Terror management theory is concerned with anxiety related to threats of modern-day terrorism.
John Bowlby was the earliest psychoanalyst to develop play therapy.
The psychological goal of attachment is
· to feel secure.
Research suggests that anxious-ambivalent children are relatively likely to grow up to be adults who tend to
· be obsessed with their romantic partners.
Many neo-Freudians preserve Freud’s spirit in their writings but reinterpret his original ideas.
In Jungian terms, the recurring images repeated in dreams, myths, and literature are called
Organ inferiority refers to a physical malady.
In Erikson’s view, important aspects of psychological development
· continue to change throughout the life span.
Adler was interested in neurotic needs.
Jung emphasizes spiritual and mystical issues more than Freud.
What is the anima?
· a man’s idealized conception of women
What is the overarching principle of object relations theory?
· We relate to others through our mental images of them.
Object relations theory is still an active branch of psychoanalytic thinking.
Horney felt that when women experience penis envy, it symbolizes their
· lack of power and control in society.
The internalized image of your own mother is a key archetype for Jung.
Dr. Ders is a psychotherapist who emphasizes the importance of relating to others as real people who have mixtures of virtues and vices. Dr. Ders is most likely a therapist in the tradition of
· object relations theory.
Jimmy is a 5-year-old boy. When his parents leave him with a babysitter, he latches onto his stuffed animal, Tim. In the terminology of the object relations theorist D. W. Winnicott, Tim is
· a transitional object
Steven has come to terms with his mortality, accepted responsibility for his existence, and knows that he determines what happens in his life. Existentialists would say that Steven is
· attaining authentic existence.
George Kelly’s personal construct theory emphasizes that individuals
· build the experience of reality through unique sets of ideas about the world.
The theorist ________ would likely use the metaphor “humans are scientists” to describe the nature of human psychology.
· George Kelly
Your particular experience of the world is called your
Which of the following virtues does NOT appear to be particularly important in Eastern traditions?
Self-determination theorists believe that eudaimonia is dangerous.
What aspect of human psychological functioning is of particular interest to humanistic psychologists?
Sartre divided existential anxiety into aguish, fear, and forlornness.
________ is the relatively recent branch of psychology that investigates the traits, processes, and social institutions that promote a good and meaningful life.
· Positive psychology
Which of the following is NOT a concern with the typical strategy used to evaluate the effects of Rogerian psychotherapy?
· No measurable variables have been used to evaluate Rogerian therapy.
Nietzsche argued that the most honorable response to the dilemmas of existence is to
· rise above it all and become a superman.
Positive psychologists usually argue that true happiness comes from overcoming important challenges. This idea is quite similar to Sartre’s conception of
· optimistic toughness
Pessimism might belong in the attributes considered by positive psychologists.
An individual who seeks to maximize gain by making the most money possible is following a satisficing goal.
Which of the following ad slogans is more likely to come from an individualistic culture than from a collectivist culture?
According to the text, which of the following is considered to have a collectivist-vertical society?
Research suggests that Americans may be more likely to recall the larger context of pictures compared to individuals from Japan.
Singapore is both ethnically heterogeneous and culturally tight.
According to the text, what term describes cultures that have only a few proscribed goals and a few ways to achieve these goals?
Indians prefer to place an X next to the part of the form that does NOT apply.
Psychologists who are concerned that the results of contemporary empirical research may not apply to all people everywhere are questioning the ________ of those results.
Members from which country would be most likely to self-enhance?
Which value would most likely be associated with a collectivist culture?
Some research suggests that thinking in Asians as opposed to Americans is more disrupted by talking.
Some cross-cultural researchers compare average levels of traits across cultures. For example, Chueng and Song (1989) found that, compared to an American sample, Chinese research participants generally described themselves as higher on
· emotional reserve.
According to the textbook, what behavior led to a Danish mother’s arrest in New York?
· leaving her 14-month-old daughter asleep in a stroller
Judgments of cultural complexity as opposed to cultural tightness are fairly straightforward.
According to the text, what two factors are hypothesized to influence whether a culture is high in tightness?
· ethnic homogeneity and population density
Countries with low average levels of self-esteem also tend to have high rates of
Bandura’s efficacy expectation is a belief about
Which theorist had a substantial intellectual influence on Mischel’s ideas about the cognitive-affective personality system?
· George Kelly
Strict behaviorists believe that thoughts and emotions are important to study.
Opponent processes in the body can counteract some of the effects of depressants.
According to Dollard and Miller, ________ provides the motivating force for human behavior.
· drive reduction
According to Dollard and Miller, ________ drives include drives for food, water, physical comfort, sexual gratification, and so on, whereas ________ drives include drives for love, prestige, money, and power.
· primary; secondary
According to Mischel, what is the most important aspect of personality and cognition?
· The many systems of personality and cognition interact.
Based on recent research, what appears to be TRUE regarding people’s ability to forecast emotional reactions to major events?
· People tend to overestimate the emotional impact of both negative and positive events.
It has been suggested that chronic anxiety is the result of
· repeated exposure to averse stimuli that are unpredictable and random.
If a particular song frequently precedes your being touched by your significant other, then eventually hearing the song will make you think of being touched by him or her. This is the basic idea behind
Perhaps the biggest limitation associated with the use of punishment is that
E. L. Thorndike proposed that people learn to do things faster and more efficiently when the effects of the behavior are negative.
Which of Bandura’s ideas has proven to be the most influential?
· his emphasis on observational learning
According to Dollard and Miller’s approach-avoidance conflict theory, the tendency to approach a positive goal is stronger than the tendency to avoid a negative goal.
Most people use punishment effectively.
The Bobo doll studies of aggression demonstrated that
· learning can occur vicariously through observation.
The element of reciprocal determinism that departs most significantly from classic behaviorism is the idea that
If you are frustrated because your coworker’s performance prevented you from getting the end-of-the-year bonus you expected, Dollard and Miller would predict that you respond to this frustration with
A ________ is a desired end-state, and ________ are the means that the individual uses to achieve this end-state.
Goals that are unique to the individuals pursuing them are called ________ goals.
Which of the following is the NOT one of the basic stages of emotion?
Freud’s secondary process thinking resembles Epstein’s rational system
The memories of chronically hostile individuals as opposed to chronically agreeable individuals show no differences.
In cognitive-experiential self theory, the ________ system dominates when you are emotional and the ________ system dominates when you are calm.
· experiential; rational
A bicultural Asian American who has just been primed with the image of a dragon is more likely to interpret ambiguous symbols in what way?
· according to typical Asian interpretations
People with more generally negative views of others are more accurate in their person perceptions.
Extraversion is associated with happiness but neuroticism is not related to happiness.
What goal-related term describes the ongoing motivation that persists in the mind until the goal is either attained or abandoned?
· current concerns
Mrs. Khoury enjoys running the office. She likes telling other employees what to do and strives to be promoted to vice president of her company. According to McClelland’s view of motivations, Mrs. Khoury is high in ________ motivation.
What term refers to the idea that the concepts that have been recently activated in the mind influence one’s perceptions of the world?
Research has examined the degree to which individuals’ optimistic and pessimistic strategies persist across various contexts. The results of this research suggest that
· correlations of strategy use across contexts range from about .30 to .40
“The Little Engine that Could” provides an illustration of which self-related concept?
Which stage of the realistic accuracy model has the fewest limitations when it comes to making self-judgments?
Sarah moved from a small town in Ohio to New York City and has since learned a lot about herself. According to the realistic accuracy model, she has expanded the ________ stage of judgment.
Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of the realistic accuracy model?
What seems to be the connection between accurate self-knowledge and mental health?
· Accurate self-knowledge seems to be a hallmark of mental health.
Self knowledge can be divided into ________ knowledge and ________ knowledge.
Procedural knowledge can be taught by reading and listening to lectures.
According to self-discrepancy theory, what emotion arises from discrepancies between ideal and actual selves?
What might happen to someone who is high in self-consciousness and primed with words related to stereotypes about senior citizens?
· She might walk more slowly after the priming episode.
The overall opinion of the self is called
Which methods are appropriate for identifying self-schema?
· S data and B data
What emotions are thought to occur when a stranger harms aspects of your me-self?
· anger and distress
A person who habitually avoids social interaction but is unaware of his shyness is said to have ________ knowledge about the self
According to recent work by Carol Dweck, what is one way to change personality?
· Try to change your beliefs about your own personality.
What is the name of the sixth factor that might be required to fully capture psychopathology in addition to the Big Five domains?
The American Psychological Association publishes the DSM.
According to the textbook, Adolf Hitler exhibited many of the classic signs of what personality disorder?
An individual who truly believes that he or she should be the first person rescued from a burning building exhibits a symptom of which personality disorder?
What term describes the exemplar or ideal mental image associated with a particular category?
Some researchers have suggested that strep throat infections in children are associated with the development of schizoid personality disorder.
What disorder might represent an extreme or exaggerated version of traits associated with conscientiousness?
What term describes the urge to seek erotic stimulation by rubbing up against people in crowded buses?
According to Funder’s classification scheme, what four disorders are characterized by patterns of behavior that interfere with social relationships and can make an individual difficult to be around?
· antisocial, histrionic, narcissistic, paranoid
Although the DSM reports that the ________ personality is frequently reported, recent data suggest that it is fairly rare.
Physical illnesses that might be related to mental health appear on which axis of the DSM?
· Axis III
Someone who relies too heavily on others for making decisions is likely to have which personality disorder?
Severe psychopathologies such as schizophrenia appear on which axis of the DSM?
· Axis I
Sally has an exaggerated sense of the greatness of her attributes and abilities. A trained observer would say that Sally is high in what personality dimension?
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of B data?
· Direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation.
Faking responses in order to influence test results is most difficult on ________ constructed tests.
What does the abbreviation MMPI stand for?
· Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
...Dr. Robbins asks his research participants to fill out questionnaires describing their early life. He then obtains copies of their arrest records from the county courthouse. The questionnaires used in Dr. Robbins’s study would be ________ data, whereas the arrest records would be ________ data.
· S; L
According to the text, what simple example of L data is considered by clinical psychologists to be a potential indicator of psychopathology?
· never being married by age 40
According to the book Personality and Assessment, a correlation of .30 is impressive.
· All of the above.
According to the book Personality and Assessment, a correlation of .30 is impressive.
Dr. Akita is designing a test to measure sociability. She writes items that seem directly and obviously related to sociability, such as “I like to go to parties” and “I enjoy the company of other people.” Which method of test construction is Dr. Akita using?
· rational method
Validity is the degree to which a measurement
· actually reflects or measures what you think it does.
Which of the following is the best definition of validity
According to the text, which of the following is NOT a threat to the generalizability of personality research?
· constructivist; critical realist
What might be an effect of expectancies in real life?
· to magnify or maintain existing behavioral tendencies
Happiness is associated with what trait?
Personality attributes are rarely linked with mortality risk.
A correlation coefficient is a(n) ________ that ranges between ________.
________ data are fairly easily verifiable, concrete, real-life outcomes of possible psychological significance.
Applied psychologists involved in personnel selection are less concerned with error variance than research psychologists.
The p-value tells researchers the probability that a finding will be exactly duplicated.
Individuals with certain traits seem to be attracted to studies of prison life.
How common is shyness?
· About 1 person in 4 considers himself or herself chronically shy.
Early research on the good judge of personality indicated that the good judge was
· None of the above.
According to Gordon Allport's article in the Funder and Ozer reader,
· a trait is more generalized than a habit.
One result of the person-situation debate was that many social psychologists concluded that personality did not really exist.
According to the text, children who were able to delay gratification the longest were also likely to be described as
If Dr. O’Connell wants to learn about Laura, why might Dr. O’Connell want to avoid using S data?
· The person supplying the S data may not want to or be a