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Damage to wernicke's area is in which lobe of the brain?
Speech segmentation is defined as
The example of how we might perceive something that looks like an animal hiding behind a tree in the woods
was used to illustrate the operation of
Amhad is doing an experiment in which he has to choose between the object he has been shown previously
(the target object) and another object. Choosing the target object will result in a reward. What sort of task is
Damage to the temporal lobe makes the ________ more difficult.
In which neurological disorder might mirror neurons be most likely to be implicated as a potential cause of
The study of the physiological basis of cognition is known as:
a. cognitive psychology.
c. cognitive neuroscience.
Early studies of brain tissue that used staining techniques and microscopes from the 19th century described the "nerve net." These early understandings were in error in the sense that the nerve net was believed to be:
b. composed of discrete individual units.
c. composed of cell bodies, axons, and dendrites.
d. composed of neurotransmitters rather than neurons.
The neuron doctrine is:
a. in agreement with nerve net theory.
b. unrelated to nerve net theory.
c. synonymous with nerve net theory.
d. in disagreement with nerve net theory.
Neural circuits are groups of interconnected neurons that:
a. have only excitatory synapses.
b. have only inhibitory synapses.
c. can result in a neuron that responds best to a specific stimulus.
d. are primarily responsible for automatic behaviors, like reflexes
Recordings from single neurons are conducted using which of these pieces of equipment?
a. Positron emission tomography scanner
b. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner
An oscilloscope can display "spikes" that correspond to nerve impulses in response to a certain stimulus intensity. If the stimulus intensity is decreased, you are likely to observe spikes that are:
a. less frequent and smaller in size.
b. less frequent and of the same size.
c. as frequent and smaller in size.
d. the same signal as with the higher stimulus intensity
Which of the following is consistent with the idea of localization of function?
a. Specific areas of the brain serve different functions.
b. Neurons in different areas of the brain respond best to different stimuli.
c. Brain areas are specialized for specific functions.
d. All of these
The occipital lobe is:
a. the first place in the cerebral cortex where visual information is received.
b. important for language, memory, hearing, and vision.
c. important for higher functions such as language, thought, and memory, as well as motor functioning.
d. where signals are received from the sensory system for touch.
If the intensity of a stimulus that is presented to a touch receptor is increased, this tends to increase the _____ in the receptor’s axon.
a. rate of nerve firing
b. size of the nerve impulses
c. speed of nerve conduction
d. all of these
When recording from a single neuron, stimulus intensity is represented in a single neuron by the:
a. size of the action potentials.
b. size of the synapse.
c. firing rate of the neurotransmitters.
d. firing rate of the action potentials.
Recording from single neurons in the brain has shown that neurons responding to specific types of stimuli are often clustered in specific areas. These results support the idea of:
a. cortical association.
c. localization of function.
d. the information processing approach.
Which of the following statements best describes how neurons communicate with one another?
a. The end of one neuron makes direct contact with the receiving end of another neuron.
b. A chemical process takes place at the synapse.
c. An electrical process takes place in the receptors.
d. Action potentials travel across the synapse.
The temporal lobe is:
d. where signals are received from the auditory system.
The _____ lobe of the cortex serves higher functions such as language, thought, and memory.
A 10-month-old baby is interested in discovering different textures, comparing the touch sensations between a soft blanket and a hard wooden block. Tactile signals such as these are received by the _____ lobe.
There are many methods for studying the physiology of the brain. ________ is the technique involving subtraction whereby brain activity is compared between baseline and stimulation measurements.
b. Single unit recording
c. Positron emission tomography
d. Mental chronometry
Brain-imaging techniques can determine all of the following EXCEPT:
a. areas of the brain activated during cognitive tasks.
b. localization of brain activity in response to a specific stimulus.
c. the structure of individual neurons.
d. patterns of blood flow in the brain
Which of the following is NOT associated with recognition-by-components theory?
Hemoglobin molecules in areas of high brain activity:
a. gain some of the ferrous molecules they are transporting.
b. lose some of the ferrous molecules they are transporting.
c. gain some of the oxygen they are transporting.
d. lose some of the oxygen they are transporting.
Which of the following do PET and fMRI have in common?
a. The use of the subtraction technique
b. The measurement of magnetic fields
c. The use of radioactive tracers
d. All of the above are characteristics of both PET and fMRI
The fusiform face area (FFA) in the brain is often damaged in patients with:
a. Broca's aphasia.
b. Wernicke's aphasia.
d. Alzheimer's disease.
Recent research on language has modified our earlier understanding of Broca's aphasia such that it is now understood as a problem in:
a. language production but not understanding.
b. language production but not meaning.
c. language form but not meaning.
d. language meaning but not form.
In ERP methodology, the number that follows the N or the P (N400 or P300, for example) stands for:
a. the positivity or negativity of the response.
b. how likely the response is, with higher numbers indicating a more likely response.
c. how strong the response is in millimeters on the reading.
d. the time at which the response peaks in milliseconds.
Research using the ERP method shows that damage to the frontal lobes reduces the larger _____response that occurs when the form of a sentence is incorrect.
The idea that specific functions are processed in many parts of the brain is known as:
a. localization of function.
b. distributed processing.
You are walking down the street and see a really nice car drive by. You notice many features of it: its color, movement, shape, location, and so forth. All of these features are processed:
a. in one localized area of the brain.
b. by the grandmother cells in the brain.
c. in different parts of the brain.
d. through fMRI potentials.
The layer of neurons that lines the back of the eye is called the:
b. grandmother cell.
c. reference electrode.
d. feature detector.
When Carlos moved to the U.S., he did not understand any English. Phrases like "Anna Mary Can Pi And I
Scream Class Hick" didn't make any sense to him. Now that Carlos has been learning English, he recognizes
this phrase as "An American Pie and Ice Cream Classic." This example illustrates that Carlos is not capable
of in English.
The way patterns of neural firing represent a specific stimulus or experience is known as:
a. the action potential.
b. a propagated signal.
d. the neural code.
Neurons that respond to features that make up objects are called:
a. retinal cells.
b. feature detectors.
The pattern of feature detectors firing in response to a stimulus creates the _____ for representing what the stimulus is (e.g., a tree, a person, a ball, and so forth).
a. neural code
c. event-related potential
If kittens are raised in an environment that contains only verticals, you would predict that most of the neurons in their visual cortex would respond best to the visual presentation of a:
a. brick wall.
b. chain link fence.
c. solid wall.
d. picket fence.
When conducting an experiment on how stimuli are represented by the firing of neurons, you notice that neurons respond differently to different faces. Arthur's face causes three neurons to fire, with neuron 1 responding the most and neuron 3 responding the least. Your results support ____ coding.
The concept of distributed neural coding proposes that a specific object, like a face, is represented across a number of:
When you listen to someone speaking a foreign language, the words seem to speed by in an unbroken sfring
of sound. To a speaker of that language, the words seem separated. The Gestalt law that is operating here is
the law of
A specific person’s face is represented in the nervous system by the firing of:
a. a feature detector that fires specifically to that face.
b. a group of neurons that all respond only to that face.
c. a group of neurons each responding to a number of different faces.
d. a receptor in the retina that responds when the face is present.
Most cognitive psychologists _____ the notion of a grandmother cell.
b. are uncertain about
d. are actively investigating
Shinkareva et al. (2008) conducted research that revealed:
a. the existence of feature detectors.
b. the distinction between form and meaning in language.
c. a computer could fairly accurately predict what category of object one was viewing.
d. strong support for specificity coding.
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