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Psych Chapters 7-12
Psych Chapters 7-12
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Piagets 2nd stage, in which rapid growth in representation takes place, but though is not yet logical
Limits to Pre-Operational
Lack of Conservation
process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation.
figuring out grammatical rules by observing how words and sentences are used in conversation.
application of grammatical rules and words that are exceptions
practical, social aspect of language including slang, idioms, etc.
adult response that ELABORATE on child's utterances, INCREASING complexity
adult responses that RESTRUCTURE child's speech in more APPROPRIATE form
development skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing
general description of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation- basic means through which children organize and interpret familiar experiences.
"Grandma will be here by the time Elmo goes off"`
Initiative vs. Guilt (in early childhood)
Erikson's 3rd stage in psychosocial dev in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with moral reservations that may prevent carrying them out.
behaviors, interests, attitudes, skill, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or females.
socialization process whereby children learn appropriate gender roles
Awareness that one will always be male or female
Gender Schema Theory
children socialize themselves in their gender toles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female.
Fredian Theory. Young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviours of the parent of the same sex.
Developmental Sequence of Play
disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a childs sense of reason and fairness
emphasize control and obidience
emphasize self-expression and self- regulation
blend respect for childs individuality with efforts to instill social values
used as a means of ACHIEVING A GOAL- as opposed to Hostile Aggresion which is intended specifically to hurt another
openly DIRECTED TO ITS TARGET (BOYS)
AIMED @ DAMAGING OR NTERFERING WITH ANOTHER PERSONS RELATIONSHIPS, REPUTATION, or PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL_BEING.
Friendship ( EC)
friends are temporary, materialistic, and strictly equitable. (tit-for-tat)
#1 cause of childhood disaility most common cause of missing school-prevalance has increased 232% since 1969
3rd stage of Piagetian development from 7-12 yrs,---- children develop logical but not abstract thinking.
understanding the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object A>B>C ........A>C
irregular development withing a Piagetian stage and/or partial advancement to the next stage (not everything transfers over instantaneously)
techniques used to aid memory
ability to concentrate on relevant information and ignore Distractions
ability to concentrate on more than one thing simultaneously
HOWARD GARDNER theory that each person has several distinct forms of intelligence:: (linguistic, bodiliy-kinesthetic,spatial, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, mathematical-logical, naturalistic)
awareness of ones own mental processes- thinking about thinking
emphasis on decoding of unfamiliar words (sounding out letters)
Whole Language approach
emphasizes visual retrieval and use of contextual cues (reading material useful)
family and community resources on which a child can draw
expectation or prediction of behavior that tends to come true because it leads people to act as if it already were true.
promoting children even if they do not meet academic standards
(Individuals with disabilities Educatoin Act)
federal legistlation gaurenteeing free and appropriate education to all children regardless of type or severity of disability
Learning disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower that predicted by age or IQ
syndrome characterized by persistent inattention , distractability, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, inappropriate over activity BEHAVIORAL disorder
thinking aimed at finding one right answer to a problem- kind of thinking emphasized on tests and most academic exams.
thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities- creativity, innovation, ofter=n discouraged in school.
Industry vs inferiority
Erikson's 4th stage of psycosocial development in which children must learn the productive skills of their CULTURE of face the feelings of inferiority
Transitional stage in which parents exercise general Supervision and children exercise moment to moment self-regulation
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
pattern of behaviour marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance.
pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the RIGHTS OF OTHERS
children who weather adverse circumstances, function well despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic events
influences that reduce the impact of early stress and tend to predict positive outcomes- child's PERSONALITY, isolated as opposed to multiple risk factors. compensating experiences.
Primary Sex Characteristics
organs directly related to reproduction which enlarge and mature during adolescence
physiological signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the reproductive organs
drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, the use of which may lead to addd\iction and/or use of more powerful drugs.
Piagets final stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly
adolescent's preoccupation with own thoughts and feeling s
belief in the uniqueness of ones own experiience
belief that one is the focus of everyone else's attention
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
based on rewards, punishment, and power of authority figures
based on conforming to rules to ensure positive human relationships and societal order
based on terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies
Identity vs. Identity confusion
in adolescence. Ericksons 5th stage...adolescents seek to develop a coherent sense of self. including the role they play in society.
absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives
insufficient exploration of alternatives and acceptance of other peoples opinions and plans.
careful considerations of alternatives in preparation for commitment to self-selected goals.
commitment to choices made after a sufficient period spent exploring and evaluating alternatives.
focus of consistent sexual,. romantic, and affectionate interest-heter,homo,bi
minority of adolescents which may involve in conflict with family , alienation from adult society, reckless behavior and rejection of adult values.
greater emphasis on intimacy and loyalty-leads to greater rewards and greater risks
a small group of close or good friends, membership based on actual interaction
a large, loosely organize group consisting of several cliques, membership based on reputation
inability to distinguish symbolic viewpoints from ones one's own
Lack of Conservation
inability to understand the certain physical characteristics of object remain the same even when their outward appearance changes.
tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect pther important features, one-dimensional thinking
tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive
inability to go through a series of steps ina problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
thinkn phenomina that pccur closely together are in cause-and-effect relationship even though there is no logical connection.
child plays near other children with similar materials but does NOT interact.
children engaged in seperate activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on one anothers behavior
full social participation in which childrens actions are directed toward a common goal
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