Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Questions about the nature and distribution of childhood disorders are frequently addressed through this type of research.
The classification approach used by the DSM 5, which assumes that you either have a disorder or do not.
A type of assessment often used with children in clinical practice for which there is little empirical support for its ability to assist in DSM diagnosis. (An example of this is the Rorschach)
Limitations of psychophysiological measures
The four types of disclosures that would require a therapist to break confidentiality.
The type of child maltreatment most often reported and substantiated.
Infants and toddlers are at greatest risk for this type of maltreatment.
Current research suggests that there are no gender differences in the risk for maltreatment overall, but girls are at much greater risk for this specific type of maltreatment.
Research suggests that these aspects of the perpetrator are considered risk factors for child maltreatment.
The single biggest risk factor for abuse and neglect
these only examine relationships among variables and causality cannot be determined. Natural experiments involve comparisons between conditions that already exist.
a method of research where the same individuals are studied at different ages/stages of development. This allows for identification of patterns common to all children and for tracking differences in developmental paths.
-May use play, art, talk-Therapists create a comfortable, non-judgmental environment by demonstrating genuineness, empathy, and unconditional positive regard toward their patients while using a non-directive approach. This aids patients in finding their own solutions fixing their own problems
-Focus on changing reward structures, changing maladaptive cognitions, teaching cognitive, behavioral, and emotion coping strategies
-May use talk, rewards, cognitive and behavioral “experiments”
-ABC (antecedents, behaviors, consequences)
*Child Privacy vs. Parental Rights: many parents agree to allow child privacy but it is totally their prerogative to know everything – of course therapist can tell them treatment won’t be helpful under those circumstances*Child/Elder Abuse, Suicide/Homicide – mandated reporting for suicide/homicide (duty to protect) and harm to vulnerable populations (elderly, children).
abuse or mistreatment of someone whose ability to protect him- or herself is limited. This could be part of bullying, domestic violence, or treatment from strangers.
1. Abuse: physical, sexual, emotional
2. Neglect: physical, medical, educational, emotional
3. Witnessing Domestic Violence? It counts as neglect (usually emotional) in some states such as California.
-Refers to four primary acts: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse
1. Physical acts that cause physical harm such as punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking. Injuries are often the result of over-discipline or severe physical punishment.
2. Sexual acts ranging from sexual touching to exhibitionism, intercourse, and sexual exploitation
Inhibited; withdrawn; does not seek or respond to comfort from attachment figure; don’t seek adults as safety figures; emotionally unresponsive; little positive affect (no smiling, laughing)
Anxiety and dissociative symptoms that occur
within one month after exposure to a traumatic experience
boys and girls are at equal risk for most forms of abuse and neglect
1. Exception is sexual abuse – 80% of victims are female
2. Boys are more likely to be sexually abused by male non-family members, girls by male family members
1. Limited child care opportunities – parents have to be on-duty 24-7; parents have to choose less reputable providers; parents more stressed
2. Crowded and unsafe housing3. Lack of health care and mental health care – parents and children not treated for their problems so may lead to more abuse
1. Maltreatment: 49% white, 23% African-American, 18% Hispanic
2. Highest rates of victimization are for children who are African-American (19.8/1000)
1. Personal experience of abuse/neglect (but most victims do NOT become abusers – being
abused yourself just simply increases the risk that you will become an abuser)
2. Little accurate knowledge of parenting and child development
3. Distorted cognitions
4. Psychopathology and/or substance abuse
Likelihood of mental health problems from maltreatment increase with:
1. Greater severity and chronicity of abuse/neglect
2. Closer relationship to perpetrator: child abuse/neglect involve betrayal of trust and expectation of protection, nurturance, safety from those the child depends upon
3. Inappropriate adult reaction to disclosure (ex. blaming the child, non-protective)
-Brain Development: acute and chronic forms of stress may cause changes in brain structure (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala) and function (neuroendocrine system and cortisol)
-Attachment: may fail to develop a secure, organized attachment style with caregiver (instead, insecure-disorganized); inconsistent or inappropriate caregiving responses can lead to difficulty understanding, labeling, and regulating internal emotional states
*Associated with internalizing and externalizing problems:
1. Loss of control when upset (e.g., threatens to kill other; threatens to kill self; impulsive suicide attempts)
2. Self-destructive (e.g., risky behavior, cutting, burning)
3. Physical/verbal aggression toward others
*Increased risk for anxiety, depression, conduct, sexual, eating, substance use and personality disorders
is defined in the DSM-IV-TR by three factors:
-Reading achievement significantly below IQ and what expected for age and schooling
-Most common underlying feature is inability to distinguish or separate sounds in spoken words
-Problems with rate, fluency, comprehension
-Most common LD
-Disorder of reading not due to low intelligence
-Performance/achievement significantly below what would be expected for someone of same age, schooling, and intelligence
-Children with this typically produce shorter, less interesting, and poorly organized essays, and with spelling, punctuation, and grammar mistakes
-Spelling, grammar/punctuation, clarity/organization
-Rarely occurs alone - usually associated with another LD due to underlying neurological development
-Often associated with problems with eye/hand coordination (which leads to poor handwriting)
-Difficulty in recognizing numbers and symbols, memorizing facts, aligning numbers, and understanding abstract concepts
-May also have problems in visual-spatial ability
-Underlying neurological processes are believed to be underdeveloped or impaired (distinct from the other CDs and LDs - more Right Hemisphere stuff here)
-Likely an inherited neurological problem not yet conclusively identified - probably polygenetic
a sudden and overwhelming period of intense fear or discomfortaccompanied by a sudden fight/flight response in absence of obvious, real danger or threat.
a marked and persistent fear of clearly discernible, circumscribed objects or situations. A fear of a specific object or situation.
1. Five subtypes: animal, natural environment, blood-injection-injury, situational, “other”
2. Prevalence rate: 5% of children, 16% of adolescents
3. Two times more common in girls
a form of anxiety disorder in which the subject displays age inappropriate, excessive, and disabling anxiety about being apart for his or her parents or away from home.
1. Prevalence: 4% of children, 1.6% of adolescents
2. More common in girls in community studies, but girls are equal to boys in clinical
settings3. Has the earliest onset of all anxiety disorders (6-8 years)
a marked and persistent fear of social of
performance situations in which the subject is exposed to possible scrutiny and embarrassment. Fear or anxiety of social situations.
1. Situations are those where individual is exposed to possible scrutiny and negative evaluation
2. Prevalence: up to 7% of children/adolescents
3. Two times more common in girls (but equal to boys in clinics)
4. Performance Only: public speaking or test anxiety
consistent failure (due to inability or refusal) to speak in social situations where there is an expectation for speaking (ex. school) despite speaking in other situations, like at home.
-Prevalence: 0.5-1%; girls are equal to boys
-90% also meet criteria for Social Phobia
the subject experiences chronic or exaggerated worry and tension about many events and activities, almost always anticipating disaster, even in the absence of an obvious reason to do so.-Prevalence: 1-3% of children and adolescents
-a form of anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks and sudden feelings of terror that strike repeatedly and without warning. Physical symptoms include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, and abdominal stress.
fear of being alone in, and avoiding, certain places or situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may be unavailable in the event of a panic attack or other incapacitating embarrassing symptoms. Fear or anxiety of one of these places: public transportation, open spaces, enclosed spaces, lines/crowds, outside of home alone.
-Prevalence: 1-2% of adolescents (rare before puberty)-Two times more common in females
a persistent negative mood evidenced by nervousness, sadness, anger, and guilt
1. No empirical support for Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud, Little Hans and horse
2. Empirical Support for:
a. Learning Theory: Watson, Little Albert and white rat: Classical condition made him afraid of rat, operant maintained his fear
b. Attachment Theory: Bowlby, insecure attachment: Anxiety arises following negative early experiences that teach child that the environment is harsh/unpredictable
c. Family: overprotective, anxious parenting, more critical of child’s choices
d. Behavioral Inhibition System: corticotropin-releasing factor systems become hyper-reactive to stress
a behavior therapy technique for treating anxiety disorders that exposes the subject to the source of his or her fear while providing appropriate and effective ways of coping with the fear (other than through escape and avoidance)
a three-step behavior therapy technique for treating anxiety where (1) the child is taught to relax; (2) an anxiety hierarchy is constructed; (3) the anxiety- provoking stimuli are presented sequentially while the child remains relaxed.
ritualized and/or excessive behaviors to relieve anxiety or discomfort; can bephysical or mental
involving only a few muscle groups, or only simple sounds, and usually lasting only milliseconds. Eye blink, throat clear, snort, bark.
involving multiple muscle groups, words or sentences, and usually lasting seconds or more. Hand gestures, jumping, twirling, touching, stomping, repeating phrases, mimicking heard phrases, rarely includes copropraxia (vulgar gestures) or coprolalia (vulgar words)
1. OCD, Tics, other repetitive behaviors appear suddenly with fever, resolve slowly once well
2. Come on very sudden, may take awhile to go away, may go away with fever or may not, symptoms may come back if strep returns
3. Can take up to a year to get over compulsions/tics after infection so may prescribe antibiotics on ongoing basis
a specialized form of CBT that is very effective for OCD.
-Expose to obsession, prevent compulsion
specialized form of behavioral treatment that is very effective for tics, trichotillomania, and excoriation.
-Awareness training, competing response
specialized form of behavior therapy that involves HRT and functional analysis of behavior (FAB)
a disorder in which the subject suffers from extreme, persistent, or poorly regulated emotional states.
A. Two types in the DSM-5: Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders
B. One of the most disabling childhood disorders; over time, prevalence is increasing and age of onset is decreasing
C. Diagnosis determined by episodes: Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Manic Episode
(ME), Hypomanic Episode (HME)
at least 2 weeks with at least 5 most of the day, nearly
every day: depressed (or irritable) mood, diminished interest/pleasure in activities (anhedonia), poor appetite/overeating, significant weight gain/loss, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor retardation or agitation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating or making decisions, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
a. Children show predominantly irritable mood; adults predominantly show sad/empty/depressed mood
b. At least ONE of the 5 symptoms must be either depressed/irritable mood or anhedonia (diminished interest/loss of pleasure)
distinct period lasting at least 1 week (or causing hospitalization) of (1) abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and (2) abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity
a. Plus at least 3 of the following: inflated self esteem/grandiosity; decreased need for sleep; pressured speech/talking too much; racing thoughts/flight of ideas; distractibility; psychomotor agitation, excessive energy, increase in goal-directed activity; excessive involvement in pleasurable activities with high potential for
b. If mood is predominantly irritable instead of elevated/expansive, need 4
same as manic episode BUT only has to last at least four days and can NOT be severe enough to cause marked impairment, hospitalization, or psychoses
a. Still must be: (1) a clear change and uncharacteristic of their behavior, (2) noticeableto others, and (3) cause functional interference in some area
numerous episodes of hypomanic symptoms and numerous episodes of depressive symptoms over 2 years (1 year)
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!