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Which of the following male structures develops from the same fetal tissue as do the labia majora?
3) Psychobiology, behavioral biology, and behavioral neuroscience are all approximate synonyms for
4) Biopsychology is a branch or division of
5) What distinguishes biopsychology from the other subdisciplines of neuroscience?
6) Which of the following animals are currently the most common subjects of biopsychological research?
7) The main difference between human brains and the brains of their mammalian relatives is that human brains tend to be bigger and
An advantage of biopsychological research on nonhuman animals as opposed to humans is that
A) the brains of nonhumans are simpler.
B) there are fewer ethical constraints in studying nonhumans.
C) research in several species makes it possible to use the comparative approach.
9) The advantage of humans over other primates as subjects in biopsychological research is that they
A) are often cheaper.
B) can report their subjective experiences.
C) can follow verbal directions.
In a successful experiment, the independent variable affects the
In some studies, subjects are not assigned to conditions; instead subjects are selected because they are already living under these conditions (e.g., alcohol consumers and alcohol nonconsumers). Such studies are
13) A major shortcoming of case-study research is that
the degree to which the results can be generalized is unclear.
A) single cell recording.
B) the electrocardiogram.
C) the ethological approach.
D) the electrooculogram.
E) none of the above *****
Experimental evidence suggests that the brain damage commonly observed in people who consume a lot of alcohol is caused by
A) the direct toxic effects of alcohol on the brain.
B) thiamine deficiency.
C) vitamin B1 deficiency.
Scientists study the unobservable
One way to study self-awareness in nonhuman animals is to confront them with
A) an organism’s genetic endowment.
B) an organism’s experience.
C) an organism’s perception of the current situation.
Horse breeders have created faster horses through programs of
A) All mammals are chordates.
B) All chordates are vertebrates.**
C) All reptiles are vertebrates.
D) All mammals are vertebrates.
E) All vertebrates are chordates.
Reptiles were the first animals to
B) lay shell-covered eggs.
C) be covered by dry scales.
Australo means __________; pithecus means __________.
The last remaining hominin species is
Which of the following are evolutionary changes that are not adaptive?
reflex activities critical for survival.
A) studied dichotomous pea-plant traits.
B) began his experiments by crossing the offspring of true-breeding lines.
23 pairs of chromosomes.
On the DNA molecule, cytosine binds to
Color blindness occurs more frequently in males than in females because it is
Which of the following is a short segment of DNA that determines the rate at which a protein will be synthesized by a particular structural gene?
Proteins that bind to DNA and influence the rate at which particular structural genes will be expressed are called
A) comprises three consecutive bases on the messenger RNA molecule.
B) instructs the ribosome to add one amino acid from the cytoplasm to the growing protein chain.
During protein synthesis, each amino acid is carried to the ribosome by
Arguably, the most ambitious scientific project of all time began in 1990: the
The most surprising finding of the human genome project is that humans have
A) is in the cytoplasm.
B) occurs in the cytoplasm.
C) refers to evolutionary development.
D) refers to hominin migration.
E) none of the above **
Which of the following disorders was discovered by Asbjörn Fölling, a Norwegian dentist?
The sensitive period is a period of
B) sexual receptivity.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above **
A) white-crowned sparrows.
B) zebra finches.
Which of the following generally acts to conserve the body's energy?
A) the result of a bacterial infection.
B) a type of encephalitis.
C) an inflammation of the meninges of the brain.
When a tumor near the cerebral aqueduct causes cerebrospinal fluid to accumulate in the brain, the disorder is
The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into cerebral neurons of
Clusters of neural cell bodies in the CNS are called
CNS is to PNS as oligodendrocytes are to
The Golgi stain colors neurons
The top of a dog's head is
The tip of your nose is
The nose of a rat is
The H-shape of the spinal gray matter is most obvious in a
The reticular formation is in the
The corpus callosum is the human brain's largest
The longitudinal fissure separates the two hemispheres. Which lobe does not border it?
"Reptilian stare" is sometimes used to describe the widely opened, unblinking eyes and motionless face of
Which of the following is a passive process that acts to distribute ions evenly in neural tissue?
A) random motion, which tends to move ions down their concentration gradients
B) electrostatic pressure, which forces ions down their electrostatic gradients
C) extremely rapid.
The end of the rising phase of an action potential occurs when the
The brief period of time immediately after the initiation of an action potential when it is absolutely impossible to initiate another one in the same neuron is called the
The conduction of an action potential along any axon is mediated by the action of
With respect to the maximum speed of axonal conduction in motor neurons, cats are to humans as
Neurotransmitter molecules are packaged in vesicles by
at a rate of about 40 centimeters per day and via microtubules.
The process of neurotransmitter release is referred to as
A) are synthesized in response to activation of metabotropic receptors.
B) can influence metabolic activities of the cell.
C) can induce IPSPs or EPSPs.
D) can bind to DNA to influence protein synthesis.
After release, most neurotransmitters are deactivated by
Glial cells have been shown to
A) release chemical transmitters.
B) contain receptors for neurotransmitters.
C) conduct signals.
D) participate in neurotransmitter reuptake.
23) Drugs that facilitate the activity of the synapses of a particular neurotransmitter are said to be __________ of that neurotransmitter.
With respect to neurotransmitters, which of the following is a correct sequence?
Which contrast X-ray technique is designed to locate vascular abnormalities in the brains of human patients?
Which of the following procedures is not an adaptation of X-ray photography?
Unlike brain-imaging techniques, TMS permits the study of __________ between human cortical activity and cognition.
not usually influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.
Which of the following is a record of a person's heart beat?
The level of 130/70 mmHg is
A) a stereotaxic atlas.
B) a stereotaxic instrument.
C) a head holder.
D) an electrode holder.
The __________ created by the current is the main cause of tissue damage produced be a radio-frequency lesion.
Unlike other electrophysiological methods of recording neural activity, intracellular unit recording provides measurements of
IP, SC, and IM are all
Immunocytochemistry is to in situ hybridization as
The digit-span test is a common test of
In most PET and functional MRI studies of cognitive processes, the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by
A) principle of equipotentiality.
B) belief that temporal contiguity is necessary for conditioning.
The ability of a stationary eye to fill in the gap in its visual field that results from the blind spot is called
With respect to the visual system, a high degree of neural convergence is to a low degree of neural convergence as
A) low acuity is to high acuity.
B) high sensitivity is to low sensitivity.
Transduction refers to the
The retina-geniculate-striate system is organized
Parvocellular is to magnocellular as
Lateral inhibition in horseshoe crab ommatidia is mediated by the
A) decrease in firing when the stimulus comes on.
B) increase in firing when the stimulus goes off.
A) are found in blobs.
B) respond best when the center of their receptive field is fully illuminated with one wavelength while the periphery is fully illuminated with another.
C) have particularly high concentrations of cytochrome oxidase.
Scotomas are located by
A) can usually recognize a face as a face.
B) have difficulty telling one face from another.
C) report seeing faces as a jumble of individual parts, rather than as a unitary whole.
A) stimulus energy.
B) non-toxic stimulus matter.
Sensory pollutants interfere with the ability of animals to
A) detect sensory information.
B) process sensory information.
C) interpret sensory information.
A) Artificial night lighting.
B) fishing gear.
C) increased polarized light.
Which of the following auditory structures has the appearance of a snail and has a name that is derived from the Greek word for land snail?
Which of the following is part of the organ of Corti?
B) the hair cells
C) the basilar membrane
A) nociceptive stimuli.
B) thermal stimuli.
C) mechanical stimuli.
The Pacinian corpuscle is
A) the largest cutaneous receptor.
B) the most deeply positioned cutaneous receptor.
C) fast adapting.
Most of the neurons of the anterolateral system decussate in the
The inability to identify objects by touch is
The most common neurological cause of anosmia is
Like the sensory systems, the sensorimotor system is
C) functionally segregated.
A) the locus of control is often shifted to lower levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy.
B) the locus of control is often shifted from conscious to unconscious control mechanisms.
C) individual responses are often integrated into continuous motor programs.
The somatotopic map of the primary motor cortex is called the
A) correct ongoing movements that deviate from their intended course.
B) play a major role in motor learning, particularly when timing is critical.
Which midbrain structure receives visual and auditory information about spatial location?
In contrast to the axons of the descending dorsolateral motor pathways, individual axons of the ventromedial pathways often terminate
B) in two or more segments.
C) on both sides of the spinal cord.
So-called fast muscle fibers
A) the number of active neurons in its motor pool.
B) the level of activity of neurons in its motor pool.
Muscles are protected from damage caused by excessive contraction by
Muscle spindles provide the CNS with information about muscle
The patellar tendon reflex is a
B) stretch reflex.
D) monosynaptic reflex.
During a stretch reflex, the extrafusal motor neuron is excited directly by the
spindle afferent neuron.
A highly skilled typist can type 120 words per minute only because
A) the neural circuits responsible for activating each key press become active before the preceding key press has been completed.
B) different neural circuits at the lower levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy can be simultaneously active without interfering with one another.
C) the key presses have been chunked.
Embryonic cells that have the potential for unlimited renewal and have the ability to develop into different kinds of mature cells if they are transplanted to different sites are often called
The pattern of migration of future neocortical neurons is referred to as
Frogs, unlike mammals, have retinal ganglion cells that are capable of
A) promote neuron growth.
B) promote neuron survival.
C) function as axon guidance molecules.
The development of the human brain is unique in that
Functions of the prefrontal cortex include
A) working memory.
B) planning and carrying out sequences of action.
continue making formerly correct responses that are currently incorrect.
B) there is a decrease in the number of visual cortex neurons that can be activated by stimulation of the early-deprived eye.
C) there is an increase in the number of visual cortex neurons that can be activated by stimulation of the nondeprived eye.
A few days of early monocular deprivation produces a massive decrease in the axonal __________ of lateral geniculate nucleus neurons that normally conduct signals from the deprived eye.
Roe and his colleagues (1990) caused the developing axons of ferret retinal ganglion cells to synapse in the medial geniculate nuclei of the auditory system. Once the ferrets matured, their
A) auditory cortex responded to visual stimuli.
B) auditory cortex was laid out retinotopically.
It is now generally acknowledged that adult brains are
B) capable of major adaptation.
C) not as plastic as developing brains.
A) is ringing in the ears.
C) leads to a reorganization of primary auditory cortex.
A major feature of the symptoms of autism is their
Both autism and Williams syndrome are associated with
Which type of tumor is likely to be benign?
When there is a disturbance of consciousness following a blow to the head and there is no evidence of physical damage, the diagnosis is
Neurological disorders are rarely caused by dominant genes
A) because all individuals carrying them would be at a major disadvantage in terms of survival and reproduction.
B) unless the dominant genes do not express themselves until after the peak reproductive years.
The process by which neurons passively die as the result of injury is
A) often result from temporal lobe pathology.
B) are often characterized by automatisms.
Grand mal convulsions produce __________, which itself can cause brain damage.
A) terminals in the striatum.
B) cell bodies in the substantia nigra.
C) axons in the nigrostriatal pathway.
A) neurofibrillary tangles in the neural cytoplasm.
B) amyloid plaques.
After the axon of a typical multipolar neuron is cut, the distal segment always degenerates. This is called __________ degeneration.
Oligodendroglia __________ regeneration.
A) do not stimulate
B) do not guide
C) release factors that actively block
A) stroke; unilateral neglect
A) Silas Weir Mitchell; Civil War
Ventromedial hypothalamus dysfunction leads to.
Cerebellar and basal ganglia dysfunction leads to
A) had a really bad day on the 13th of Sep 1848
C) lost his ability to plan and control impulses
The most commonly employed test of short-term verbal memory is the
A) Pavlovian conditioning test
C) mirror-drawing test
B) chronic alcohol consumption.
C) diffuse damage to the medial diencephalon.
D) confusion and personality changes.
In the brains of Alzheimer's patients, the level of __________ is greatly reduced.
Electroconvulsive shock is commonly used in studies of memory because it
According to the reconsolidation notion, long-term memories are temporarily susceptible to posttraumatic amnesia when they are
A change in the brain that stores a memory is called
Which of the following has been used extensively in the assessment of object-recognition memory in monkeys?
At delays of a few minutes or less, healthy control monkeys score about __________ correct on the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task
C) rhinal cortex.
D) CA1 subfield.
The Mumby-box is an apparatus that has been frequently used to study
According to the cognitive map theory, the hippocampus is specialized for storing
diffusely throughout the structures of the brain that participated in the original experience.
Recent studies have demonstrated that infantile amnesia can occur for __________ memories without affecting __________ memories for the same information.
Most of the body's energy reserves are stored in the form of
Although the __________ assumption is engrained in most people's thinking, it is inconsistent with most of the evidence.
According to the Pavlovian conditioning studies of Weingarten, we are likely to initiate meals when
__________ encourages the consumption of a varied diet.
A) there is a rapid decline in the positive-incentive values of the particular tastes that are being consumed.
C) there is a gradual decline in the positive-incentive value of all foods.
B) are unwilling to work for food.
C) will not eat food that is slightly unpalatable.
continue to maintain their body weights by eating more meals of smaller size.
A) the gastrointestinal tract produces a satiety signal.
B) food-related chemical signals from the stomach are transmitted through the circulatory system to the brain.
Diet-induced thermogenesis refers to the increases in body temperature produced by
increases in body fat.
The rate at which resting individuals utilize their energy resources to maintain their basic body processes is
Settling-point models of weight regulation can explain why
A) body weight remains relatively constant in many adults.
B) many adults display enduring changes in body weight.
C) metabolic changes reduce the impact of starvation or gluttony.
D) dieters regain lost weight after they go off their diets.
A) is the men-are-men-and-women-are-women assumption.
B) is seductive.
C) seems so right, but is fundamentally wrong.
D) is the tendency to think that "femaleness" and "maleness" are discrete, mutually exclusive, complementary categories.
Located just above the pituitary is the
A portal vein is any vein
Sperm cells move to the seminal vesicles through the
At puberty, the growth of female pubic hair and axillary hair is stimulated by
A) is present in the blood of neonatal rats.
B) does not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
C) deactivates circulating estradiol.
If identified at birth in a genetic female, adrenogenital syndrome is typically treated by early
A) surgical correction of any abnormalities of the genitals.
B) the administration of cortisol.
Castrating adult human males usually produces a decrease in their
A) their sexual motivation.
B) their ability to achieve an erection.
D) body hair.
In laboratory experiments, ovariectomized female rats are often rendered receptive by injections of
Bailey and Pillard found the rate of homosexuality in males who had a homosexual twin brother to be
If a homosexual male were gonadectomized and then given extremely large replacement injections of testosterone, his primary sexual orientation would be
Dreaming appears to occur mainly during
A) Long periods of wakefulness will produce physiological and behavioral disturbances.
B) The disturbances produced by sleep deprivation will grow worse as the deprivation continues.
C) After a period of sleep deprivation, most missed sleep will be regained.
Slow-wave sleep seems to play a particularly important
A) People regain only a small portion of their lost sleep following a period of sleep deprivation, but they regain most of their lost stage 4.
C) Volunteers who have reduced the amount that they sleep each night have usually accomplished this without substantially reducing the amount of stages 3 and 4 sleep.
A good workout on the day after an east-bound flight might speed up recovery from jet lag. If the flight were from San Francisco to Toronto, a 3-hour phase advance, a good time to work out would be __________ San Francisco time.
Bilateral lesions of the __________ selectively disrupt circadian cycles.
The entrainment of circadian rhythms by visual zeitgebers is mediated by
A) part of the optic nerve.
B) the retinohypothalamic tract.
C) a rare type of retinal ganglion cell.
Clock is a circadian gene; it was discovered in
The encephale isolé preparation is produced by transecting the
Which of the following is a problem with the long-term use of benzodiazepines to treat insomnia?
B) reduction of life expectancy
C) distortion of normal sleep
D) next-day drowsiness.
In one study, volunteers gradually reduced the number of hours that they slept each night, until they felt that they had reached their limit. On the average, this limit was
Most drugs that are taken orally enter the bloodstream through the walls of the
Drug injection is common in medical practice because the effects of injected drugs are relatively __________ in comparison to most other conventional routes of drug administration.
Some drugs can be effectively administered through mucous membranes. One such drug is
Sensitization is the opposite of .
The severity of withdrawal symptoms depends upon the
A) particular drug in question.
B) dose of the preceding drug exposure.
C) duration of the preceding drug exposure.
D) speed with which the drug is cleared from the body.
The defining feature of addiction is
Chronic use of which drug has been linked to bronchitis, emphysema, cancer, stroke, and heart attack?
Cirrhosis and Korsakoff's syndrome are two of the dire consequences of chronic __________ consumption.
Which of the following drugs is associated with severe dementia, gastritis, and cirrhosis of the liver?
Drugs that tend to increase neural and behavioral activity are classified as
Which of the following drugs in high doses produces a syndrome of psychotic behavior that is similar to paranoid schizophrenia?
Attempts to treat heroin and morphine addiction often involve the prescription of
The lack of strong support for early physical-dependence theories of addiction lent indirect support to the notion that the primary factors in drug addiction are
Many addicts who are motivated to "kick their habit" manage to stop taking their drug, but they often
Many researchers believe that a major cause of drug relapse is
C) drug-related cues.
Many early studies of intracranial self-stimulation focused on the stimulation of the
A) Brain stimulation through electrodes that support self-stimulation often elicits motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and copulation.
B) Increasing levels of natural motivation sometimes increases the rate of self-stimulation.
The animal model that best approximates human drug addiction is the
Laboratory animals self-administer microinjections of addictive drugs directly into the
The left and right hemispheres are connected by the
The two hemispheres, although similar in appearance, differ in function. The study of these functional differences is commonly referred to as the study of
A) one function of the corpus callosum is to transmit learned information between hemispheres.
B) the key to studying the function of the cerebral commissures is to develop experimental procedures for presenting information to one hemisphere while keeping it out of the other.
C) one hemisphere is capable of solving simple problems as rapidly as two hemispheres working together.
D) the cerebral hemispheres are capable of functioning independently.
A) the left hemisphere plays the greater role in many aspects of language in most people.
B) the right hemisphere plays the greater role in many aspects of spatial perception in many people .
C) lateralization of neither language nor spatial perception is total.
N.I. had her enitre _____________________ hemisphere removed. This procedure is known as a ______________________.
A) expressions of emotion evolve from behaviors that indicate what an animal is likely to do next.
B) expressions of emotion evolve in ways that enhance their communicative function and that their original function may be lost.
C) opposite messages are often signaled by opposite movements and postures.
Gulls signal aggression by pointing their beaks at one another and submission by
According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the feeling of emotion by the cortex and the expression of emotion by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems are
A) decorticate cats.
C) cats whose cerebral hemispheres, excluding the hypothalamus, have been removed.
Which of the following structures is part of the limbic system?
B) cingulate cortex
D) mammillary body
The polygraph does not detect lies, it detects
The true expressions that momentarily break through false expressions are called
The defensive and aggressive behaviors of rats have been assigned to various categories on the basis of
A) their topography.
B) the situations in which they occur.
C) their apparent function.
A) hormones may have less effect on human aggression than they do on aggression in other species.
B) the tests that have been used to study testosterone and aggression in humans are markedly different from those used in other species.
C) testosterone can be synthesized and act locally in particular brain structures, but studies of testosterone and human aggression have been based on general blood levels of testosterone.
The structure in which the emotional significance of sensory signals is learned and retained is believed to be the .
In the short-term, stressors produce physiological changes that
A) are lesions to the lining of the stomach and duodenum.
B) are more common in people who have been exposed to chronic stress.
C) have been produced in experimental animals by exposure to psychological stress.
A) the immune system has many redundant components.
B) disruptions in immune function may be too brief to affect susceptibility to infection.
C) disruptions in immune function may trigger compensatory improvements to other aspects of immune function.
B) There is usually activity in sensory and motor cortex when a person experiences an emotion.
C) Similar patterns of brain activity occur when a person experiences an emotion or empathizes with someone experiencing the same emotion.
The main difficulty in diagnosing psychiatric disorders is that
A) patients suffering from the same psychiatric disorder often display different symptoms.
B) patients suffering from different psychiatric disorders often display the same symptoms.
Catatonic schizophrenic patients often experience a unique symptom when somebody moves them:
Hallucinations associated with schizophrenia often take the form of
The symptoms of schizophrenia are often divided into two categories:
The first two antischizophrenic drugs were
Reserpine is not currently used in the treatment of schizophrenia because it
The clinical effectiveness of typical antischizophrenic drugs is positively correlated with the degree to which they bind to
Many of the people who experience clinical depression also experience recurring periods of
The __________ individual typically leaves behind a trail of unfinished projects, unpaid bills, and broken relationships.
Which of the following is not a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor?
The diathesis-stress model is a prominent theory of
Chronic fear that persists in the absence of any direct threat is known as
The elevated-plus-maze test is a commonly used model of clinical
Some patients with Tourette syndrome also display signs of
A) attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
B) obsessive convulsive disorder.
Study of the neural mechanisms of Tourette syndrome is difficult because
A) it has not been linked to a particular gene..
B) there are no animal models.
C) the symptoms tend to subside as patients mature.
The goal of the second of the three phases of human clinical trials is
identifying the most effective doses and schedules of treatment.
An ideal placebo is a control drug that produces the same __________ effects as the drug that is being tested.