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Sigmund Freud was formally trained as a
A) biologist and physician.
B) poet and archaeologist.
C) pediatrician and physical therapist.
D) mathematician and astronomer.E) magician and clinical psychologist
Hysteria,” common in the 1800s, most often exhibited itself through the following symptom(s).
A) uncontrollable verbal outbursts
B) gastrointestinal symptoms
C) various forms of paralysis
D) seizures and migraines
E) intense itching and burning of the skin
According to Freudian theory, how might dreams be similar to icebergs?
A) We underestimate our need to defend against them.
B) They are cold and impersonal.
C) They are rare but beautiful.
D) Examining them too closely is dangerous.E) A small part shows and much is hidden
Freudian theory uses the term “libido” to refer to
A) the psychic energy that is the basis of drive or motivation.
B) the child’s internalization of societal norms.
C) the child’s belief that girls were born with penises, but have suffered castration.
D) a boy’s fear that his father will castrate him.E) the ability of mature individuals to make realistic compromises
A) is a Freudian synonym for “stuck-up.”
B) operates on the “morality principle.”
C) seeks pleasure at any cost.
D) looks for realistic ways to satisfy the id.E) none of the above
The __________ operates under the “pleasure principle,” while the __________ operates under the “reality principle.”
A) id; ego
B) ego; id
C) id; superego
D) ego; superego
E) superego; ego
A) id; ego
From Freud’s perspective, a likely reason for someone to become fixated at the oral stage is
A) he/she grew up in a home where everyone shouted.
B) he/she was toilet trained too late.
C) he/she was weaned too early.
D) he/she grew up in a home where everyone talked a lot.E) he/she suffered a mouth injury that gave pleasure when it healed
A phobia is
A) an oedipal complex where snake envy is king.
B) an excessive or incapacitating fear.
C) the third stage of psychosexual development.
D) a theory based on dream imagery.
E) none of these
The period between the phallic and genital stages is called the ___________ stage.
B) phallo intermediary
D) parietalE) electra
Freud believed that women in abusive relationships were there because
A) they were seeking revenge.
B) they were uneducated.
C) societal constraints kept them there.
D) they were masochistic.E) they were fixated
A current controversy that is relevant to the idea of repression deals with
B) people’s failing to recover their repressed memories.
C) vagueness of memories.
D) implantation of false memories by therapists.E) none of these are current controversies
Reaction formation is when
A) the id takes over and the superego can no longer react.
B) socially unacceptable urges are stifled.
C) painful memories are repressed.
D) for each regression there is an equal and opposite projection.
E) unacceptable urges are transformed into their “opposites."
Jewel does not get along with her employer, and today she found out that she is going to be demoted next week. She didn’t confront her boss; instead, when she got home, she yelled at her children and spanked her youngest child for a minor wrongdoing. Jewel’s behavior is a classic example of
(A) regression. (B) displacement.
(D) denial.(E) projection
Regression in adults
A) does not exist.
B) is a feature of normal development.
C) provides a creative and enjoyable recreational outlet.
D) is much more common than in children.E) is difficult to document
Hypermnesia refers to
A) “lacking memory.”
B) when people are unable to recall events from times when they were very physically active.
C) when people remember large amounts of information quickly.
D) remembering something on a later recall attempt that was not previously remembered.E) all of these
What is the “latent content” of a dream, according to Freud?
A) Its underlying hidden meaning
B) The information about the dream that is recalled upon awakening
D) Our conscious memories of the emotions of the dream
E) Reaction formation
“Explicit memory” refers to what?
A) Unconscious motivations
B) The phenomenon of infantile amnesia
C) Memory of past sexual acts
D) Motivations to help people remember
E) Memories that can be directly recalled or recognized
In his book Totem and Taboo, Freud traced the origin of civilization to the time when
A) the penis became a symbol of uncivilized behavior.
B) faces were carved into religious poles (phallic like).
C) brothers came together and murdered the primal father of the tribe.
D) infantile amnesia characterized adults.
E) the first ape became lustful of his mother.
When Freud commented that “sometimes a cigar is just a cigar” he was referring to the fact that
(A) it was not a lack of ego-control that led men to smoke. (B) dreamers with mental problems often smoked.
(C) he tended to interpret many long, pointy objects as phallic symbols. (D) cigars were believed to be less dangerous than cigarettes.(E) women were not allowed to smoke because it was seen as masculine.
When the ego and superego do not do their job properly
A) the unconscious mind ceases to function.
B) an individual’s personality becomes hidden.
C) a person’s urge to find gratification is stunted.
D) what Freud termed the Over-I must rule over the superego.
E) elements of the id may slip out and be seen.
The fact that there are lots of jokes about and euphemisms for the penis supports
(A) Freud’s idea that repressed sexual drives underpin much of what we do. (B) Skinner’s notions of the ubiquitous peckering of pigeons.
(C) the notion of exaptation and adaptation as crucial tools of evolution.
(D) Jung’s notion of the phallus as the center of the collective unconscious.
(E) Daly’s theories of the sexual abuse of children.
Freud attributed Little Hans’ phobia of horses to
A) erotic consciousness.
B) overdeveloped libido from excessive bathing.
C) existential oral anxiety.
D) overcompensation for feelings of inferiority.E) Oedipal conflict
In Freud’s usage, a “defense mechanism” has the effect of
(A) protecting the person’s consciousness from threatening material. (B) helping an individual improve his or her self-awareness.
(C) improving people’s ability to remember traumatic events in their lives.
(D) recreating the infantile state of simple needs.(E) motivating a person to take a strong stance in support of his or her beliefs.
Explaining great creativity like da Vinci’s in terms of a re-direction of tremendous sexual energy describes a process of
A) reaction formation.
D) denial.E) sublimation.
A stressed woman who hides from her problems by climbing into her (older) husband’s lap for comfort may be showing which defense mechanism?
D) regressionE) denial
The term “neo-analytic” means
A) new analysis.
B) new anal stage.
C) new family.
D) lack of insight.
E) lack of analysis.
In childhood, Jung’s ability to take the perspective of a rock
A) disturbed him.
B) was displacement of phallic imaginings.
C) caused him to be diagnosed as mentally ill.
D) suggested to him that he might have more than one form of being.
E) led him to intense prayer.
D) suggested to him that he might have more than one form of being.
Which of the following is NOT a division of the psyche according to Jung?
A) the paraconscious
B) the personal unconscious
C) the collective unconscious
D) the conscious egoE) all of these are divisions of the psyche
A) the paraconscious
Thoughts that Freud would call “preconscious” would fall into which of Jung’s categories?
A) collective conscious
B) personal unconscious
C) collective ego
D) collective unconscious
E) general conscious
B) personal unconscious
A) valuable archaeological artifacts.
B) powerful emotional symbols rooted in our human history.
C) our beliefs about “god” as dictated by religion.
D) worth less copies of artifacts.
E) patterns of emotion or temperament.
B) powerful emotional symbols rooted in our human history.
Little Evelyn was caught stealing by her mother. As she tried to defend herself she said, “I didn’t mean to do it; my ‘evil twin’ took over.” Evelyn is invoking the __________ archetype.
D) heroE) persona
A complex is
A) a phenomenon in which sexual problems may be reversed through catharsis.
B) a specific, strongly-held, belief about male-female differences.
C) a group of emotionally-charged thoughts and feelings about a topic.
D) a specific, strongly-held, religious belief.E) a characteristic typically found in women but not men.
C) a group of emotionally-charged thoughts and feelings about a topic.
Which of the following is NOT one of Jung’s proposed functions of the mind?
Jung believed there were __________ basic personality types.
A superiority complex is often a reaction to
A) being raised in a loving and supportive family.
B) getting an A on an exam.
C) a lack of education.
D) an inferiority complex.
E) learning self-discipline.
The concept of “masculine protest” describes
A) boys’ protestations against being taught to “hold in” their emotions.
B) the desire of girls to be societally equal with boys.
C) lesbian liberation.
D) individual striving for competence and independence.E) girls’ desire to emulate their fathers rather than their mothers.
Adler’s typology was based on
A) social interest/activity level.
B) the four Greek humors and social interest/activity level.
C) Freud’s id, ego, and superego.
D) Freud’s id/ego/superego and social interest/activity level.E) the four Greek humors.
Horney believed that what women really wanted was
A) a penis.
B) lots of sexual fulfillment.
D) autonomy and control.E) financial security.
To Horney, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help the person
A) accept his/her “Real Self.”
B) achieve his/her “Ideal Self.”
C) to find his/her “Despised Self.”
D) overcome his/her “Real Self.”E) become his/her “Mystical Self.”
Someone who is “moving toward” people would exhibit which of the following behaviors?
A) withdrawal of emotion
B) initiating conflicts with others
C) striving for power
D) seeking to please othersE) attempting to control others
Who has sometimes been called the “founder of ego psychology”?
D) FreudE) Hartmann
Chris is two years old and well-adjusted. His attachment to his mother is healthy, and he is a happy child. Mahler would say that he is a __________ child.
A) symbiotic psychotic
B) symbiotic autistic
C) normal symbiotic
D) symbiotic mioticE) optimal symbiotic
A relational perspective suggests that
A) initial patterns of self-other relations influence our self-concepts and social relations later in life.
B) our self-concept early in life leads us to develop healthy or unhealthy relationships later in life.
C) our first romantic adult relationships shape our relationships with our children.
D) we usually look for a romantic partner who represents the opposite of our relationship with our mother.
Eunice is a retired bookkeeper. As she looks back on life she sees many things she wishes she'd done different. She feels that her work wasn't a meaningful contribution to society, and she regrets that she did not pursue higher education. Erikson would say that Eunice is experiencing the crisis of __________.
A) identity vs. role confusion
B) trust vs. mistrust
C) ego integrity vs. despair
D) intimacy vs. isolation
Erikson’s theory is unique and particularly well known for its focus on
A) the importance of identity.
B) continued development in adulthood.
C) the significance of life crisis for encouraging personal growth.
D) development over the life-span.E) all of these
Jung claims that our ability to conceptualize certain types of individuals and experiences (e.g. evil spirits) easily is likely due to
A) the collective unconscious.
B) the personal unconscious.
C) hallucinations experienced early in childhood.
D) the refractive unconscious.E) our fertile imaginations (false truths).
According to Jung, the collective unconscious consists essentially of
D) archetypes.E) libido.
The theorist who expanded psychoanalytic theory to include the life-span was
D) Adler.E) Cantor.
The stage at which an individual encounters the crisis of trust versus mistrust is
A) old age.
B) middle childhood.
C) early adulthood.
D) middle adulthood.E) infancy.
According to Erikson, healthy development relates to the capacity of an individual to
A) successfully negotiate and progress through each of life’s ego crises.
B) remain free of neuroses and conflicts.
C) do well according to those who are significant to him.
D) do well in acquiring and retaining desired possessions.E) avoid life crises.
Behavioral genomics is the study of
A) the effects of genetics on biological maturation.
B) how behaviors affect biological development.
C) the ethics involved in unravelling the human genome.
D) how genes affect behavior.E) the unravelling of the human genome.
Of the following, which are among the four basic aspects of temperament?
A) activity and emotionality
B) activity and gender congruence
C) activity, emotionality, and gender congruence
D) emotionality and gender congruence
E) activity, emotionality, and warmth
In what way does Eysenck link his dimension of introversion to biology?
A) Introverts are superior to extroverts in their ability to cope with arousal.
B) Introverts are innately at a higher level of central nervous system arousal.
C) Introverts are either very high or very low in terms of central nervous system arousal.
D) Introverts are innately at a lower level of central nervous system arousal.
B) Introverts are innately at a higher level of central nervous system arousal.
If personality has some biologically-based component, we should
A) see complete similarity in siblings’ personalities.
B) see more personality similarities in dizygotic twins than in monozygotic twins.
C) find a single gene that completely accounts for a trait and its corresponding behavior.
D) find some personality “traits” cross-culturally.
E) all of these
Individuals with defects or weaknesses in their dopamine systems may be susceptible to
B) negative emotions.
E) all of these
One of the first scientists to explore possible genetic links for personality, who tried to separate the effects of genetics and environment by looking at adopted twins, and who began the eugenics movement, was named __________.
A) Charles Darwin
B) Ivan Pavlov
C) Floyd Allport
D) Hans Eysenck
E) Francis Galton
The Cinderella phenomenon describes
A) the tendency for girls to be more affected, in terms of personality, by their looks.
B) the tendency for biological children to be treated better than stepchildren.
C) the assertion that a dream is wish your heart makes.
D) the tendency for stepchildren to be more physically attractive than biological children.
Locke suggested that at birth, we are
A) “blank slates.”
B) bundles of energy.
C) full of innate skills.
D) predisposed to have certain abilities.
E) “cleared tables.”
What does a “lie detector” have to do with Eysenck’s biological theory of temperament?
A) It shows that there are no differences in lying behavior between introverts and extroverts, therefore biological underpinnings of personality are unlikely.
B) Eysenck has found that extroverts are more likely to lie than introverts.
C) It can be used to measure levels of physiological arousal in people, and Eysenck posits that introverts are more physiologically aroused at baseline.
Judith Rich Harris has suggested that
A) parents are the most important influence on children.
B) fathers are not significant socializing agents when compared to mothers.
C) children’s friends do not influence them very much.
D) parents who receive training are more effective parents.
E) peers are more important influences on children than parents are.
Which of the following might link biology to personality?
A) Temperament influences the environments we choose, and thus the experiences that mold us.
B) Our looks might influence how others treat us and thus how our personalities form.
C) Temperament is genetically programmed, and is a personality precursor.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
One possible way that homosexuality might have been selected for through evolution is by
A) kin selection.
B) multiplicative evolution.
C) selective attrition.
D) evolutionary sublimation.
E) open selection.
Which of the following can affect observable personality?
A) major surgeries, such as coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)
B) use of legal drugs (e.g. Halcion) or illegal drugs (e.g. LSD)
C) Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and strokes
D) poisoning by metals, including mercury, manganese, and lead (E) all of these
Which of the following is NOT an example of someone actively creating an environment?
A) John was born into a large family and he likes this because he has lots of siblings to play with, study with, and talk with.
B) John chooses to play competitive sports despite the fact that he sometimes gets injured, because he loves the adrenaline rush and the cheers of the crowd.
C) John broke up with his girlfriend because he felt their goals in life were too dissimilar.
Which of the following is a correct match between Sheldon’s somatotype and its description?
A) mesomorphs: plump and jolly
B) ectomorphs: plump and jolly
C) endomorphs: muscular and athletic
D) endomorphs: thin and studious
E) ectomorphs: thin and studious
Research has shown that, in general, physically attractive people are assumed to be
A) more musically inclined than their less attractive peers.
B) less emotionally stable than their less attractive peers.
C) kinder and more successful than their less attractive peers.
D) less athletic than their less attractive peers.
E) none of these
A) the biological predisposition to socialism.
B) how childhood affects later psychological functioning.
C) the rate at which children from different ethnicities learn.
D) the social interactions of biologists.
E) the influence of evolutionary biology on social behaviors.
A major study done at the University of Minnesota, studying identical twins raised apart, has found
A) same sex and opposite sex twins have similar personalities.
B) people raised in Minnesota do not like Mexican food.
C) similarities in physical appearance but not personality.
D) personality is mostly located in the genes, regardless of the environment.
Which of the following arguments points to non-genetic factors in the incidence of schizophrenia?
A) There is controversy over the concordance rate for schizophrenia among twins.
B) Individuals with schizophrenia often have larger ventricles in the brain.
C) Many identical twins of schizophrenics do not develop the disease.
D) Schizophrenia tends to run in families.
If we postulate that introverts are innately at a higher level of central nervous system arousal, this is an application of
A) Pavlov’s theory of the classical conditioning of traits.
B) Freud’s theory of the hydraulic nature of the id.
C) Buss’s theory of the evolution of less attractive men.
D) Eysenck’s linking of the dimension of introversion to biology.
Bem’s “exotic becomes erotic” is a theory explaining
A) biological influences on sexual fetishes.
B) biological influences on homosexuality.
C) evolutionary reasons for marriage.
D) social influences on sexual preferences.
E) innate drives to be sexual.
A) health-promoting environments.
B) motivational forces influencing individuals’ health behaviors.
C) unhealthy temperaments.
D) health-threatening environments.
E) genetically caused chromosome abnormalities.
Behavioral genomics is the study of what?
A) How behavior changes over the lifespan
B) How behavior is affected by the actions of other people
C) How behavior is affected by genes
D) How behavior is related to certain outcomes in society
E) How behavior can be controlled through therapeutic techniques
Under a cognitive approach, thought processes are viewed as
A) a consequence of behavior.
B) a correlate of behavior.
C) a cause of behavior.
D) unrelated to behavior.E) all of these
Eysenck’s model of temperament relies heavily on which biological system of the body?
A) The endocrine system
B) The cardiac system
C) The reproductive system
D) The nervous system
E) The emotionality system
What is the purpose of using twins as a source of data in personality studies?
A) To show that nature is more powerful than nurture in the development of personality
B) To show that nurture is more powerful than nature in the development of personality
C) To study the effects that both nature and nurture have in the development of personality
D) To concentrate only on nature in the development of personality
In Pavlov’s early classical conditioning experiments, food was the __________, and a bell which was originally a neutral stimulus became a __________ when paired with the food.
A) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response
B) conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
C) unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
D) conditioned stimulus; unconditioned responseE) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
In the following, what is the conditioned stimulus? “Miles is an extremely smart dog. His owner always feeds him dog food from a can, which the owner opens using an electric can-opener. Whenever Miles hears the sound of the electric can opener, he runs into the kitchen and over to his food bowl.”
A) the can of dog food
B) the sound of the can opener
C) the food bowl
D) running to the food bowl
B) the sound of the can opener
When an individual is able to discern that a given stimulus is NOT the conditioned stimulus, and therefore does not perform the conditioned response, this is called
D) optimization.E) reaction.
In the dogs that he worked with, Pavlov was able to classically condition something similar to which personality dimension?
D) opennessE) conscientiousness
After little Albert was conditioned to fear the rat, he
A) demonstrated an emotional reaction to a formerly neutral/positive stimulus (the rat).
B) showed fear of other furry objects like a rabbit and a fur coat.
C) cried at the sight of a rat.
D) all of the aboveE) generalized his fear of the rat to similar objects
When Jones extinguished Peter’s fear of the rabbit by gradually bringing it closer and closer while keeping Peter happy and relaxed, he demonstrated
C) systematic desensitization.
D) discrimination.E) classical conditioning.
Who developed the concept of “operant conditioning”?
D) PavlovE) Thorndike
Skinner’s novel, Walden Two, describes
A) individuals fighting the government for their freedom.
B) a life in which self-reliance is of paramount importance, and independence abounds.
C) a utopian community which operates on the principles of operant conditioning.
D) a peaceful and idyllic life in a cabin on Walden Pond.
According to Skinner, biology is important because
A) it determines an organism’s appearance.
B) it determines an organism’s range of potential responses.
C) most important behaviors of an organism are innate.
D) every type of organism is subject to a unique learning process.E) the genetic contributions of the parents vary between organisms within a species
Although Hull believed in the importance of environmental reinforcements for learning, he
A) also believed that the internal state of the organism was important.
B) felt it was morally wrong to use environmental reinforcements to shape behavior.
C) chose not to study learning behavior.
D) believed that environmental reinforcements were unimportant in determining what behaviors would actually be performed.
A “habit hierarchy” describes
A) a small number of habitual responses that an individual will display in the vast majority of situations, regardless of situational characteristics.
B) a hierarchy of punishments which are all possible outcomes of a behavior, and which vary along the dimension of undesirability.
C) a learned hierarchy of likelihoods that a person will respond to a situation in a specific way, based on predicted rewards.
When a primary drive impels someone toward a behavior and a secondary drives impels the person away from that same behavior, __________ develops.
A) an avoidance-frustration conflict
B) an approach-approach conflict
C) an approach-avoidance conflict
D) an avoidance-aggression conflictE) an avoidance-avoidance conflict
The frustration-aggression hypothesis is best illustrated by which of the following?
A) You're hungry, so you get something from the fridge to eat
B) You're hungry & you decide to eat some leftovers; you go to the kitchen and see your sister left them out all night so now they're moldy, you yell at her.
C) You're hungry but have a dinner planned w/ your spouse so you decide not to snack; instead you watch TV.... D) None of the above
The studies of child-rearing precursors of dependency and aggression in children (as studied by Sears) showed that
A) parents’ reports of how much they punished the child were related to the child’s friendliness.
B) child-rearing practices were completely unrelated to personality characteristics.
C) parents’ reports of how much they punished the child were related to the child’s dependency and aggression.
When a person is faced with one of the three drive conflicts described by Dollard and Miller, the inability to satisfy these conflicts leads to
A) a lifetime of pain and rejection.
B) unawareness in one’s surroundings.
C) an epiphany.
D) neurotic behavior.E) an aneurism.
Harlow’s studies of rhesus monkeys suggested that attachment between mothers and infants is due to
A) mothers’ tendency to feed infants.
B) the reinforcing nature of physical contact.
C) negative reinforcement offered by mothers.
D) mothers’ biological relatedness to infants.E) fathers’ tendency to reinforce responsiveness less than mothers.
When Jennifer came home from the hospital, she had colic & often cried. Her parents were worried about her and became distressed when she would cry. Jennifer is now four and the colic is gone, but her parents experience anxiety when they hear a baby crying. The anxiety is a(n)
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) condemnation response.D) conditioned response.
Superstitious behaviors, such as wearing a lucky ring or eating special foods prior to an important event are best explained by
A) vicarious conditioning.
B) aversive conditioning
C) learning through reinforcement.
D) tertiary conditioning.E) transference.
Great-uncle Lyle seems to have lost all motivation to be active. He finds it hard to get to work and to enjoy recreation. He often says that things “just aren’t worth doing.” Skinner would suggest that this behavior pattern is a result of
A) negative reinforcement.
B) evolutionarily selected aging processes.
C) a behavioral deficit.
D) low self-esteem.E) classically conditioned apathy.
Skinner asserts that human feelings
A) do not exist.
B) are caused by environmental events.
C) should be the focus of scientific study in the laboratory.
D) are collateral products of the process of self-actualization.E) result from a conflict between id and superego
When doctors are paid for costs of each treatment they provide patients, bills skyrocket. If doctors receive a fixed amount of money for each patient, the # of hospitalizations/medical procedures goes down. This is best explained by which behavioral approach?
D) biologicalE) neo-analytic
How does the extinction of a response occur?
A) The conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
B) Reinforcement is shifted to a variable-interval schedule.
C) Once a response is conditioned, it cannot be extinguished.
D) The reinforcement rate is increased.E) The organism becomes tired of responding, and stops
Skinner’s approach would suggest that many problems faced by old people are due in large part to
A) shortcomings of their environments.
B) their expectations that their children will care for them.
C) discrimination against older individuals.
D) their anxiety in the face of their mortality.E) the lack of respect for the aged.
The first time Jeannie went to Las Vegas she won $1,000 playing slot machines. She has not won any money since that first trip, yet she still takes regular trips to Las Vegas. Her experience winning on that one occasion is an example of
B) continuous reinforcement.
C) partial reinforcement.
D) generalization.E) a habit hierarchy.
Learning theorists would treat drug addiction by
A) providing counseling so that an individual could talk about their addiction.
B) examining neural activity.
C) examining ego development.
D) trying to understand childhood experiences.E) making the consequences of drug use very unpleasant.
The word “gestalt” means
A) pattern or configuration.
B) idea or concept.
C) complete sum.
D) puzzle piece.E) cognition or thought.
Julie is a successful interior decorator. She says that her success is due to her ability to envision the “big picture” and to create beautiful rooms without becoming too focused on small particulars with in the room. For instance, she can accurately place shelving above the fireplace, despite the fact that the fireplace bricks are crooked and sloping. She is most likely
(A) field dispositional. (B) field dependent. (C) field independent. (D) positional dependent. (E) field positional.
A field dependent person is more sensitive to __________ than a field independent person.
A) context of a problem
B) social and interpersonal cues
C) his or her own intuitions
D) holistic characteristics of a problemE) all of these
A person’s placement on the field-dependence continuum has NOT been associated with
A) children’s play preferences.
B) career choices.
C) level of eye contact.
D) life success.E) socialization patterns
A) are bundles of information that guide us and help us understand the world.
B) are independent of cultural environments.
C) are things that some people never develop.
D) are never changed or modified after being formed.E) are the specific situations we find ourselves in.
Our abilities to categorize stimuli are severely challenged when
A) we meet new people.
B) we encounter objects not even remotely similar to what we’ve experienced before.
C) we buy new furniture.
D) we enter new houses.E) we move only in redundant environments which we have encountered many times.
How we allocate our attention is a function of
A) a variety of processes, none of which has been examined by researchers.
B) our current goals.
C) a combination of current goals and a few salient environmental features.
D) a few salient environmental features.E) none of these
Kelly’s personal construct theory posits that
(A) a specific set of traits are necessary to explain an individual’s personality. (B) people work hard to create other “persons” that they can interact with. (C) individuals are largely immune to influences of their environments. (D) people work hard to actively create their own personalities. (E) people actively endeavor to make sense of their worlds.
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences states that everyone has at least __________ different intelligences.
D) 16E) 5
Cantor & Kihlstrom’s idea of “social intelligence” describes
A) individual variation in traditionally-measured intelligence.
B) individual variation in social and interpersonal skills.
C) individual variation in musical and artistic aptitude.
D) individual variation in mathematical skill.E) individual variation in extroversion.
Individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style
A) tend to have lower expectations for the future, based on pessimistic explanations of the present.
B) are more likely to be depressed.
C) tend to focus on the negative aspects of situations.
D) tend to believe that there is little they can do to avoid bad outcomes.E) all of these
Evan skydives, scuba dives, rides a motorcycle, and rock climbs. His motto is: “you only live once” and he tries to get the most out of life by doing what he wants, eating what he wants (he was voted “junk-food-junkie” in high school), and throwing caution to the wind. When questioned about this, Evan declares that he is “lucky” and that he sincerely doubts that anything negative will happen to him. Evan’s explanatory style is (A) social-constructivist. (B) optimistic. (C) pessimistic. (D) dual. (E) none of these
Bandura’s self-system is (A) a measurement tool which allows a therapist to determine what an individual thinks of him/herself, & allows the client to be an active participant in diagnosis. (B) a person’s evaluation of him/herself which occurs at adolescence and once again at the transition to old age. (C) the way a person perceives, evaluates, and regulates his/her own behavior so that it is appropriate and so that goals are achieved. (D) a person’s set of personal values and beliefs. (E) none of these
Which of the following is true of Bandura’s “Bobo doll “ studies? (A) Children who saw aggressive behavior that was punished were more aggressive. (B) Children who saw aggressive behavior by adults were more aggressive themselves. (C) Children who saw neutral behavior by adults were more aggressive themselves. (D) Children who saw neutral behavior that was punished were less aggressive. (E) Children who saw aggressive behavior by adults were less aggressive themselves.
The cognitive components that Bandura describes as necessary for the performance of modeled behavior are
A) attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.
B) attention, desire, focus, and reproduction.
C) attention, suspension, retention, and motor reproduction.
D) attention, desire, retention, motor reproduction.E) attention, retention, detention, and motivation.
Which of the following is the most important in influencing self-efficacy?
A) emotional reaction
B) verbal persuasion
C) past successes and failures
D) vicarious experiencesE) none of these
When do we tend to weigh generalized expectancies most heavily?
A) in one-on-one situations
B) in familiar situations
C) in novel situations
D) in situations with lots of peopleE) none of these
Rotter initially described the dimensions of locus-of-control (LOC) as __________, but more recently locus of control has been found to be comprised of __________.
(A) internality and externality; luck, powerful others, and internality (B) powerful others and internality; internality, externality, and luck (C) internality and luck; powerful others, externality, and self (D) internality and externality; luck and self-stability (E) none of these
Individuals with an external locus of control are likely to
A) focus on working toward their goals.
B) believe that they have control over their success or failure.
C) not regard “luck” as an important part of what happens to them.
D) believe in fate.E) all of these
Bandura states that traditional behaviorism requires that ________ for learning to occur
A) the organism be placed in an environmental chamber
B) the response be reinforced or punished during learning
C) intentional memory be properly utilized
D) behaviors be modeled by admired othersE) the desired behavior be verbally explained to the learner
When John meets new people, he immediately thinks about whether he has greater intellectual capacity than they do. George Kelly’s theory would suggest that
(A) John has a construct for defensiveness against smart people. (B) John has a construct for smart vs. dumb. (C) John is overcompensating for low intellectual self-esteem. (D) John’s behavior is likely to change with the situation, so he won’t always see people in these terms. (E) John is insecure.
A term used to describe schema for a familiar event is
D) routine.E) “rule of thumb.”
Which of the following is NOT part of psychologist Daniel Goleman’s construct of emotional intelligence?
A) being self-aware
B) controlling anger and anxieties
C) being empathic
D) being conscientiousE) being persistent and optimistic in the face of setbacks
ADHD is normally diagnosed
A) with a specific type of IQ test.
B) using a Role Construct Repertory Test.
C) based on observed behavior.
D) using a fMRI.E) in infancy.
People have been using traits to describe others for
A) approximately three decades.
B) thousands of years.
C) approximately a decade.
D) approximately a century.E) only the past five years.
While the sanguine humor was considered __________, the phlegmatic was considered __________.
A) cheerful; apathetic
B) slow; quick
C) apathetic; hopeful
D) depressed; apatheticE) angry; depressed
The two traits that Jung discussed were
A) extroversion and neuroticism.
B) neuroticism and psychoticism.
C) neuroticism and stability.
D) conscientiousness and optimism.E) extroversion and introversion.
According to Cattell, L-data are
A) longevity findings.
B) limited in their use.
C) list data.
D) lacking in generalizability.E) life data.
Cattell used __________ to organize adjectives into trait-categories.
C) factor analysis
D) regressionE) LISREL
Cattell named his 16 personality factors with letters of the alphabet because
A) he didn’t want people to be biased by the names.
B) letters fit better into mathematical equations.
C) it was suggested by a colleague.
D) it was important for them to be alphabetical.E) that was a way to represent their ordering.
A trait approach to personality is primarily focused on
A) the characteristics of the person.
B) the developmental process.
C) the characteristics of the social situation.
D) the role of genetics.E) the role of the unconscious.
The behaviorist work of Skinner particularly bothered
D) Cattell.E) Brown.
__________ dispositions are traits unique to the individual while __________ dispositions exert an overwhelming influence on behaviors.
A) Central; cardinal
B) Cardinal; proprium
C) Proprium; central
D) Personal; centralE) Personal; cardinal
The term “proprium” refers to
A) a person’s outward behavior.
B) counter-intuitive behaviors.
C) the proper way to behave in any given situation.
D) the inner core of someone’s personality.E) none of these
Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five?
D) opennessE) extroversion
Of the following, which make up Eysenck’s “big three”?
A) neuroticism, extroversion, and psychoticism
B) neuroticism, extroversion, and ego control
C) neuroticism, psychoticism, and ego control
D) neuroticism, extroversion, and opennessE) extroversion, openness, and psychoticism
Individuals who are neurotic tend to be
A) mentally ill.
B) impulsive and creative.
D) unemotional.E) high-strung and tense.
The founder of a motive-based study of personality was
D) Murray.E) Eysenck.
Charismatic people often tend to be
B) emotionally expressive.
D) aloof.E) emotionally unexpressive.
Dominant people tend to
A) speak more loudly.
B) control eye contact (stare or look away, as they like).
C) move more expansively.
D) sit or stand in a prominent position.E) all of these
Which of the following describes one possible strength of the trait and skills approach to personality?
A) It can be used to understand the contribution of genetic effects. ..... B) It simplifies personality to a small number of basic dimensions.
C) It underestimates variability across situations.
D) It is not biased toward multicultural studies.E) It solves all problems related to the categorization of people’s personalities.
Which is NOT a positive (useful) aspect of the Five Factor Model of personality?
A) It provides a common language for psychologists to use to communicate about personality.
B) It is a basic phenomenon to be explained.
C) It provides a guide to personality assessment.
D) It provides a framework for organizing research.E) It provides substantial information about someone’s personality efficiently.
Peer-ratings of personality tend to be
A) more accurate than stranger-ratings.
B) identical to self-ratings.
C) very unreliable.
D) the same as stranger-ratings.E) very different from self-ratings
If you are interested in defining, as simply as possible, what makes a “good friend,” you might list all of the things you value in a friend, and then use a statistical procedure based on correlations to narrow all of these down into just a few basic categories or dimensions. This type of analysis is called
A) item response analysis. .... B) multiple regression analysis. .... C) temporal analysis. .... D) multi-directional analysis. .... E) factor analysis.
Need for power (n Power) is best described as what?
A) The need to dominate.
B) The need to be in charge.
C) The need to control the actions of others.
D) The need for others to follow your lead.E) all of these
Gordon Allport’s definition of personality states that personality is “a dynamic organization.” By this he means that
A) there is a lot of energy associated with personality. .... B) there is an organization of mental structures and processes that is constantly changing at random over time. .... D) a unique network or organization of personal constructs characterizes every one of us, making us all dynamic creatures. .... E) behavior is a function of past reward and punishment.
According to McCrae and Costa, the Big 5 factors of personality are
A) extroversion, neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.
B) extroversion, neuroticism, openness, self-actualization, and eclecticism.
C) self-actualization, valuing, congruence, ability to love, and assertiveness.
E) extroversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.
A significant criticism of the Five Factor Model is that
A) the Big 5 are not real personality traits, but merely reflect people’s social reputations.
B) the Big 5 are simply a function of observer’s cognitive biases.
C) five is more factors than is needed to describe personality.
D) five is too few factors to describe personality.E) All of these are significant criticisms.
A zero acquaintance is someone who
A) we do not like very much.
B) has “0” personality.
C) we have met, but do not consider an acquaintance.
D) we have met, but have not befriended.E) we have never interacted with.
In basic terms, existentialism is an area of philosophy concerned with __________.
A) interpersonal relationships
B) death and dying
C) the meaning of human existence
D) how we choose religionsE) entrances to other worlds
A phenomenological approach to personality states that
A) people’s perceptions and subjective realities are important and should be studied. ... B) we are the products of the phenomena that we encounter. ... C) people vary in the degree to which they create their own phenomena. ... D) only objective events, and not perceptions, are valid when studying personality. ... E) phenomena that occur in childhood are more important than what occurs later.
A) the creative, active, spontaneous nature of humanity.
B) the personal worth of the individual.
C) the importance of human values.
D) that we strive to achieve fulfillment and to create our futures.E) all of these
The purpose of many of the encounter groups, hippie communes, and meditation seminars in the 1960s and 1970s was to
A) help people recover from the traumatic experiences of war.
B) serve as a cover for the illegal drug-culture.
C) create new and uniform identities for people so that they could function like robots.
D) discourage people from being independent.E) help people realize their inner potentials.
According to Fromm, the most mature and healthy personality is one that
A) realizes that nobody else will provide support or protection, so he or she must try to “go it alone.”
B) transcends everyday life and is productive, creative, respectful, and loving of others.
C) has experienced virtually all that life has to offer, so that there are no surprises.
D) has learned to ignore the environment.E) none of these
Rogers believed that people have an inherent tendency
A) toward violence.
B) toward growth.
C) toward isolation.
D) toward substance-abuse.E) toward stagnation.
According to Rogers, a healthy person
A) has a broad self-concept and is open to many feelings and experiences.
B) is someone who has had a preponderance of positive experiences in life.
C) has a narrow self-concept.
D) believes that the best path through life is the one that parents and others laid out for him or her.E) none of these
You're on the highway & a careless driver cuts you off, nearly causing a wreck. She then yells at you & shakes her fist. Rogers would say the most adaptive things for you to do would be to A) teach her an object-lesson by cutting her off & yelling at her so she knows how it feels. B) acknowledge your anger but not act aggressively, instead try to be understanding & compassionate. C) let your anger out & yell something back at her. D) immediately think happy thoughts & not allow anger to cloud your mind. E) none of these
Which of the following interventions to help people with life-threatening illnesses has its roots in existential-humanistic psychology?
A) aversive conditioning therapy
C) antibiotic therapy
D) support groupsE) systematic desensitization
Self-actualization, an important component of an existentialist/humanistic approach to personality, was first proposed by
D) Jung.E) Adler.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a peak experience?
A) Focus on the experience, activity, or event is intense.
B) Other things in the environment recede into the background.
C) Time seems to stand still.
D) There is a sense of well-being.E) There is a heightened sense of anxiety.
Maslow based his theories on the study of
A) well-adjusted people.
B) homeless individuals.
C) lobotomized patients in mental institutions.
D) individuals with eating disorders.E) schizophrenic patients.
The existentialist/humanistic approach to personality is most similar to which of the following?
A) cognitive social learning theories
B) ancillary analysis approaches
C) psychoanalytic approaches
D) radical behaviorismE) classical conditioning
If you were to enter a school organized by philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, you would likely see
A) children meditating as their teachers read to them from the Bible. ... B) well-behaved children who act “properly” in school. ... C) children doing all sorts of activities, each learning in his/her own way. ... D) many toys but no books, as Rousseau believed children should not read. ... E) boys and girls in gender-segregated classrooms, with gender-appropriate behaviors being reinforced.
According Erich Fromm, love is
A) a prerequisite for mutual orgasm.
B) an epiphenomenon derived from the sublime pleasure of orgasm.
C) an art that enables us to overcome our isolation from others but still maintain our individual integrity.
D) the natural outcome of a truly free and uninhibited society.E) a pseudo-state invented by Hippies.
Existentialists sometimes focus on
C) the need for basic survival.
D) the Annie Hall syndrome.E) feeling-in-the-world.
Which approach is nondeterministic?
D) psychoanalyticE) neo-analytic
In a society that lost cultural traditions to standardized Big Mac hamburgers, and replaced religious concerns about helping others with self-indulgent trips to visit Mickey Mouse, existential/humanists predict that people
A) will lose the ability for multiple orgasms.
B) need to set up a self-reinforcing environment.
C) will feel unified and so less prejudiced.
D) should return to orthodox religion. ... E) would be susceptible to the appeals of totalitarian government.
According to Carl Rogers, a psychologically healthy person is one who
A) can totally accept God as the ruler of all things.
B) has a broad self-concept that can understand and accept many feelings and experiences.
C) can overcome penis envy by giving non-sexual gifts to others.
D) is content as long as physical needs are met.E) is controlled by his environment but doesn’t worry about that.
The process by which one tends to grow spiritually and realize one’s potential is called
D) liberating the inner homunculus.E) self-stimulation.
In the 1960s and 1970s, which approach to personality often meant hippie communes in the woods, with encounter groups, body massage, meditation, organic health foods, and communing with nature?
D) behavioristE) neo-analytic
Maslow views “higher needs” as
A) imposed by the culture of a society.
B) unrelated to human value systems except drugs.
C) similar to Murray’s “Need for Power.”
D) arising from within the individual.E) unnecessary in maintaining mental health.
Fromm’s view of love and society is that
A) dopamine re-uptake inhibitors are responsible for increased feelings of love and sexual arousal. ... B) all societies promote the development of loving relationships to an equal degree. ... C) Freud was essentially correct: love is mostly an irrational phenomenon related to defense mechanisms. ... D) love is purely a function of the individual’s inner experiencing and capacity to self-generalize. ... E) none of these
The American Paradox refers to the discrepancy between
A) Americans’ material wealth and moral decline. ... B) Americans’ desire to travel abroad, and non-Americans’ desire to come to the U.S. ... C) America’s value of “freedom for all,” and persistent discrimination against individuals of different ethnic and religious backgrounds. ... D) the size of houses and the number of family members living in each house in 21st century America. ... E) none of these
All of the following are suggestions discussed in the text for finding happiness EXCEPT
A) avoid situations that may lead to failure.
B) set goals.
C) avoid television.
D) keep lists of accomplishments.E) help others.
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