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- Iowa
- Iowa State University
- Psychology
- Psychology 440
- Armstrong
- Psych 440 Study Guide (2013-14 Armstrong)

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Testing

the process of measuring variables by means of devices or procedures designed to obtain a sample of behavior

Testing in the US

-Alpha & Beta for personality risk factors in WW1

-WAIS intelligence scale

Assessment

the process of gathering and integrating data for the purpose of making an evaluation

Assessment

Assessment - the process of gathering and

integrating data for the purpose of making

an evaluation

• Most effective when information is

obtained using multiple techniques

Scaling

represents quantity of an attribute numerically

- Example: weight, height, age, IQ test scores, etc

Scale

set of numbers whose properties model empirical properties of the variables to which the numbers are assigned

Scaling

Scaling

Scaling

Scale

Scaling

Classification

Classification

Classification

Classification

Advantage of Standardized Measurements

Advantages of Standardized

Measurements

Characteristics of an Effective Test

Characteristics of an Effective Test

Who is involved in assessment?

Techniques of Psychology Assessment

Techniques of Psychological

Assessment

What are some assumptions we make in psychological testing and assessment.

Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt

Sir Frances Galton

Sir Frances Galton

Sir Frances Galton

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet

James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

David Wechsler

Sputnik

Sputnik

Culture

Culture

Culture and testing

Culture and Testing

Informed consent

Variable

Variable

Variability

Variable

Measurement

Measurement

Discrete

Continuous

Descriptive statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Inferential statistics

Four types of scales

Measures of central tendency

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of variability

Measures of Variability

Measures of variability

The Normal Distribution

Normal Distribution

The normal distribution

Skewness

Skewness

Skewness

Kurtosis

Kurtosis

Kurtosis

Standard Scores

Why use standard scores?

Standard Scores

Standard Scores

z score

t score

Z-Scores

T-Scores

True Score –

T-Scores

T-scores

Stanine

percentile

Percentiles

Percentiles

Percentiles

Skewness and measures of central tendency

Z-scores and normal distributions

Z-Scores and the Normal

Distribution

Z-scores: pros and cons

Z-Scores: Pros and Cons

Z-scores Pros & Cons

Correlation

Correlations

Correlation

Correlation

Testing Assumptions

Assumptions we make with testing

Assumptions we make with testing

Testing Assumptions

Characteristics of a good test

Norm referenced

Norm-referenced

Criterion referenced

Criterion-referenced

Correlation coefficient

Simple regression

Multiple regression

Multiple Regression

Multiple Regression

Multiple regression

Coefficient of Determination (r^{2})

Coefficient of Determination

Coefficient of Determination

Coefficient of determination

Correlation of Alienation

Prediction

Prediction

Prediction

Linear Regression Equation

Measurement Reliability

Measurement Reliability

What is Measurement Reliability?

Reliability is NOT concerned with

Classical Test Theory

Classical Test Theory

Classical Test Theory

X = T + ε

Reliability Coefficients

Reliability Coefficients

Reliability Coefficients

Reliability coefficients (R)

The reliability coefficient (R)

Platykurtic vs. Leptokurtic

Validity vs Reliability

Assimilation vs Accommodation

Norm vs Criterion Referenced

Norm vs. Criterion Referenced

Norm vs. Criterion Referenced

Fluid vs Crystallized intelligence

Parallel vs Alternative Forms

Parallel or alternate forms

Homogenous vs Heterogenous Tests

Convergent vs Discriminant Validity

Empirical vs Theoretical Scales

Content vs. Construct Validity

Concurrent vs Predictive

Likert vs Guttman Scale

Cronbach's Alpha vs Pearson's r

Face validity vs Content validity

Standford Binet vs Wechsler

Base rate vs hit rate

Types of Drug Tests

Types of Drug Tests

Cognitive Ability

Cognitive Ability

Five Stages of Test Development

Likert Scales

Likert scale

Guttman Scales

Guttman Scale

Guttman Scale

Guttman scaling

Guttman scaling

Thurston Scaling Method

Thurstone Scaling Method

Thurstone Scaling Method

Choosing your Item Type

Item reliability index

Item-reliability index

S.A.T & Reliability

Reliability is not:

Reliability

Reliability is Not:

Important note on reliability coefficients

Reliability Coefficient Formula

Reliability and Error

Reliability and Error

Reliability and error

Test Construction Error

Test Construction Error

Administration Error

Administration Error

Administration error

Scoring and Interpretation Error

Scoring and Interpretation Error

Scoring and interpretation error

Test-Retest Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability

Test-retest reliability

Test-Retest Sources of Error

Test-Retest Sources of Error

Test-retest sources of error

Parallel or Alternate Forms Reliabilty

Parallel-Alternate Error

Parallel-Alternate Error

Parallel-alternate error

When Parallel-Alternate is used most frequently

Inter-rater or Inter-scorer Reliability

Inter-rater or inter-scorer reliability

Method used to calculate Inter-rater reliability

Requirements for Inter-rater reliability

Internal Consistency

Internal Consistency

Internal consistency

3 Ways to Measure Internal Consistency

Ways to measure internal consistency

Split-Half Reliability (1 of 2)

Split-Half Reliability

Spearman-Brown (2 of 2 for Split-Half)

Calculating "n" for Spearman-Brown

Spearman-Brown Examples

Kuder-Richardson Formulas (Split-Half)

Kuder-Richardson w/ hetero items

Coefficient Alpha (Split-Half)

Calculating Coefficient Alpha

Power Test

„

Power Test

Speed Test

Speed Test

Power vs. Speed

Criterion vs. Norm

Norm vs. Criterion

Generalizability Theory

Generalizability Theory

Impact of Facets on Test Scores

Impact of Facets on Test Scores

Applications of Generalizability Theory

Generalizability vs. True Score

Standard Error of Measurement

Standard Error of Measurement

Standard error of measurement

SEM in Relation to Classical Test Theory

Reliability and SEM

Reliability and SEM

True Score Estimates

True Score Estimates

95% Confidence Interval

99% Confidence Interval

Standard Error of the Difference

Standard Error of the Difference

Standard error of the difference

Validity

Validity

Validity

Validity and Context

Face Validity

Face Validity

Face validity

Content Validity

Content Validity

Content Validity Steps

Content Validity Ratio (Step #3)

Criterion-Related Validity

Criterion-related validity

Concurrent Validity

Concurrent Validity

Predictive Validity

Predictive Validity

Assessing Criterion Validity

Assessing criterion validity

Interpreting Validity Coefficients

Incremental Validity

Incremental Validity

Incremental validity

Construct Validity

Construct Validity

Construct validity

Construct Validation Definition

Construct Validation Parts

Evidence for Construct Validity

Evidence for Construct Validity

Homogeneity Evidence

Change Evidence

Group Difference Evidence

Convergent Validity

Discriminant Validity

Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix

Expectancy Data

Base Rate

„

Base Rate

Hit rate

Miss Rate

False Positive

False positive

False Negative

False negative

Selection Rate

TD Step #1: Test Conceptualization

TD Step #2: Test Construction

Likert Rating Scale

Method of Paired Comparisons

Method of Paired Comparisons

Sorting Tasks

Sorting Tasks

Selected Reponse

Constructed Response

Item Type Disadvantages

Test Construction: Writing Items

Test Construction: Scoring Items

TD Stage #3: Test Tryout

Guessing & Faking

Guessing and faking

Guessing Correction Methods

Faking Corrections

TD Step #4: Item Analysis

Item Analysis - Basic Procedures

Item Difficulty Indices

Item difficulty indices

Item Difficulty Index

Item difficulty index

Ideal Average

Ideal average

Item-Total Correlation

Item-total correlation

Item-Validity Index

Item-Discrimination Index Goal

Item-Discrimination Index

Item-discrimination index

Item-Discrimination Index Formula

Empirically Keyed Scales (Item-Discrimination Method 2)

TD Step #5: Test Revision

Cross Validation

Item Fairness

What is Personality?

What is personality?

Traits:

States

Types

the four temperaments

The Four Temperaments

Sanguine

Choleric

Melancholic

Phlegmatic

Six (modern) approaches to Personality

Psychoanalytic Approach

Trait Aproach

Biological approach

Humanistic Approach

Behavioral/ social learning Approach

Cognitive approach

How are Personality assessments used?

How are Personality Assessments Used?

Assessment Methods

Assessment Methods

Objective Tests:

Advantages of Objective tests

Advantages of objective tests

Disadvantages of objective tests

Psyche

Metric

Psychometrics

Psychometrics

Fundamental goal of psychological measurement

Two Types of Measurement

Tests are defined by what (and how)

they measure

adequate Norms

Origins of Testing: Early Psychology: Darwin

Origins of Testing: Early Psychology: Wilhelm Wundt

Testing in the U.S.

History suggests cultural bias in testing can

have an adverse impact: