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o Sensation- The detection of external stimuli and the transmission of this information to the brain
o Perception- the processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals
o Transduction- the process by which sensory stimuli are converted to signals the brain can interpret (page 175 stop light example)
o Bottom up- perception based on the physical features of the stimulus
o Top down- how knowledge, expectations or past experiences shape the interpretation of sensory information
o Papillae- donut like structures on the tongue
o Taste buds are housed in canal beneath papillae
o 5 tastes:
* umami (glutamate, savory taste)
o Amygdala- develops hatred of foods
o Gustatory cortex- allows us to recognize what we are eating
o Medulla- can make you throw up or not- effects heart rate, breathing, and throwing up
o Hypothalamus- receives information from the rest of the body
o Odors are encoded:
* Stimuli- when you smell something, odorants pass into your nose and nasal cavity. Few odorants actually reach olfactory receptors when just regularly breathing (why we sniff)
o The olfactory epithelium is a thin layer of tissue, within the nasal cavity, that contains the receptors for smell o Olfactory bulb is a special organ that is located in forebrain of all vertebrates and accepts neural inputs related to odor which is identified by the nasal cavity cells. The olfactory bulb process all the odors when the olfactory receptor or smell receptor cells which are present further inside the olfactory bulb bring the information.
o John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
o Behaviorism- believed that we arrive in the world as a blank slate. We are able to learn almost whatever we want.
o The Law of Effect- If a behavior is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that behavior will most likely happen again.
o If a behavior is followed by an annoying state of affairs, probably won’t happen again.
o Mere exposure effect- The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle.
* Advertisers use this effect with commercials- viewers gradually start to like the products without ever having tried it
o Sensitization- Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated.
* Your teacher says the word “okay” often during lecture. The more she says it, the more annoyed you get.
o Habituation- the diminishing of a physiological or emotional response to a frequently repeated stimulus
* After living next to a busy street for many years, you become unaware of the noisy cars that pass by
o Unconditioned stimulus- a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning
* (Salivating when a dog sees food)
o Conditioned Stimulus- a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place.
* (The clicking of the metronome elicits the salivary gland)
o Unconditioned response- A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex
* (a simple reflex)
o Conditioned Response- A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned
* (usually weaker than the UR)
o Classical Conditioning- Also known as Pavlovian conditioning, a neutral stimulus elicits a response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that response.
o Pavlov’s Experiments- Pavlov did the experiment with the food, and the one-way window. The other experiment was with the food and the metronome. Also he used the food and the can opener, and the wrench.
o Acquisition- The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Pavlov concluded that the critical element in the acquisition of a learned association is that the stimuli occur together in time. The bond is refered to as Contiguity.
* Conditioning is also at its strongest when there is a very brief delaybetween the CS and US As a result of the CS-US pairings lead to increased learning. As a result, the CS can produce the CR.
o Extinction- A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus.
* If the CS is presented without the US, eventually the CR extinguishes.
o Spontaneous Recovery- A process in which a previous extinguished CR reemerges after the presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
o Stimulus generalization- learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
o Stimulus Discrimination- A Differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus
o Siegel said that it is important that treatment for addiction include exposing addicts to drug cues. Such exposure helps extinguish responses to those cues. In this way, the cues are prevented from triggering cravings in the future.
* Sigel and his colleagues did the experiment where they would light a vanilla candle during morphine injections, then he would light candle later without giving them morphine and the mice would be really sad and depressed. When you present the vanilla only, you see the heart-rate dramatically increase.
o B. F. Skinner, the psychologist most closely associated with this process, chose the term operant to express the idea that animals operate on their environments to produce effects (FIGURE 6.20).
* Skinner believed that how you acted, was based completely on how you were raised.
* “Eat your spinach and then you’ll get dessert,”
* Ratio- How many times the rat pressed the lever
* Interval- How much times has gone by
* Fixed- A certain amount of time every time
* Variable- you don’t know how many times to press the lever
* Observational: offspring can learn basic skills by
watching adults perform those skills
* Modeling: modeling is only effective if the
imitator is physically capable of imitating. For
example: watching David Beckham kick a ball
doesn’t mean that you will be able to kick it as
well as him.
* Vicarious Learning: Not taking a piece of candy because you just saw someone get in trouble for it.
o Information processing model- The information processing model compares the working of memory to the actions of a computer.
* 1st step/Encoding: Information is acquired and processed into neural code.
* 2nd step/Storage: Information is stored in the brain
* 3rd step/retrieval: Information is retrieved with it is needed.
* Consolidation: The neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in memory.
* Reconsolidation refers to the unpacking and repacking of memories, sometimes leading to changes in memory.
* Attention is a key ingredient to make the model work properly.
o The serial position curve shows the relationship between long-term memory and working memory. This curve encapsulates the Primacy Effect and the Recency Effect
* Primacy effect: People have a good memory for the items at the beginning of a list. (reflects long term memory)
* Recency effect: People have a good memory for the items at the end of a list (reflects working memory)
o The “box model” shows the relationship between sensory memory, short term memory, and finally, Long term memory.
o Sensory memory only lasts a fraction of a second
o Short term memory lasts up to 30 seconds
o Long term memory has the potential to last a lifetime
o Attention is necessary to move between sensory memory and short term memory, and encoding is necessary to move from short term memory to long term memory.
* Maintenance rehearsal is non elaborative repetition and is only helpful for keeping information in short term memory
o Chunking refers to the act of grouping units of information together to make them easier to remember. Chunking can greatly increase ones working memory capacity.
o Declarative memory/Explicit memory: memory that requires you to pay attention Ex: Doing calculus
o Non Declarative memory/Implicit memory: memory that does not require your attention Ex: walking
o Semantic memory refers to facts and abstract information
o Episodic memory refers to events from your life
o Flashbulb memories refer to sudden, episodic memories that were surprising or arousing in nature
o Procedural memory: A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
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