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- StudyBlue
- Iowa
- Iowa State University
- Psychology
- Psychology 440
- Armstrong
- Psych 440 Study Guide (2013-14 Armstrong)

Testing

the process of measuring variables by means of devices or procedures designed to obtain a sample of behavior

Testing in the US

-Alpha & Beta for personality risk factors in WW1

-WAIS intelligence scale

Assessment

the process of gathering and integrating data for the purpose of making an evaluation

Assessment

Assessment - the process of gathering and

integrating data for the purpose of making

an evaluation

• Most effective when information is

obtained using multiple techniques

Scaling

represents quantity of an attribute numerically

- Example: weight, height, age, IQ test scores, etc

Scale

set of numbers whose properties model empirical properties of the variables to which the numbers are assigned

Scaling

Scaling

Scaling

Scale

Scaling

Classification

Classification

Classification

Classification

Advantage of Standardized Measurements

Advantages of Standardized

Measurements

Characteristics of an Effective Test

Characteristics of an Effective Test

Who is involved in assessment?

Techniques of Psychology Assessment

Techniques of Psychological

Assessment

What are some assumptions we make in psychological testing and assessment.

Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt

Sir Frances Galton

Sir Frances Galton

Sir Frances Galton

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

David Wechsler

Sputnik

Sputnik

Culture

Culture

Culture and testing

Culture and Testing

Informed consent

Variable

Variable

Variability

Variable

Measurement

Measurement

Discrete

Continuous

Descriptive statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Inferential statistics

Four types of scales

Measures of central tendency

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of variability

Measures of Variability

Measures of variability

The Normal Distribution

Normal Distribution

The normal distribution

Skewness

Skewness

Skewness

Kurtosis

Kurtosis

Kurtosis

Standard Scores

Why use standard scores?

Standard Scores

Standard Scores

z score

t score

Z-Scores

T-Scores

True Score –

T-Scores

T-scores

Stanine

percentile

Percentiles

Percentiles

Percentiles

Skewness and measures of central tendency

Z-scores and normal distributions

Z-Scores and the Normal

Distribution

Z-scores: pros and cons

Z-Scores: Pros and Cons

Z-scores Pros & Cons

Correlation

Correlations

Correlation

Correlation

Testing Assumptions

Assumptions we make with testing

Assumptions we make with testing

Testing Assumptions

Characteristics of a good test

Norm referenced

Norm-referenced

Criterion referenced

Criterion-referenced

Correlation coefficient

Simple regression

Multiple regression

Multiple Regression

Multiple Regression

Multiple regression

Coefficient of Determination (r^{2})

Coefficient of Determination

Coefficient of Determination

Coefficient of determination

Correlation of Alienation

Prediction

Prediction

Prediction

Linear Regression Equation

Measurement Reliability

Measurement Reliability

What is Measurement Reliability?

Reliability is NOT concerned with

Classical Test Theory

Classical Test Theory

Classical Test Theory

X = T + ε

Reliability Coefficients

Reliability Coefficients

Reliability Coefficients

Reliability coefficients (R)

The reliability coefficient (R)

Platykurtic vs. Leptokurtic

Validity vs Reliability

Assimilation vs Accommodation

Norm vs Criterion Referenced

Norm vs. Criterion Referenced

Norm vs. Criterion Referenced

Fluid vs Crystallized intelligence

Parallel vs Alternative Forms

Parallel or alternate forms

Homogenous vs Heterogenous Tests

Convergent vs Discriminant Validity

Empirical vs Theoretical Scales

Content vs. Construct Validity

Concurrent vs Predictive

Likert vs Guttman Scale

Cronbach's Alpha vs Pearson's r

Face validity vs Content validity

Standford Binet vs Wechsler

Base rate vs hit rate

Types of Drug Tests

Types of Drug Tests

Cognitive Ability

Cognitive Ability

Five Stages of Test Development

Likert Scales

Likert scale

Guttman Scales

Guttman Scale

Guttman Scale

Guttman scaling

Guttman scaling

Thurston Scaling Method

Thurstone Scaling Method

Thurstone Scaling Method

Choosing your Item Type

Item reliability index

Item-reliability index

S.A.T & Reliability

Reliability is not:

Reliability

Reliability is Not:

Important note on reliability coefficients

Reliability Coefficient Formula

Reliability and Error

Reliability and Error

Reliability and error

Test Construction Error

Test Construction Error

Administration Error

Administration Error

Administration error

Scoring and Interpretation Error

Scoring and Interpretation Error

Scoring and interpretation error

Test-Retest Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability

Test-retest reliability

Test-Retest Sources of Error

Test-Retest Sources of Error

Test-retest sources of error

Parallel or Alternate Forms Reliabilty

Parallel-Alternate Error

Parallel-Alternate Error

Parallel-alternate error

When Parallel-Alternate is used most frequently

Inter-rater or Inter-scorer Reliability

Inter-rater or inter-scorer reliability

Method used to calculate Inter-rater reliability

Requirements for Inter-rater reliability

Internal Consistency

Internal Consistency

Internal consistency

3 Ways to Measure Internal Consistency

Ways to measure internal consistency

Split-Half Reliability (1 of 2)

Split-Half Reliability

Spearman-Brown (2 of 2 for Split-Half)

Calculating "n" for Spearman-Brown

Spearman-Brown Examples

Kuder-Richardson Formulas (Split-Half)

Kuder-Richardson w/ hetero items

Coefficient Alpha (Split-Half)

Calculating Coefficient Alpha

Power Test

„

Power Test

Speed Test

Speed Test

Power vs. Speed

Criterion vs. Norm

Norm vs. Criterion

Generalizability Theory

Generalizability Theory

Impact of Facets on Test Scores

Impact of Facets on Test Scores

Applications of Generalizability Theory

Generalizability vs. True Score

Standard Error of Measurement

Standard Error of Measurement

Standard error of measurement

SEM in Relation to Classical Test Theory

Reliability and SEM

Reliability and SEM

True Score Estimates

True Score Estimates

95% Confidence Interval

99% Confidence Interval

Standard Error of the Difference

Standard Error of the Difference

Standard error of the difference

Validity

Validity

Validity

Validity and Context

Face Validity

Face Validity

Face validity

Content Validity

Content Validity

Content Validity Steps

Content Validity Ratio (Step #3)

Criterion-Related Validity

Criterion-related validity

Concurrent Validity

Concurrent Validity

Predictive Validity

Predictive Validity

Assessing Criterion Validity

Assessing criterion validity

Interpreting Validity Coefficients

Incremental Validity

Incremental Validity

Incremental validity

Construct Validity

Construct Validity

Construct validity

Construct Validation Definition

Construct Validation Parts

Evidence for Construct Validity

Evidence for Construct Validity

Homogeneity Evidence

Change Evidence

Group Difference Evidence

Convergent Validity

Discriminant Validity

Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix

Expectancy Data

Base Rate

„

Base Rate

Hit rate

Miss Rate

False Positive

False positive

False Negative

False negative

Selection Rate

TD Step #1: Test Conceptualization

TD Step #2: Test Construction

Likert Rating Scale

Method of Paired Comparisons

Method of Paired Comparisons

Sorting Tasks

Sorting Tasks

Selected Reponse

Constructed Response

Item Type Disadvantages

Test Construction: Writing Items

Test Construction: Scoring Items

TD Stage #3: Test Tryout

Guessing & Faking

Guessing and faking

Guessing Correction Methods

Faking Corrections

TD Step #4: Item Analysis

Item Analysis - Basic Procedures

Item Difficulty Indices

Item difficulty indices

Item Difficulty Index

Item difficulty index

Ideal Average

Ideal average

Item-Total Correlation

Item-total correlation

Item-Validity Index

Item-Discrimination Index Goal

Item-Discrimination Index

Item-discrimination index

Item-Discrimination Index Formula

Empirically Keyed Scales (Item-Discrimination Method 2)

TD Step #5: Test Revision

Cross Validation

Item Fairness

What is Personality?

What is personality?

Traits:

States

Types

the four temperaments

The Four Temperaments

Sanguine

Choleric

Melancholic

Phlegmatic

Six (modern) approaches to Personality

Psychoanalytic Approach

Trait Aproach

Biological approach

Humanistic Approach

Behavioral/ social learning Approach

Cognitive approach

How are Personality assessments used?

How are Personality Assessments Used?

Assessment Methods

Assessment Methods

Objective Tests:

Advantages of Objective tests

Advantages of objective tests

Disadvantages of objective tests

Psyche

Metric

Psychometrics

Psychometrics

Fundamental goal of psychological measurement

Two Types of Measurement

Tests are defined by what (and how)

they measure

adequate Norms

Origins of Testing: Early Psychology: Darwin

Origins of Testing: Early Psychology: Wilhelm Wundt

Testing in the U.S.

History suggests cultural bias in testing can

have an adverse impact:

Federal Testing

Legislation

Discrete (scale)

Discrete scale

Continuous (scale)

Scales of measurement

Scales of Measurement

Scales of measurement

Nominal Scale

Nominal Scale

Nominal scale

Nominal Scale Statistics

Nominal Scale Statistics

Ordinal Scale

Ordinal Scale

Ordinal Scale Statistics

Ordinal scale statistics

Interval Scale

Interval Scale

Interval Scale Statistics

Interval Scale Statistics

Interval scale statistics

Ratio Scale

Ratio Scale

Describing Data

Three methods:

Error

Error

Error

Many sources of error:

Sources of Error

Central Tendency

Range

Range

Deviation Scores

Variance

Variance

standard deviation

Standard deviation

Standard deviation

Positive skew

:

Positive skew

Negative skew:

Negative skew

Quartiles

Quartiles

Interquartile range

Semi-interquartile range

Z-Scores and Percentile Ranks

Z-scores and percentile ranks

Percentile Pros and Cons

Percentile Pros and Cons

Interpreting Percentiles

Positive Relations (correlation)

R2 (r squared)

Negative Relations

Negative Relations

Negative relations

Spearman’s Rho (Ρ or ρ)

Simple Linear Regression

Simple Linear Regression

Logistic Regression

Issues with Prediction

Issues with Prediction

Standard Error of the

Estimate (SE)

Norm-Referenced Evaluation

Norm-referenced Evaluation

Norm-referenced evaluation

Normative Sample

Sampling and Norms

Normative Sample

Normative sample

Types of Samples

Types of Samples

Stratified Samples

Stratified Samples

Stratified samples

Random samples

Random sampling

Purposive Samples

Convenience Samples

Convenience sampling

Types of Norms

Age and Grade Norms

Age and grade norms

National and Anchor Norms

National & Anchor Norms

Sub-Group and Local Norms

Sub-group & Local norms

Norm-Referenced (NRT)

Criterion-Referenced (CRT):

Limitations

Types of Reliability

„

Parallel Forms –

Alternate Forms

Inter-Rater or Inter-Scorer

Spearman-Brown

Kuder-Richardson Formulas

Coefficient Alpha

Coefficient Alpha

Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous

Test Construction

Dynamic vs. Static

Restriction of Range

Applications of Generalizabilty

Theory

Evidential Validity

Consequential Validity

Criterion

Criterion

Validity Coefficient

Step 1: Test Conceptualization

Step 2: Test Construction

Likert (& Likert-type)

Test Construction: Choosing Your

Item Type

ITEM POOL

Stage 3: Test Tryout

Guessing

Faking

Step 4: Item Analysis

Step 5: Test Revision

What is Intelligence?

Intelligence

Key Historical Figures (1)

Key Historical Figures (2)

Piaget’s Developmental Theory

Piaget's Developmental Theory

Assimilation

Accommodation:

Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory

Spearman's Two-Factor Theory

Thurston’s Multidimensional Theory

of Intelligence

Thurston's Multidimensional Theory of Intelligence

Fluid Intelligence

Crystalized Intelligence

Campione’s Model of

Information Processing Theory

Campione's Model of Information Processing Theory

Architectural Factors

Architectural Factors

Executive Processes

Componential/Analytic

Experiential/Creative

Contextual

Contextual

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature vs. Nurture

Support for Nature

Support for Nature

Support for Nature

Support for nature

Support for Nurture

Stability of Intelligence

Stability of Intelligence

Educational Assessment Factors

Tools of Preschool Assessment

Checklist

Rating Scale

Other Preschool Measures

Psychological Tests (for young children)

Performance Assessment

Portfolio assessment

Portfolio Assessment

Authentic Assessment

Diagnostic Tests

Diagnostic Tests

Psychoeducational Test Batteries

Achievement tests

Aptitude tests

K-ABC

K-ABC

Sequential Skills

Simultaneous Skills

Differential Ability Scales

Woodcock-Johnson-III

Woodcock-Johnson-III

High-Stakes Testing

High-Stakes Testing

Physical Tests

Physical Tests

Ability and Aptitude

Ability and Aptitude

Job Satisfaction

Organizational commitment

Organizational culture

Consumer Psychology

Consumer Psychology

Occupational Scales

Occupational Scale

Testing vs. Assessment

Chinese civil service exams

Origin of the Species

Scales and Descriptive Statistics

Central Tendency vs. Variability

Central tendency vs. variability

Variance and Standard Deviation

Variance and standard deviation

Population Z-score Formula

Sample Z-Score Formula

Positive Relations

Positive relations

Spearman's Rho

Regressions

Error and Prediction

Error and prediction

Comparisons of NRT and CRT

Organ Functioning and Personality (4 Temp)

Six Approaches to Personality

MBTI - theory based approach

Lexical Hypothesis and Personality

How do we measure honesty?

Measuring Response Style

Criterion Groups

Criterion group

Empirical vs. Theory

MMPI

MMPI

MMPI-2

Normal Personality

Some common misconceptions about intelligence tests

Jean Esquirol

Frances Galton

Psychometric Intelligence

Assimilation and Accomodation

Fluid Intelligence (Cattell & Horn)

Crystallized Intelligence (Cattell & Horn)

Experiential/Creative (Sternberg)

Comparing Theories of Intelligence

Comparing Intelligence Theories

Checklist and Rating Scales

Checklists and rating scales

Psychological Tests

Psychological testing

Psychological tests

Psychological tests

Achievement vs. Aptitude

Metropolitan Readiness Test

The SAT

ACT

SAT Bias Issues

Potential Misuses of the SAT and ACT

The GRE

GRE & Grad School

Other Graduate Exams

Advanced Placement

Multiple-Choice Format

Alternative

Testing as a Teaching Tool

Teaching by Testing

Measuring Workplace Performance

Ability and Job Performance

Attitudes and Job Performance

Survey Methods in Business

Interest Measurement - The Strong Interest Inventory

Occupational Scale Design

Personal Style Scales

Holland GOT - Realistic

Holland GOT - Investigative

Holland Type GOT - Artistic

Holland Type GOT - Social

Holland Type GOT - Enterprising

Holland Type GOT - Conventional

Psychological assessment

Differentiate between testing and assessment

Testing process

Assessment process

Settings for psychological testing and assessments

Examples of psychological tests

Other tools for testing/ assessment

How are tests defined?

Characteristics of an effective psychological test

Reference sources for authoritative information

Examples of scaling