Study Guide for Exam Two Psych 430 PNI = Psychoneuroimmunology Looks for stress on the immune system Stress does not have to have an ABSTRACT definition, not a scientific definition We have to rely on an Operational Definition-> a recipe for measurement ** Biological Theories of Stress Cannon: Emergency Theory of 1915 =when an organism is exposed to a dangerous or threatening situation, the organism responds with an increase of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity (SNS), which causes the organism to fight or flee Cannon was the first to lay down the framework for analysis of stress (but never used the word stress). He was also interested in the physiology of emotion Experiment: He took cats and exposed them to a predator threat (an angry dog) He measured physiological responses-epinephrine/catecholamine He found that when cats were exposed to the predator threat there was an increase in SNS activity = increase in catecholamine Selye: General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)-> 1930s ??? ?Father of Stress? He created the General Adaptation Syndrome (Gas) His model of stress that most people are familiar with 3 Events : 1. Alarm Phase: (0-2min) there is an increase in SNS activity-> he uses Cannon?s Emergency Theory 2. Resistance Phase: (2min-4 weeks) -the body meets the demand by generating other hormones, but the body still produces the resources to function (physiological coping.) 3. Exhaustion Phase: The notion that stress is bad and leads to ill health. When a person is prolonged to stuff illness happens and you see End Organ Exposure= cellular death, tissue death, organ death, organ system death, your death = Essentially stress can be beneficial because if you overcome your stress then you can grow from the experience He utilized Cannon?s research and expanded upon it Advertise Environment: Forced Exercise-> an animal has no choice but to swim, run, die He took rats and exposed them to a noxious stimuli or exercise-> Forced Exercise (b4 he exposed it to extreme heat, coldness, injected them with stuff) He found the Classic Stress Response: He defined STRESS ( a physical def) as a none specific response to any demand that takes the body out of homeostasis = a general response to a demand 3 Major Physiological Outcomes (Classic Stress Response) 1. Adrenal glands enlargement Produces 2 hormones: Catecholamine and Cortisol 2. Thymus and spleen involution-became smaller 2nd immunological organs that produce the T and B Cells or the lymphocytes that protect the host from pathogens = Stress reduces the organisms immunity 3. Gastric Ulcers Eats up the stomachs lining (disease) Famous because he researched this for 40 years Taylor: Tend and Befriend Theory (2000) Looked at Cardiovascular Reactivity: when an organism is placed under stressors , you see an increase in BP and HR Noticed women have a more suppressed cardiovascular reactivity Oxytocin: The hormone they focused on to be the reason for stress activity = >A pituitary hormone that?s released after birth in women for the production of milk. Has a calming anxiety effect -women large dose; men little doses Takes an evolutionary perspective: Men throughout history have the tendency be gatherers and hunters and providers for the family; having a stress response to a hostile environment. Women?s role was to tend to the family and their first instinct was to protect the children and it reduces their Cardiovascular Reactivity Says it is Biological and Oxytocin is the reason Experiment: Injected male rats with Oxytocin and placed them in a stressful situation and noticed 3 Major Finding: 1. Reduced fear-like behaviors (when rat was in a stressful environment) 2. They had an increase in maternal behaviors (i.e. grooming) 3. Decreased sympathetic nervous activity with reduced BP under stress Tend and Befriend- Women want to TEND to children and seek out help (BEFRIEND) while men seek to defend themselves ** Psychological Theories of Stress Mason: 1970- Strong Psychological Meaning Argued against Seyle that the same stimulus will not always result in the same physical and psychological reaction Used Monkeys in 2 separate studies Study #1: Mon keys were divided in 2 groups- Experimental and Control (kept together) He manipulated the food deprivation Monkeys in experimental group were food deprived and control group were fed Measured the effects of food deprivation on the production of Cortisol- the index of stress released during stressful times Experimental group had a higher level of Cortisol Found exp. Group had higher levels of cortisol in their urine and that food dep. as a stressor-(If Mason would of stopped here then Seyle would of been correct, but he went further and manipulated cognitive awareness in the monkeys) Study #2: Randomly assigned monkeys in the 2 groups but separated them He does the same experiment at #1 but the results were different He found levels of cortisol in both groups Concluded: The first results were not due to a lack of food, but due to the cognitive awareness that caused the increase in Cortisol in the exp. monkeys from study #1 Stress is an exposure to stimuli that causes a strong psychological response Everybody will not respond the same way in regards to stress Lazarus and Folkman (1984): Cognitive Appraisal Lazarus is known as the ?Stress and Coping Researcher? Woodshop Study Overview: Three groups, Group 1 and 2 were told the film was about woodshop accidents and 1 real events and 2 fake (used ketchup) and both groups recorded low BP. Group 3 was told nothing and high BP and more stressed. Self reported and 1 and 2 prepared themselves bc told for education purpose and didn?t cognitively appraise the film as being dangerous but 3 was stressed and did. Group 3 reported being more stressed with an increase in anxiety Stress: The Cognitive Appraisal as a situation of being threatening or dangerous to ones well-being as being the resources to ones demand Two-Fold Process 1. Cognitive appraisal of Resources 2. Cognitive appraisal of Stress Two Types of Appraisal 1. Primary Appraisal (STUDY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!) Threat, harm or loss (will this kill/ hurt me?) Three Types of Appraisal to Threat 1. Motive Strength: Occurs when an obstacle stands in your way to your goal ( Blocking of a desired goal) 2. Belief System: Make appraisal of threat when something contradicts our core values 3. Intellectual Resources: Lack of information to make informed decision then perceived as a threat to the well being 2. Secondary Appraisal: Coping aspect or resistance If 2nd appraisal says resources are there then no stress will result or it will be drastically reduced If 2nd appraisal is NO... then full blown stress will occur Hobfoll (1989): Conservation of Resources Argued that Seyle?s example is too simplistic and Lazarus?s is too specific and individual Resources are things that we value and the loss of these resources causes us stress Definition of Stress: It is due to the perceived or actual loss of resources. Assumption was that all humans are motivated to do 3 things: Build, protect, and maintain resources A resource is something that we truly value, and when something threatens that resource it causes the stress response Freud said that: Humans are hedonistic meaning they want to maximize pleasure and minimize pain 4 Types of Resources: C.O.P.E. 1. Conditions: Life status (marriage, employment, tenure) 2. Objects: A tangible item (car, house, golf clubs) 3. Personal Characteristics: What people like about themselves (good looks) 4. Energy: Time, money, credentials, knowledge: provide an ave. for resources **Coping with Stress (Hobfoll 1985 ?) = Reducing the loss. By minimizing, you?re minimizing the stress of the stressors. 2 Ways which Humans can Minimize the Loss 1. Replacement of the Resource: Reduce the impact of the loss when you replace the value with another. Ex: Total your car, get a new one with the money you receive Ex: If you value relationships, you?ll replace the loss 2. Reappraisal of the Loss: Cognitive appraisal can be evaluated by the loss. They can influence your impact of stress. Ex: Life moves on after a relationship, and if you value the impact it you?ll value the loss (?) 5 Functions of Coping by Cohen and Lazarus 1. To reduce harmful environmental conditions and enhance prospect of recovery 2. To tolerate or adjust to negative events 3. To maintain a positive self image 4. To maintain emotional equilibrium 5. To continue emotional and satisfying relationships with others ** Pearlin (1989): Sociological Model of Stress Argues that the impact of a given stimuli, will differ as a function of where the person fits in to society. Said psychologist focus on the responses of the stress and not the demographics STRESS= the result of unequal distribution of resources and opportunities across a society The HAVE and the HAVE NOTS (some have access to resources and some don?t) 3 Sources of Stress (that lead to a stress response) 1. Life Events: Discrete occurrences that causes change/ readjustment in one?s life. They cause you to change your life when these events occur. Holmes and Rahe (1960s)?..Social Readjustment Rating Scale Based on a series of life events that have been given a numerical rate. You add up the number of life events and you get the LCU ( Life Change Unit) Greater LCU, greater your stress Relationship r= .2-.4 (weak) Pearlin argues that it is not the number of life event? that?s important , but the meaning 2. Life Strain: Everyday nagging hassles, they are the results of institutionalized roles. He identified 8 role conflicts we know Three?. Role Captivity: You want to go outside of your defined role but you can?t. Ex: Like a stay at home mom who wants to pursue a career Role Overload: When the demands of your job exceed your resources Like having 3 test in the same day Role Restructuring: Your role will change based on time Ex: When someone dies you take on a new role Ex: Adolescence to parent 3. Self-Concept: Perception of who you are. Based on how you view or evaluate your strengths and weaknesses. When life events happen they force life strains and that equals a decrease in self-concept. It creates doubt of capabilities and feels like a loss of control Life events + Life strains= decrease in self-concept=self doubt=depression=stress ** Stress Response: Hormones and Consequences Sympathetic-Adrenal-Medullary Path (SAM) The Adrenal Gland makes up 2 types of hormones Adrenal Cortex- Outside layer, secretes one type of hormone Medulla- Inside , secretes another type of hormone Brain is connected to the medulla which releases catecholamines Epinephrine, norpeinephrine, and dopamine These 3 chemicals readies the body to either ?Fight or Flight? The ADRENAL RUSH-> (a.k.a. consequences) HR, BP, Respiration all increase along with sweating, dry mouth, shakiness, etc Fastest psychological pathway due to stress Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Path (HPA) Faster? takes about 30 minutes Hypothalamus signals the Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (CRF) which triggers/stimulates the pituitary gland The pituitary gland secretes Adeno-corticotrophin hormone (ACTH) which goes to the adrenal cortex and releases Cortisol => The secondary stress hormone that helps the body maintain and respond to the threat 4 Reponses to Cortisol (KNOW THESE!!!!!!!!) 1. Increases mobilization of Free Fatty Acids- for energy 2.Causes mobilization of Protein ? also energy 3. Increase conversion of Carbs to Glucose- only food the brain uses 4. Increase lysing (killing) or Lymphocytes (T and B Cells) **The Immune System- Cells that protect the body from Pathogens Is responsible for distinguishing from self and non-self Causes Autoimmune Disease: The body attacks itself and the immune system loses the ability to distinguish the host (self) 2 Types of Cell Lines 1. Non-Lymphoid Cell Line= Lymphocytes are not derived from that line 1. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) carry hemoglobin 2. Granulocytes (White Blood Cells) represent 65% of total immunological cells? Eosinophil, Neutrophil, Basophil 3. Macrophages are the ?Pac-Man? of the Body. They engulf and digest microorganisms that are foreign to the body Process of phagocytosis-> engulfing/digesting of microorganisms in the body 2. Lymphoid Cell Line= Lymphocytes (T and B Cells) make up 25% of the immune system and are regulators of immunity Stem cell differentiates into lymphocyte cell line T and B Cells have the power to destroy specific type pathogens and they secrete/release hormones to turn on or off ALL lymphocytes participate in specific immunity Natural Immunity vs. Specific Immunity Natural Immunity: Ability to lyses/kill/destroy pathogens WITHOUT prior contact to bacteria Comes via moms milk and protects the infant from infectious disease Macrophages-4% if immune system and Granulocytes-65% of immune system participate in natural immunity 70% of immune system is made up of these?but not the main thing of the IS Specific Immunity: Refers to lymphocytes only The ability of lymphocytes to attack a pathogen after exposure to that pathogen Only lymphocytes can attack the pathogens ONLY AFTER is has previously been exposed to that pathogen Only the lymphocytes can attack ONE type of pathogen after exposed to it **Vaccinations work on specific immunity Primary Immunity vs. Secondary Immunity Primary Immunity: Takes longer to occur (works with effector cells right then attacks) Secondary Immunity: Allows the immune system to react faster because it already knows the pathogen and doesn?t have to go through antigen presentation because it is already there waiting and has been exposed to the pathogen once before. Ex. Booster Shots (Works with memory cells) Cell Mediated Immunity (T ?Cells) vs. Humoral Immunity (B-Cells) T-Cells: Participates in Cell Mediated Immunity only for T-Lymphocytes 25% of the immune system?Big Wigs in the immune system When they bind with a germ they secrete a toxin (Cytokines) that will multiply and divide and kill the pathogen They are derived from the thymus and the spleen. Very important because they activate, stimulate, and turn off the I. system 2 Types of T-Cells 1. T-Helper-Cause up regulation of the immune system AIDS is the regulator that attacks the T Cells 2. T-Suppressor - When the body has sufficiently attacked the body, they save resources and the T-Suppressor Cells will rev down and deactivate B-Cells: All B Cells produce B Cells and produce Antibodies Participate in Humoral Immunity They destroy because they bind to the germ and the macrophages eat the antibodies and germ simultaneously 5 Classes of Antibodies IgG, IgA, IgE, IgM, IgD **Stress and Disease Studies?Types of Stressors (4 w/animals and 1 w/humans (Cohen)) Human perspect., there?s a strong link btw stress and susceptibility for disease in humans There are Laboratory Stressors with Animals: Forced exercise, physical restraint, tail/foot shock, isolation There are Naturalistic Stressors with Humans: Stress and disease from human perspective Academic stress, marital conflict, natural disasters, care-taker stress We man manipulate a variety of things? Mode (type), frequency (single/many times), duration (acute/chronic), intensity(mild/severe) Selye (1930s-1970s)? with Rats Showed prolonged exposure to an aversive stimuli (heat, cold, exercise) which led to gastric ulcers and death His study is explained at the beginning of the Study Guide Weiss (1970s)? with Rats He tested Seyle?s study Took rats and placed them in an operant condition paradox Half the rats were placed in the Inescapable Group 19 hours placed in tail shock with no escape Half the rats were placed in the Escapable Group 19 hours but could turn off the shock Ecological Validity-> Justification for using animals in your studies. Your manipulation has to mirror/reflect some aspect of the human condition (being human) Unpredictable Events- Weiss was trying to show uncontrollable stress We cannot predict events which can be stressors Results: Inescapable group had no control when there were going to be shocked so they had more ulcers. Escapable condition was able to control their outcome = Ecological Validity is people are stressed when people can?t control their situations Peterson (1989)? with Monkeys Interested in examining noise stress with Blood Pressure 1. Noise stress on BP 2. Noise stress on hearing 2 Groups: 1. Noise stress group (experimental) exposed to 9 months of continuous industrial noise (radio, factory, etc?) 2. Control Group Peterson took BP throughout the whole study In terms of hearing, no difference between control and experimental group Found: Noise stress elevated BP, but by 23 millimeters of mercury Also, he followed BP after 9 months, and turned off the noise, and saw experimental groups BP stayed elevated after a week of no noise = Noise actually caused change in BP and physiological changes that can increase your likelihood of becoming ill LONG TERM EFFECTS Newberry (1980s)? with Rats Stress and Cancer studies HE injected all the rats with DMBA-> A carcinogen that produces mammary tumors in females Experiment: Waited 2 months for the tumors to show up Used 85 days of physical restraint?they couldn?t move or turn around for 12 hours during the night (bc they were nocturnal) but could in the day time Found: Contrary to his hypothesis that increase stress would increase tumors it was the opposite The restraint animals had less tumors than the control group **Stress does not always precipitate disease!!! Stress is not always negative, and when animals were restrained, they increased their temperature and sweated it out Being confined facilitated the construction of the virus Cohen (1991)? with Humans An experimental perspective that shows stress increases susceptibility for colds Took 400 individuals in England and housed them for one week in a hotel All adults filled out 3 stress inventories **All participants were inoculated with the Rhino Virus (cold virus) nasally and coratined them for a week Checked for clinical signs of a cold everyday and drew blood to see if the virus took in Went around and collected tissues for mucus and weighed the tissues Found: Individuals with greater stress had a higher likelihood of becoming sick Not everyone got sick bc not everyone was infected =Dose (stress) Dependent Response
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