Lec 11/17/08 Process of Development in Groups ?Isomorphism?: the extent to which group goals agree with the goals of its members Communication Paths Develop Quickly Bales? Study on Communication: one person, regardless of the group size (3-7 members) accounts for 40% of the total communication as size increases, more members become ?marginal participants? Group size of 7 seems to be the maximum for all members to participate Stable differences by size of group Amount of communication is a function of status in society: Status Generalization Professionals communicate most, laborers the lease Men communicate more than women Person who communicates the most tends to direct communication to one member (usually second highest communicator) Patterns develop within the first minute of group interaction; without deliberation and therefore difficult to change Centrality: how much communication does it take to reach everybody? Centralized Message must pass through one center person ot reach the other members Organized Delegation by a leader Decentralized More possibilities for each member to communicate with each other Ideal for brainstorming/think tanks Disorganized Bales Types of Communication Task: progress towards groups goals 2/3 of the communication Moving group towards the task evokes negative emotions Task leader talks the most (40%) Socioemotional: communication for emotional support of group members Deals with negative emotions of task communication Involves dealing with negative emotions, support, and active conflict resolution Socioemotional leader talks second most Problems evolve if no one takes this role An effective group has a good balance of these types of communication Group Norms: People Import Task Norms from the Environment People immediately ?go to work? instead of discussing how they will carry out roles Importing Norms is Often Unintentional If group imports correct norms ( effective group Groups import norms of other behaviors, like how ?personal? subjects will be tolerated Some groups discourage sharing personal information Amount and kinds of personal information tolerated differs per group Norms of socioemotional communication develops slowly, whereas task norms develop quickly As long as environment doesn?t change, the same behavior will work across situations Structure of Liking Patterns ?Sociogram?: map of who likes and dislikes each other within a group Who members like = socioemotional map Who members prefer to work with = task map There tends to be a ?core group? of members who like each other Isolated members are not liked or disliked, but may like or dislike others Takes longer to develop these patterns Patterns driven by similarity Research of incoming transfer students in dorm: took 8 weeks for patterns to develop Those who want to switch roommates were paired with a dissimilar roommate
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