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· Direct observation of behavior in some specified context
· Observe someone in their natural settings
· Systematically recorded data·
-factual/ objective and verifiable: either exists or it doesn't. or expressed in numerical form: income
psychological relevance: information from the past can give you an insight on personality
ex: criminal record is affected by their neighborhood
something that cannot be directly seen or touched, but which affects and helps explain many different things that are visible. Ex: gravity (no one ever touches gravity but we know it exists from many effects)
· Intelligence: test scores, achievements in life
o Measure of construct un-related to or negatively correlated with measures of different or opposite constructs
-Ex: extroversion not equal to shyness
· Asks participants specific questions and assess their personality on the basis of their choices among pre-determined options.
- Identify personalities types and used to assess psychological disorders
- OMNIBUS test
-alot of questions
· Items that seem to be directly, obviously, and rationally related to what the test developer wishes to measure.
-direct and obvious: clear what you are asking
· 1. The test taker understands the meaning
· 2. The test taker has the ability to observe and assess
· 3. The test taker must be willing
· 4. All items must be valid indicators
ID Impulse: I hate my dad
ID Impulse Projected: Dad hates me
AngerYou get really mad at your girlfriend but scream that she's the one mad at you.
Avoiding Distressful Emotions
etiolgocial reaearch has identified hundreds of known causes of ID, including enviormental, prenatl, etc
-nearly 75% of cases cannot be attributed to any known cause or are thought to be the result of social and enviormental influences** (abuse, not enough food) (cultural-familial influences)
-psychological and social factors that are thought ot contribute to ID include cultural-familal retardation, which is believe to cause bout 75% of ID cases
the process of paying close attention to one's behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves.
1. supports the developing of spermatozoa
2. supports the growth and function of cells that make up the repo tact.
this person focused on the relationship of the individual with society and how personality is effected
focused on development of self identity
parents must provide appropriate guidance and reasonable choices
conflicts are conscious and are experiences throughout all stages of life.
-trust vs mistrust (infant)
-autonomy vs shame and doubt (toddler)- acheiving a sense of control and free will
-initative vs guilt (preschool)- begining development of consciece learnign to manage conflict and anxiety
-industry vs inferiorty (school aged)- emergin confidence in own abilities, taking pleaseure in accomplishments
-identify vs role confusion (adolescense)- sense of self and self belonging
-intimacy vs isoloation (yound adult)- forming adult loving relationships and meaningful attachemtns to others
-generativity vs stagnation (middle age)- being creative and productive establishing next generation
integrity vs despair (maturity)- accepting responsibilty for ones self and life
-Unlikely to seek on own
-Focus on developing trust
-Not many working treatments available
Using and abusing drugs that alter patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
chemical compounds that are ingested in order to altar mood or behavior and includes alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine
agents that alter mood and/or behavior which are ingested to become intoxicated or high, with abuse of such substances related to dependence and addiction
Has been eliminated in the DSM5
By a combined substance use disorder which includes symptoms of both substance abuse and substance dependence
Dependence, abuse, intoxication, and withdrawal
The ingestion of psychoactive substances in moderate maounts that does not significantly interfere with educational, social, or occupational functioning
-Reversible substance-specific syndrome due to ingestion or exposure to a substance
-Maladaptive behavioral/psychological changes that are due to the effects of the substances on the CNS (moodiness)
-Physiological reaction to ingested substances (getting high )
-Intoxication depends on the drug, the amount of the drug ingested, and the person's biological reaction
-Substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended
-There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down or control substance use
-A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects
-Failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home
-Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use
-Use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (driving)
-Recurrent substance-related legal problems
-Continued use despite having persistent social or interpersonal problems exacerbated by the effects of the substance (physical fights, arguments with spouse)
5. other drugs of abuse
Behavioral sedation and can induce relaxation (barbiturates and benzodiazepine)
Increase alertness and activity level and can elevate mood (amphetamines and cocaine)
Primarily produce analgesia (reduce pain) and euphoria (heroin)
Alter sensory perception and an produce delusions, paranoia, and hallucinations ( weed, LSD)
Inhalants, anabolic steroids, over-the-counter, and prescription mediations (hairspray)
The CNS activity, reduce arousal, and help people relax (alcohol, sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic drugs)
Stimulation due to a depression or slowing of the inhibitory centers in the brain
-slow reaction time
-reduce ability to make judgements
Small amount in stomach. MOST of it passes directly into the blood stream via the small intestine
The liver, it breaks it down and metabolizes it into carbon dioxide and water
Yes. It contacts every major organ, including the heart and some goes to the lungs where it is exhaled (why you can smell alcohol on someones breath)
7 to 10 grams per hour about 1 glass of beer or 1 ounce of 90-proof
only 3 drinks a week compared to kids with "D's" who have 11 a week
Anxiety reducing (benzodiazepines)
low- relaxes muscles
high-same as alcohol
Very high- barbiturates relax the diaphragm muscles to the point of death by suffocation
STIMULATS: Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine
UP-elations , vigor, reduced fatigue
CRASH- depression, extreme fatigue
*changes in sociability, impaired judgement
Like amphetamines, increase alertness, euphoria, blood pressure and pulse, cause of insomnia, lose of appetite and gives user sense of self-confidence.
The effect of cocaine are short lived
yes, because it causes your heart to beat more rapidly and irregularly. Can go into cocaine induced coma
Cocaine, which is more than any other drug than weed
Slowly over a period of years. Typically, people find that they have a growing inability to resist taking more.
Stimulates the dopamine in our brain (sleep is disrupted and paranoia sets in)
specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the midbrain reticular formation and limbic system pleasure pathway
Fetus, making the likelihood increased that the baby will smoke later in life
dependence, tolerance, and withdrawl comparable to those of other drugs
insomnia, depressed mood. in small doses it can stimulate the CNS, but may also relieve stress and improve mood
produce jitteriness and insomnia and generally unpleasant mood
Substances that produce narcotic effects (comes from opium poppy)
Natural chemical in the opium poppy that has a narcotic effect
relieve pain. Opioids are analgesics
In general childhood is associated with significant developmental changes that follow a specific pattern As a result, any disrupstion in the development of early skills will likely disrupt the development of later skills.
-some of the disorders included in this category is
-specific learning disorders
-persons with ADHD start many task but rarely finish them, have trouble concentrating, and do not seem to pay attention when others speak
-These symptoms may lead to other problem such as poor academic performance and peer difficulties
-all ages Have to go together all the time!!
Problems of inattention (hard time focusing)
Problems of Hyperactivity and impulsive
-often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
-often has diffciulty waiting for turn
-often interrupts or intrudes on others
-often fidgets with hands or taps feet or squirms in seat
-often leaves seat in situations or elsewhere in which remaining seated is ecpected
-often runs or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate
-often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
-constantly on the move as if propelled by a motor-often talks excessivley
-difficulty paying attention to details or tasks
-difficulty listening and carrying out directions
-difficulty listening when spoken to directly
-difficulty organizing daily schedule, tasks, activities (disorganized)
-difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
-often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in workplace
-often avoids dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort
--often loses personal belongings
-easily distracted, careless mistakes
-Often forgetful in daily activities
For ADHD the DSM5 differentiates three clusters of symptoms :the first cluster includes problems of inattention and the second cluster includes symptoms of hyperactivity and the third is impulsivity 2 and 3 (2 gloves, always go together) (1 is a hat)
****-Either the first (inattention) AND/OR the second and third (hyperactivity and impulsivity) clusters must be present for someone to be diagnosed with ADHD. Onset 3-4 Years of age ...... 3:1 ratio boys to girl
-many children with ADHD continue to have problems as adults, mostly with inattention
-in adolescents, impulsivity manifests itself in different areas such as a greater risk for teen pregnancy, STD
-Other disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder (NO, opposition), conduct disorder, and bipolar disorder overlap significantly with ADHD
That causes of ADHD have historically centered on genetics, brain damage, toxins and food additvies, and maternal smoking
-more than one gene appears respobnsible for ADHD, and many are considering possible subtypes of ADHD
-most of the attention to date focuses on genes associated with the neurochemical dopamine
-maternal smoking during pregnancy increases liklihood of having a child with specific mutation involving the dopamine system. These chidlren were more likely to exhibit symptoms of ADHD
Treatment of two fronts
Improving academic performance, decreasing disruptive behavior, and improving social skills
Behavioral interventions before medication
Parent training, Social skills training, Biological intervention, the goal of biological treatments is to reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity and to improve attention
-Hundreds of studies have documented the effectiveness of stimulant medication in reducing the core symptoms of ADHD
-the paradoxical effects of stimulant medication are the same in children and adults with and without ADHD
-give a stimulant to the brakes, so the brakes stop more impulsive activities to refocus attention
-the theory that this medications produce a paradozical effect is not supported (works in opposite)
-The common side effects include insomia, drowsiness, or irritablity
learning disorders cover problems related to academic performance in reading, math, and writing
-this performance is substantially below what would be expected given the person’s age, measured IQ, and education
**-average IQ is 100
-large difference between a person’s actual performance Vs. Expected achievement on a individually administered standardized test
-learning disorders are NOT due to any sensory deficits (needing glasses)
-There is an “unexpected underachievement)
-learning disordesr in reading, math, and writing in DSM4 have been combined in DSM5
1.Inaccurate or slow and effeortful word reading
2.Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is read
3. Difficulties spelling
4.Difficulties with written expression
5. Difficulties mastering number sense, number facts, or caluclation
Difficlties with mathmetical reasoning
learning disorders can be diagnosed in people with below average, average, and above average intelligence
Reading difficulties are the most common of learning disorders
-students with learning disabilities drop out of school and more likely to be unemployed
- A group of disorders termed communication disorders seems to be related to learning disorders.
-Regarding genetics, reading disorders tend to run in families, and concordance rate of reading disorders in identical twins is high
-genes are not specific to each of the learning disorders but affect leaning across domains (reading, mathematics, writing)
-subtle forms of brain damage
_psychological and motivational factors that have been reinforced by others pay an important role in the success of people with learning disorders
-psychosocial contributions and factors which seem to determine outcome
No drugs for just learning disorders
-requires intense educational intervention
-biological treatment is restricted to those individuals who may also have ADHD
-educational interventions focus on specific skill
impairment in social interactions, impairment in communication, and restricted behavior, interests, and activties
-Persons with autism do not develop the types of social relationships expected of their age
-persons with autism are not totally unaware of others. But they don’t seem to enjoy meaningful relationships with others or have the ability to develop relationships.
-Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors (eye contact)
-Failure to develop peer relations appropriate to their development level
-lack of seeking to share enjoyment interests, or achievements with others (mommy look at this, mommy watch me do this)
Impairment with communication
-persons with autism have severe problems with communication, with about 25% never acquiring useful speech
-some who have speech engage in echolalia, and others are unable or unwilling to carry on conversastions with others
-restricted patters of behavior, intrests, and activities are most striking aspects of autism
-many prefer that things remain the same, a phenomenon referred to as “maintenance of samenesss”
-Such persons may also spend countless hours engaging in stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors
-hypo or hyper re-activity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of environment (excessive smelling, or touching of objects, visual fascinations with lights or moving objects)
characterized by significant impairment in social interactions, communication, and engaging in restricted patters of behavior, interest, and activities.
-the DSM5 emphasizes the “core” of autism spectrum disorder-deficit in relating and communicating socially
-restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior
better language skills and IQ test performance predicts better lifetime prognosis
-in the past, autism was viewed as the result of bad parenting.
-such parents were thought to be perfectionistic, cold, and aloof, of higher socioeconomic status, and had higher Iqs than the general population
-later research has contradicted this view
-The characteristic idiot savant (savant syndrome) is NOT a usual feature of autism
Oxytocin receptor genes
-bonding and social memory (bond with new born child in both parents)
-autism lacks this
looks just like autism BUT there are no cognitive disorders and no impairments in their language
-Significant social impairments
-Restricted and repetitive
-No severe delays
DSM-5 no longere uses “mental retardation”
-intelluctual disability (ID) is a disorder that involved below average intellectual and adaptive functioning with onset during the developmental years
-previously in the DSM IQ of 70 and the average IQ was 100 considered below average
-took out onset of 18
HAVE TO HAVE:
-gotta ALL 3 characteristics (on test)
-manifestations of ID are varied, with some individuals able to function well in society, while others have significant cognitive and pshyical impairments and requireconsiderable assistance
DSM-5 identifies difficlutes in the 3 domains
-anoixa= lack of oxygen, Fetal alcohol syndrome
Cause by an extra 21st chromosome and is sometimes referred to as trisomy 21.
-this condition is caused by failure of cell division on chromosome 21
-down syndrome is associated with characteristic facial features, congenital heart malformations, and dementia of the alzheimer’s type in all adults with Down Syndrome past the age of 40
Includes both intellectual and adaptive
-below average intellectual funcitoning
-measured by standarized tests
-IQ or 70-75 or below
-2% of general population
-2 SD from the mean
MUST HAVE ALL 3:
-Deficits in intellectual functions
-deficitis in adaptive functioning
-onset of intellectual and adaptive deficits during the developmental period
Most people with ID are mildly retarteded and live in the mainstream (
Delirium – abrupt onset, usually a physical cause, and it will resole itself. Dementia, on the other hand, is present for life. Do not confuse!
Mild Neurocognitive – Early Stages
Major Neurocognitive – Later Stages
Global Impairments – This is pervasive in the person’s life
Global Impairments in Consciousness (reduced clarity of awareness of the environment, cant focus, sustain, or shift attention) and cognition (memory deficit, disorientation, language disturbance)
DEVELOPS RAPIDLY and tends to fluctuate throughout the course of the day, represents a change from baseline attention and awareness
There is evidence based on the person’s medical history , physical exam, or lab findings that the disturbance is a direct physiological consequence of another medical condition, substance intoxication or withdrawal, or exposure to a toxin.
Impaired consciousness and cognition that develops somewhat rapidly over the course of several hours or days.
Appear confused, disoriented, out of touch with their surroundings, can focus, and show marked impairments in memory and language.
The very young and the very old are most likely to experience this.
In the elderly, often is consequence of improper use of medication. In the young, common with children who have high fevers or who are taking certain kinds of medication.
Progressive Dementia: Initial Symptoms
Death results from inactivity combined with onset of other illnesses such as pneumonia.
More common later in life.
Incidence rates of dementia are higher in women than men.
Several classes of dementia based on etiology.
Definitive diagnosis = autopsy
Can predict with 70-90% accurate while alive via brain scans, spinal fluid testing, and mental status exam.
Progresses slowly during the early and later stages and progresses very quickly during the middle stages.
Higher prevalence in poorly educated people because they have less less ‘cognitive reserve.’
Higher educational attainment may create a mental reserve (i.e. a learned set of skills) that helps one cope longer with cognitive deterioration that marks the beginnings of dementia.
The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that more synapses are built up with education and thus, delay the full signs of dementia longer.
Alzheimers disease may be more prevalent among women, even when considering that women typically live longer than men do.Research suggests that Alzheimers disease is found in roughly the same numbers across all ethnic groups.
Second leading cause of dementia.
There are neurological signs that indicate brain tissue damage. Patterns of impairment vary from person to person.
The cognitive disturbances are IDENTICAL to Alzheimer’s.
The obvious neurological signs of brain tissue damage occur in early stages. They also occur in Alzheimer’s, but not until way later on.
Men are more likely to develop this, perhaps due to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease in men.
Onset is more sudden than Alzheimer’s disease, often because of a stroke, but the course and outcome of vascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease is similar.
Concussions have additive effect. (Polytrauma) So the more you get, the more dangerous it is.
Symptoms that persist for at least a week following the trauma, including:
Loss of consciousness
Post traumatic amnesia, disorientation, and confusion
The brains of all persons with Alzheimer's show large number of tangled strands-like filaments (neurofibrillary tangles) and the cause of this is unknown.
Accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques are believed to produce the characteristic cognitive disorders
Affects hippocampus first, which is why short-term memory loss is one of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's.
Brains of Alzheimer's patients atrophy to a greater extent than would be expected through normal aging (cortical atrophy).
Don’t need to know specific names.
These are deterministic, which means that if a person has ONE of these genes, they have nearly 100% chance of developing Alzheimer’s disease. In other words, the genes are very “potent.”
Susceptibility genes – slightly increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s
Amyloid protein – a waxy plaque that builds up in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients, may be the cause of cell death.
Multiple genes seem to be linked to Alzheimer’s, especially these certain chromosomes.
Head Trauma is an external factor that can produce dementia, with repeated blows to the head increasing the chances of developing dementia.
These factors DO NOT CAUSE dementia, but they may influence its onset and course. For example, eating poorly can cause heart disease which can lead to a stroke which can cause vascular dementia.
Treatment of dementia is not as promising when compared to other cognitive disorders.
A key factor that makes it so difficult is the extensive brain damage caused by the disorder.
Goals focus mainly on prevention, stopping the disease progression, and helping people cope.
Characterized by circumscribed loss of memory and an inability to transfer information into long-term memory.
Often due to medical condition, head trauma, or long-term drug use.
Intact global cognitive functioning, so the only thing wrong with them is memory.
Can’t learn new info or recall old info.
Causes significant impairment in social/occupational functioning.
Consequences of Supreme Court rulings
Criminalization of the mentally ill
Deinstitutionalization and homelessness
Reactions to strict commitment procedures
Return to broader procedures
Increase in involuntary commitments
Dangerous and non-dangerous
Need for treatment alone
Special cases of sex offenders
Treatment vs. punishment
Periodic change in laws is a sign of a healthy system
Nature of criminal commitment
Accused of committing a crime
Detainment in mental health facility
Fitness to stand trial
Not guilty by reason of insanity
Insanity defense plea
A legal statement or definition
Insanity at time of crime
Treatment facility vs. prison
Diagnosis of a disorder does not equal insanity
Definitions of insanity
Don’t know what they’re doing
Don’t know it is wrong
Includes mental disease or defect
American Law Institute Standard
Knowledge of right vs. wrong
Mens rea, actus re
-Known as the “right-wrong” test, which olds that ppl can be acquitted of a crime if it can be shown that, @ the time of the act, they:
(1) had such defective reasoning that they did not know what they were doing or
(2) were unable to comprehend that the act was wrong.
Several cases found NGRI
John Hinckley, Jr.
“Legal loophole” - 90% agree
Overused - 90% agree
Integrating knowledge of behavior change
“Problem Solving” courts
Address unique needs
Focus on specific problems
Example - delayed sentencing if job for six months
Understand legal charges
Ability to assist in defense
Essential for legal processes
Burden of proof = defense
Loss of decision-making authority
Results in commitment
Professional responsibility to inform those in danger
Right to confidentiality
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California
Therapist knew of danger
Did not warn
Threat must be specific
Consultation is imperative
Specialized knowledge and expertise
Assess risk - dangerousness
Reliable DSM diagnoses
Advise the court
The right to treatment
Must treat if involuntarily committed
Provide humane The right to treatment
“Least restrictive alternative”
More to less structure living
Large to small facilities
Large to smaller living units
Group to individual residences
Tardive dyskinesiaSegregated from the community to integrated into the community
Dependent living to independent living
Individual participant rights
Right to be Informed About the Research
Right to Privacy
Right to be Treated with Respect and Dignity
Right to be Protected from Physical and Mental Harm
Right to Chose or Refuse to Participate in Research
Right to Anonymity in Report of Study Findings
Right to Safeguarding of Records
Echolalia (also known as echologia or echophrasia) is the automatic repetition of vocalizations made by another person (by the same person is called palilalia). It is one of the echophenomena, closely related to echopraxia, the automatic repetition of movements made by another person; both are "subsets of imitative behavior" whereby sounds or actions are imitated "without explicit awareness".
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