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an emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time. Usually, attachments are discussed in regard to the relation between infants and specific caregivers, although they can also occur in adulthood.
the process of initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feeling states and related physiological processes, cognitions, and behaviors
-7-10 months use others emotions reactions to regulate own behavior-Second year, look to others -reactions after appraising a new situation
-a person’s ability to experience the emotions of other people
-Personal/self oriented distress can lead to ignoring others in need
-Sympathetic empathetic arousal- concern for distressed others increases altruism
the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others
constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self-regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations, as well as relative stability over time
a temperamentally based style of responding characterized by the tendency to be particularly fearful and restrained when dealing with novel or stressful situations
refers to the idea that the presence of a trusted caregiver provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the child to explore the environment
Begin at time of primary attachment and peaks at 8-10 months then declines
o Appears at 6-8 months
o Peaks at 14-18 monthsGradual decline, but may be visible in adolescents
feelings of distress that children, especially infants and toddlers, experience when they are separated, or expect to be separated, from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached
a procedure developed by Mary Ainsworth to assess infants’ attachment to their primary caregiver
- May be upset by separations
- Warm greeting on return, seeks comfort- Outgoing with strangers when mother is present
a pattern of attachment in which infants or young children have a high-quality, relatively unambivalent relationship with their attachment figure. In the Strange Situation, a securely attached infant, for example, may be upset when the caregiver leaves but may be happy to see the caregiver return, recovering quickly from any distress. When children are securely attached, they can use caregivers as a secure base for exploration.
- Very distressed
- Want to be close but will be resistant when they return
- Wary of strangers even when mom is present
- Ignore mother on return
- Often sociable with strangers, by may ignore or avoid them
the process of comparing aspects of one’s own psychological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself
refers to whether children are motivated by learning goals, seeking to improve their competence and master new material, or by performance goals, seeking to receive positive assessments of their competence or to avoid negative assessments
-controlling but flexible, make reasonable demands, provide rationale for limits-Tend to raise highly competent, well-adjusted children
an integration of various aspects of the self into a coherent whole that is stable over time and across events
being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby better understanding that person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings
in Dodge’s theory, the tendency to assume that other people’s ambiguous actions stem from a hostile intent
Concern for the welfare of others and willingness to act on that concern
The Felt Responsibility Hypothesis
-Sympathetic empathetic arousal causes one to reflect on altruistic lessons
-Result is assuming personal responsibility for aiding a person in distress
the process of adopting as one’s own the attributes, beliefs, and standards of another person
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
-Used dilemmas requiring choice between obeying rules or disobeying rules while serving a human need
-Focus was on rationaleStages are invariant sequence
general beliefs, values, customs, and laws of the larger society.
their genes will be perpetuated only if their children survive long enough to reproduce.
view the effect of children's social experience as dependent on their interpretations of the experiences.
consumption of sugar
be consistent and warm in their caretaking
Never give Joshua what he wants when he screams.
the interaction between nature and nurture.
-boys internalizing their fathers' values
-boys seeing their fathers as rivals
-boys experiencing sexual desire for their mothers
emotions such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride that relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others’ reactions to us
a) types of emotions experienced
b) expression of anger
c) amount of crying by infants
d) feelings of pride
-modulating one's interpretation of evocative situations.
Downplaying the importance of the situation
a) ensuring that children understand the differences between the various self-conscious emotions.
b) guiding children to learn ways of coping with emotions.
c) discussing children's emotions.
d) helping children express emotions appropriately.
ensuring that children understand the differences between the various self-conscious emotions.
a)to get information about an ambiguous event
c) to prevent hurting someone's feelings
d) to protect oneself from looking bad
to get information about an ambiguous event
-academic competence 10 years later
-decreased drug use in adulthood.
-social competence in adulthood.
-ability to deal with frustration 10 years later.
develop more positive emotion and are more advanced in their understanding of emotion.
-the desire to take action.
-the physiological correlates of feelings.
-the cognitions that accompany feelings.
a) increasing use of cognitive strategies.
b) decreasing reliance on others for help in regulating emotions.
Young children are best at identifying happiness, and they have difficulty differentiating among negative emotions until they are older.
Yes, at least partly by influencing aspects of the self, such as physical appearance, athletic ability, and intellectual abilities, which then influence self-esteem.
The attachment process has an innate basis, but the quality of infants' attachments is dependent on the nature of their experiences with caregivers.
Identical twins are more similar in sexual identity than are fraternal twins.
a) enables child to learn about the world
b)provides a sense of assurance
c)serves as a safe place when an infant feels scared
one's thoughts and attitudes about oneself.
-their perceptions of their academic ability.
-their perceptions of their athletic competence.
-their perceptions of their social acceptance.
-how they feel about themselves in general.
An individuals' feelings about being worthy or unworthy of love.
the placement of rouge on child's face before placing child in front of mirror
children of employed mothers who received adequate supervision displayed academic competence at least as high as children of stay-at-home mothers.
Although divorce has negative consequences for some children, most children do not suffer long-term problems as a consequence.
When it is of high quality, child care tends to have a positive effect on children's cognitive development.
are highly demanding and unresponsive.
-the outcomes associated with different parenting styles
-the meaning of particular parenting styles to children
-the prevalence of different parenting styles
the study of the evolutionary bases of behavior
a theory that stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behavior, including the extensive investment parents make in their offspring
physical manifestations of identity, hormonal influences
Adults’ exaggerated verbal utterances mixed with expressive actions such as gestures are known as
-More likely to forget
-Young children use more often
*If the child sees a dog chase a cat its much harder for kids to remember the descriptive qualities (red collar, through a meadow, yellow dog etc.)
*Fuzzy (gist) = content but not detail
-Easier to access and use-Older children (after ages 6-7) use more often
o ignoring irrelevant info
- Also improves with age, less distraction
- Task requiring remembering animals while ignoring household items
o dismissing information that is clearly irrelevant
-processes for conscious attempts to retain or retrieve information
-Mnemonics (memory strategies): helpful, effortful techniques
o Scripts: schemes for recurring events organized in terms of causal and temporal sequences
-Tend to remember info consistent with scripts
Example of memory from camping trip as (first we go to bed, then we wake up and have breakfast)Become more elaborate with age
o based on repetition
-Older children use rehearsal more efficiently (3-4 year old will label once 7-10 year old will rehearse)-Active on cumulative repeating several earlier items as they rehearse a successive word
o grouping into related categories
-Unlikely prior to age 9 or 10
-But younger children can be trained (7 year old can do it if category labels remain visible)
-Free Recall: general prompt
*Difficult for young children (How was your day?)
-Cued Recall: given specific cues*Easy for young children (Tell me about the gorilla at the zoo)
type of problem solving requiring one to make an inference
-knowing about analogical reasoning is important
o Teaching the value of reasoning by analogy
-changes that occur in mental abilities over the lifespan
-Attention and perceptionLearning, thinking, and remembering
o balance between thought processes and the environment
o child constructs knowledge by acting on objects and events
o mental pattern of thought or action-Organization: combine existing schemes into new/complex scheme
modifying existing schemes for new information
-search in the last place found, not where it was last seen
-Complete by 18-24 months
- relational logic- capable of mental seriation and transicity
- Horizontal decalage: the different levels of understanding that seem to require
- Ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive reasoningInductive reasoning- going from specific to generalizations