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Assessing the mind’s structural elements
_________ is considered the Father of American Psychology and authored one of the most complete and influential psychological work of its time, entitled:________.
___________ completed her doctoral work under James, but was denied the degree by Harvard. She later became the first female president of the ____________.
J.B. WatsonB.F. Skinner
The neuroscience movement involves:
Study of the brain and its direct influence on behavior. Due largely to improvements in technology.
1. Form a hypothesis
2. Design a study
3. Collect the data
4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions5. Report findings
A ______________________________ is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes prior observations and predicts future behaviors or events.
A ______________________________ is a specific, testable prediction generated from a larger theoretical understanding of the relationship between two or more variables.
Distortions in self-report are inaccurate responses from participants that may result from ______________________________, ______________________________, ______________________________, or ______________________________.
______________________________ occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
Positive - one goes up and the other goes down
Negative - both variables go up or down
2. Motor3. Interneurons
A ______________________________ potential is a neuron’s stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive.
______________________________ is the minimum length of time following an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin ( _________ ms in duration, generally).
An ______________________________ mimics a neurotransmitter, opening a receptor site.
___________ influences moving, learning, attention, and emotion.
______________________________ enables muscle action, learning, and memory, and deterioration of neurons producing this neurotransmitter is associated with ______________________________ disease.
_____________________ helps control alertness and arousal.
______ influences mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.
1. Central nervous system - brain/spinal cord2. Peripheral nervous system - outside brain/spinal cord
1. Autonomic - involuntary control of body2. Somatic - voluntary control of body movements
The ______________________________ nervous system is the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
The ______________________________ nervous system is the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
The ______________________________ system is a collection of glands that regulate our growth, sexual development, reproduction, metabolism, mood, and certain aspects of behavior.
The ___________ gland affects metabolism.
The ______________________________ regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
The ______________________________ glands trigger the “fight-or-flight” response by releasing epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) that influence heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar - providing us with a surge of energy.
What are the 3 primary regions of the brain?
2. Midbrain3. Forebrain
Often called the "little brain", the cerebellum is critical to the __________________and to our sense of _______________.
The ______________________________ controls largely unconscious, vital functions such as circulation, breathing, and regulating reflexes.
The ______________________________ is a bridge of fibers that connects the ______________________________ with the ______________________________.
The ______________________________ is a dopamine-containing pathway that deteriorates in Parkinson’s disease.
The ______________________________ is the primary source of input to the cerebral cortex and is a structure through which all sensory information (except smell) passes and is integrated.
The ______________________________ controls the autonomic nervous system and plays a vital link between the brain and the ______________________________ system (via the ______________________________ gland).
The ______________________________ is particularly important in memory for spatial layouts and factual information (explicit memory).
The __________ plays a key role in the learning of fear responses and the control of emotion and aggression.
3. Temporal4. Frontal
The ______________________________ is involved in semantic processing of words.
______________________________ area controls language reception and expression.
______________________________ area controls language expression by directing muscle movements involved in speech.
An aphasia is an impairment in _______________________ generally caused by damage to the _______________ hemisphere of the brain.
The ______________________________ is a large band of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres and facilitates communication between them.
The two hemispheres work independently
The ______________________________ hemisphere demonstrates superiority on tasks involving non-verbal processing, such as spatial, musical, and visual recognition.
______________________________ is a device that monitors electrical activity in the brain from the surface of the scalp.
______________________________ is a manner in certain areas of brain can be damaged to examine the resulting behavioral, cognitive, or social changes. Such damage can also be studied as it occurs naturally through brain tumors, ______________________________, ______________________________, and other misfortunes.
______________________________ involves sending weak electrical current into the brain to stimulate or activate it.
______________________________ scans involve computer-enhanced x-rays of the brain. Such scans allow us to examine ______________________________.
______________________________ and ______________________________ use magnetic fields, radio waves, and computer enhancement to map structure and function of the brain, respectively.
______________________________ is the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from the environment.
______________________________ is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to reorganize meaningful objects and events.
What are the three steps in the process of sensation?
______________________________ is considered the founder of psychophysics and was the first to introduce scientific methods to the study of sensation and perception.
______________________________ is the assessment of the amount of stimulus energy that is necessary for an individual to be consciously aware of its presence.
The ______________________________ threshold is the smallest quantity of physical energy that can be reliably detected (_______% of the time) by an observer.
______________________________ perception occurs below our threshold for being able to consciously detect a stimulus.
Although we cannot learn complex knowledge from subliminal stimuli, we can be ____________________, and this will affect our subsequent choices.
______________________________ is the assessment of an individual’s ability to select a particular stimulus from among a set of other similar stimuli.
______________________________ is the assessment of an individual’s ability to distinguish one stimulus from another.
The ______________________________ threshold is the smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliably detected by an observer.
_________________ states that to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum ___________________________.
______________________________ is the assessment of an individual’s ability to assess the physical magnitude of a stimulus.
______________________________ is the finding that the magnitude of a given stimulus is influenced by the frame of reference used in judging it.
______________________________ is the finding that a mental predisposition to perceive something (what we expect to see) can influence what is perceived.
______________________________ is the reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness that occurs when stimulation is unchanging or repetitious.
______________________________ and ______________________________ can play a role in the measurement of sensation and perception.
The ______________________________ is the clear dome like window that serves as a fixed lens, initiating the process of gathering light and concentrating it into the eye.
The ______________________________ is the colored membrane that controls the amount of light that enters the eye.
The ______________________________ is a hole in the iris through which light enters the eye - it is said to “dilate” according to the amount of light in the environment.
The ______________________________ is the neural tissue that lines the back of the eye’s interior and contains sensory receptors.
The ______________________________ is the center of the retina where vision is sharpest - it is the point of central focus.
The ______________________________ is the bundle of axons carrying information from the photoreceptors to the brain.
The ______________________________ is the area in the retina where the optic nerve penetrates and no photoreceptors are located.
In the primary visual pathway, information flows from the retina, through the optic chiasm to the ______________________________ and then to the ______________________________.
In the secondary visual pathway, information flows from the retina to the brain stem (specifically the tectum and superior colliculi) - an area primarily concerned with the ______________________________ with other sensory input.
Hubel and Wiesel received a Nobel prize for their research in identifying highly specialized ______________________________ in the visual cortex. These included ______________________________ cells that respond best to a line of a specific width or orientation, and ______________________________ cells that more generally respond to anything within their receptive field.
The ______________________________ pathway in the primary visual area processes information regarding motion and depth- it is considered the “where” pathway.
The ______________________________ pathway in the primary visual area processes information regarding the perception of objects - it is considered the “what” pathway.
involves receptor rods and codes that collection stimulus energy and process through to bipolar cells and then ganglion cells.
involves subsequent processing by the brain to combine information about color, depth, movement, and form.
The ______________________________ theory suggests that we have three basic types of cones that respond to short, medium, and long wavelengths (representing the colors ______________________________, ______________________________, and ______________________________).
The ______________________________ theory suggests that ganglion cells in the retina either respond to short (but are inhibited from firing by long) wavelengths, or vice versa. These cells have been found to respond to opposing colors (green v. red; blue v. yellow).
The ______________________________ is the stimulus that lies in the distance, or in the world outside the body.
The ______________________________ is the stimulus energies that impinge directly on the sensory receptors.
The ______________________________ is an inference of which distal stimulus could be responsible for the proximal stimulus that is sensed or experienced.
using models, ideas, and expectations to interpret sensory info
Bottom up processing
taking sensory info and then assembling it and integrating it
The principle of ______________________________ states that individuals focus on some objects in the perceptual field to the exclusion of others. Our focus becomes the “figure”, everything else faces to the “ground”.
The principle of ______________________________ states that the closer objects are to one another, the more likely they are to be perceived as a unit.
The principle of ______________________________ states that when there are gaps in a pattern that resembles a familiar form, individuals mentally “close” these gaps to perceive the object as a whole.
The principle of ______________________________ states that objects similar in size, shape, color, or any other feature tend to be group together.
The principle of ______________________________ states that individuals perceive the contours of straight and curved lines as continuous flowing patterns.
______________________________ cues to depth/distance are those obtained by comparing different views of the two eyes.
______________________________ cues to depth/distance are those obtained from the image in either eye alone.
______________________________ is the tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input, including features such as color, shape, location, and size.
______________________________ is the study of ESP and other claims that cannot be explained by existing psychological principles.
______________________________ involves mind-to-mind communication. A “sender” would view the cards as the subject attempts to read her/his mind.
______________________________ involves perceiving remote events. In an experiment, the subject attempts to read cards as they are placed face down.
______________________________ is the processing of information into the memory system.
______________________________ is the retention of encoded information over time.
______________________________ is the process of getting information out of memory storage.
(a) relatively raw and unprocessed
(b) passively recorded(c) fairly accurate representation
______________________________ is a temporary visual buffer that holds information for a brief period of time (250-300 msec).
______________________________ is a temporary auditory buffer that holds information for a brief period of time (2-4 sec).
______________________________ is the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
Early and late selection models of attention can be distinguished with regard to the timing of ______________________________.
______________________________ is the failure to notice rather salient objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
______________________________ is the failure to notice changes in our environment.
______________________________ retains information for a brief period of time (+/- 20 sec) so that it can be encoded and transferred to long-term memory.
According to Miller (1956), people tend to remember ______________________________ items in short-term memory.
Peterson & Peterson (1959) showed that absent ______________________________, items in short-term memory will rapidly ______________________________.
______________________________ involves encoding through rote repetition of material to maintain its availability in memory.
______________________________ involves encoding new information by associating it with stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable.
Craik & Lockhart (1972) developed the ______________________________ theory, and demonstrated that the “depth” at which a stimulus is processed influences the extent to which it can be subsequently retrieved.
______________________________ processing involves the encoding of structural features of a stimulus, while ______________________________ processing involves the encoding of semantic (meaning) features of a stimulus.
The ______________________________ principle indicates that recall is superior when the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context.
While ______________________________ practice can produce speedy, short-term learning and high feelings of confidence, ______________________________ practice produces superior long-term recall.
______________________________ is a mnemonic that involves grouping information into meaningful bits.
The ______________________________ involves associating items with a series of physical locations - it engages the mnemonics of imagery base and organizing base.
The ______________________________ involves superior recall of information when individuals relate items to themselves or their own experiences.
What are the three components of working memory?
2. Visual spatial3. Episodic
The ______________________________ stores a number of limited sounds and “acoustic” codes; information in this store typically decays within 2 seconds.
The ______________________________ stores visual and spatial information (but with a limited capacity and for an abbreviated period of time).
______________________________ memory is a relatively permanent storage system that has no practical limits.
______________________________ involves memory for facts and experiences that one can consciously recall.
______________________________ is our memory for skills or responses that operate outside of conscious awareness.
______________________________ involves our general knowledge associated with facts or objects.
______________________________ involves our memory for personally experienced events.
A ______________________________ consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related/associated concepts.
Psychologists assume that ______________________________ occurs when a concept is primed or consciously processed and that pathways surrounding the concept of activated and accessed as a result.
______________________________ is our memory for events from one’s own life. It is a form of episodic memory.
______________________________ is a memory for a situation in which we first learn of a very surprising and emotionally arousing event.
______________________________ occurs when information does not reach permanent storage due to insufficient encoding at study.
______________________________ suggests that information in memory will eventually disappear if it is not accessed.
______________________________ indicates that similar items or information can interfere with storage or retrieval.
prior learning interferes with new learning
______________________________ is the neurological process of stabilizing a memory following initial encoding - ___________________________ following encoding can facilitate this process.
False memories may be due to ______________________________, ______________________________, or ______________________________.
The ______________________________ occurs when we are presented with misleading or incorrect information following an event, and we incorporate that information into our subsequent memory reports.
The principle of ______________________________ suggests that a regimen of effortful activities, typically begun in childhood and sustained for > 10 years, can lead to extraordinary performance over time.
Define “Complimentary Action.”
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