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a temporary reduction in the sensitivity of sense organs caused by repeated or excessive stimulation.
Nativists → mind does not function in a predictable manner
In the idea of tabula rasa, the view of the mind as a blank slate
Contiguity, similarity and contrast between sensory events establish associations
Contiguity → repeatedly occur together in space and time (Hartley)
Similarity → similarity
everyone is a blank slate and have to learn things through experience
provide clues about the machinery of the nervous system
they tell us what kinds of plasticity the nervous system is capable of, the conditions under which learning can take place, how long learned responses persist, and circumstances under which learned information becomes accessible or not
The behavioral level of analysis- rooted in the conviction that the function of learning is to facilitate an organism’s interactions with its environment.The level of neural mechanisms- the system level; concerned with how neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems are organized to produce learned responses.
Replacement of animals with other testing techniques.
Reducing the number of animals used with statistical techniques.
they arise from reactions to the environment
Visual attention to progressively decrease (habituation effect).Or have a initial sensitization effect, but eventually is habituated.
Focus attention on relevant stimuli.Help sort out what stimuli to ignore and what to respond to.
If the muscles involved become incapacitated.Repeated actions cause muscles to temporarily weaken.
Different types of neural mechanisms are responsible for increases and decreases in responsiveness to stimulation.
autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system → voluntary
have to perform correct behavior to receive reward
They have a choice to show behavior or not
Continuous reinforcement creates fast learning but is rare in the real world.
Which of the following is thought in part to have helplessness as a mechanism of its development?
ALL of the FOLLOWING
-distract your sibling with an intervening task during a delay to a large reward.
-distract your sibling from the attending to a large reward during the delay period.
-give a large reward initially, then gradually increase the delay to reward delivery.
molar theories focus on aggregates of behavior over a period of time, while molecular theories focus on individual choice responses.
An instrumental conditioning procedure provides the opportunity for a subject to learn many associations. Which of the follow
What is likely to occur in the testing phase of a Pavlovian instrumental transfer experiment?
A conditional stimulus is presented while an organism is engaged in aninstrumental behavior
An instrumental contingency results in increased performance of a target instrumental response. According to the response allocation approach, this increase is due to
According to Hull and Spence, what mediates expectancy of reward?
Which of the following is not considered a contribution of the Premack principle?
According to the two-process theory, emotional states
Thirsty rats will drink more than they run in a wheel. When they are not thirsty, the same rats will run more than they drink. The evidence suggesting that running can be reinforced by drinking in thirsty rats, and drinking reinforced by running in non-thirsty rats, supports
According to the minimum deviation model, when an instrumental contingency is imposed that will not allow an animal to achieve its behavioral bliss point,
Bob was washing dishes to avoid getting fired. Just then he heard the sound of his crazy boss arriving at the restaurant. According to the two-process theory, he will now wash the dishes
If you wanted to study “spending” in an instrumental procedure, you would be interested in
One contribution of the response allocation approach was that it moved us toward considering instrumental conditioning as
If a situation remains unchanged during an experiment, the unrestricted baseline is assumed to
According to the two-process theory, the emotional state generated by an instrumental conditioning procedure is determined by
The pairing of activity of which two neurotransmitters is thought to act as a “teacher” that binds sensory attributes with reward value?
Newspapers have seen a steep decline in readership due to the availability of 24 h news channels. This demonstrates that the elasticity of demand
The elasticity of demand for candy is likely to be _____ the elasticity of demand for gasoline
According to Spence’s Theory, the peak shift phenomenon occurs because
The excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients summate
The term “occasion setters” refers to
Modulators of the CS-US relationship in classical conditioning
Contextual cues can be involved in discrimination training
Both excitatory and inhibitory conditioning
According to the configural-cue approach
individuals respond to a compound stimulus in terms of the unique blend of the compound elements
After eating a foot-long spicy chili dog at the homecoming game, your friend becomes violently ill. Now he cannot stand to eat chili, but still loves hot dogs. His ability to eat hot dogs was likely spared because of
Modulators serve to
Indicate when a binary relation is in effect
The configural-cue approach asserts that the overshadowing effect is due to
The generalization decrement from training to test trials.
An animal demonstrates stimulus generalization when it
Responds in a similar fashion to two or more stimuli
A flat stimulus generalization gradient indicates that subjects are
Responding similarly to several stimuli
Modulator effects require that an organism treat the stimulus compound as independent cues. To ensure that this occurs, researchers present the stimuli
one after the other in a given trial.
Which of the following conditioning procedures will result in the steepest stimulus generalization gradient?
S+ = 950 Hz tone; S- = 900 Hz tone
Damage to the hippocampus most severely affects which type of memory?
For one group of pigeons, a black vertical bar on a white key light served as the S+ and the blank key light the S-. For another, the bar served as the S- and the blank key light the S+. When the bar was rotated toward the horizontal, the first group decreased pecking, and the second increased pecking. This demonstrates that
excitatory and inhibitory conditioning can occur in discrimination training.
Stimulus control of instrumental behavior is demonstrated by which of the following?
differential responding in the presence of different stimuli
In the peak-shift phenomenon, the peak performance shifts
from the training S+ away from the training S-.
Which of the following stimuli could be used in an intradimensional discrimination procedure?
S+ = bright red light: S- = bright yellow light
Which of the following is a true statement about stimulus control?
When pigeons are trained to respond to avoid shock in the presence of a combined light/tone stimulus, the _____ is most likely to control the instrumental behavior.
A steep stimulus generalization gradient indicates that
the instrumental behavior is under the control of the stimulus feature being varied.
Which of the following conditioning procedures will result in the flattest stimulus generalization gradient?
no training prior to testing with various frequency tones
Spence’s theory suggests that the peak shift phenomenon will only occur when
The excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients overlap
Other students take advantage of the professor’s absence to look on each others’ papers. When the professor periodically returns, this behavior stops, only to start again when the professor leaves. This is an example of
A multiple schedule of reinforcement
The best evidence suggests that conditional relationships control behavior
In both instrumental and classical conditioning situations
A hamster is trained to push a lever to earn a food pellet each time it hears a bell. When a buzzer sounds, pushing the lever does not result in food delivery. The hamster quickly learns to respond to the bell and does not respond to the buzzer. We can conclude
That more information is needed to determine what the hamster has learned
When the S+ and S- differ only in terms of one stimulus feature, the training procedure is called
A colorblind dog is trained to press a lever in the presence of a 590 nm wavelength colored light. The stimulus generalization gradient when the dog is tested in the presence of other colors will
Dogs are trained with a red-light S+ and a yellow-light S- in context 1. Then, in context 2, the same dogs receive training with a yellow-light S+ and a red-light S-. Assuming they receive the same number of reinforcers in each context during training, what will be the role of the contexts in the subsequent test trials in each context?
The contexts will be associated with different S+/S- contingencies.
According to Sidman, an equivalence class exists if members of the class have
A pigeon is trained to peck in the presence of a 500 nm wavelength light and is not reinforced for pecking in the presence of a 510 nm wavelength light. After training, most performance will be demonstrated in response to a
490 nm light.
Which of the following best states the distribution of stimulus control over the instrumental behavior of pigeons?
Responding in appetitive situations is more likely to be controlled by visual cues; responding in aversive situations by auditory cues.
A drug has been developed to keep Mg++ in the NMDA receptor. You predict this will
Disrupt long-term potentiation
The extent to which an organism learns about a stimulus depends on how easily other stimuli in the environment can become conditioned. This phenomenon is called
Your professor tells you that your dog is demonstrating stimulus discrimination. This means that
Your dog is responding differently to two or more stimuli
Which of the following pairs of stimuli is least likely to result in a peak-shift effect?
S+ as a red square; S- as a blue triangle
The stimulus-element approach assumes that
Stimulus elements maintain their individuality in their control of behavior even when in a compound stimulus.
In a stimulus discrimination procedure, subjects are
Exposed to at least two stimuli, only one of which is a cue for the availability of a reinforcer
Your friend has enrolled in a course in music training. The first part of the course involves learning to recognize different tones. Every time the students hear a middle C, they are to raise their right hands. Early in training you expect the stimulus generalization gradient to
gradually rise and fall, with a peak at middle C.
When pigeons are trained to earn access to food in the presence of a combined light/tone stimulus, the _____ is most likely to control the instrumental behavior.
In a positive patterning procedure of discrimination training
cue AB is reinforced, cue A is not reinforced, cue B is not reinforced.
Which of the following most resembles a positive patterning procedure of discrimination training?
Responding to a tone and a light together is reinforced; responding is not reinforced to either the tone or light alone.
Assume you would like your therapeutic treatments to generalize to outside settings. Which of the following would you not do?
Conduct sessions in your office so the client comes to associate the cues of the office with preparing for treatment.
Which of the following is true of Spence’s theory as applied to the peak-shift phenomenon?
It predicts the peak shift phenomenon will only occur when the excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients overlap.
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