Psych test 2
Last Modified: 2011-10-19
when people like something because of what it is associated with. (Tiger Woods and gatorade or Nike--Ben)
- Example: Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white, furry rat. Generalized to other stimulifeared anything white and furry
- Albert responds differently to a block of wood than he does to white furry things (see generalization)
- any process or experience that causes a more or less permanent change in your behavior
- conditioned responding that had disappeared in extinction is recovered spontaneously with the passage of time
- a treatment for replacing a positive reaction to a harmful stimulus, such as alcohol, with something negative, such as feeling nauseated. Replaces positive associations with negative ones
- Environmental agents, such as disease organisms or drugs, that can potentially damage the developing embryo or fetus
- a research design in which the same people are studied or tested repeatedly over time
- research design in which people of different ages are compared at the same time
- Schemata revolve around the visible world and sensory and motor abilities
- Good at representation (can use one object to stand for another—imaginary play); lack of ability to perform mental operations
- Gain capacity for true mental operations—verbalizing, visualizing, and mental manipulation; no abstract thinking and no pure math
- Mastery gained over abstract thinking; deductive and inductive thinking
- Believed that people move through stages of moral development—would give people a dilemma, ask them to solve it, and use their reasoning to help identify their state of moral development
- language not only shapes how we think but also how we perceive the world
- ex: if your language lacks color terms to distinguish between blue and green, you would have a difficult telling colors apart on a color test
- Ex: “ing” adds meaning to a word and therefore is a morpheme but NOT a word; grammar determines which goes first
- class of objects (people, places, or things) that most people agree belong together—allow us to infer invisible properties about objects and make predictions about the future
- set of features necessary to make objects acceptable members of a category
- the best or most representative member of a category (such as robin for the category “bird”)
- problem with a well-stated goal, clear starting point, and a relatively easy way to tell when a solution has been obtained
- a problem, such as the search for “happiness”, that has no well-stated goal, no clear starting point, and no mechanism for evaluating progress
- rules of thumb we use to solve problems; can usually be applied quickly, but they do not guarantee that a solution will be found
- general guideline that works pretty well but does not ALWAYS work
- Studies show when we first look at someone who is attractive we assume he/she is. . .
- a general knowledge structure, stored in long term memory, that relates to social experiences or people
- ex. how you talk to people: babies-baby talk, old people-louder and slower
- attributing the cause of a person’s behavior to an external event or situation in the environment
- attributing the cause of a person’s behavior to an internal personality trait or disposition
- does the change occur consistently with the causal event?
- change occur uniquely in presence of causal event?
- do other people show similar reactions to same causal event?
- When people seek to interpret someone else’s behavior, they tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors
- Overall tendency to make internal attributions about others behaviors (disposition), and external attributions about your own behavior (circumstance)
- Overall tendency to make internal attributions about one’s own behavior when the outcome is positive and to blame the situation when one’s behavior leads to something negative
- represents what people know or believe about the object of their attitude
- feelings that the object produces
- predisposition to act toward the object in a particular way
- The tension produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes
The following sequence “bell rings, dog salivates, food arrives” represents what type of conditioning?
Negative Reinforcement ______ as a consequence of the targeted behavior.
When integrating information, we often start with an initial value. What is the name of this initial value?
Which of following is a heuristic we discussed in class?
Lance has lost the last 20 hands of poker at his weekly game, and believes he is more likely to win on the 21st hand. Lance is displaying:
It is easier to get _____ values (e.g. a high win percentage) with a _____ sample (e.g. less games in a season).
A decline in the tendency to respond to an event following repeated exposure to the event is referred to as:
People learn about the signaling properties of environmental events through the type of learning known as:
In classical conditioning, an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited without any prior training is referred to as:
The ________ of language enables the communicator to combine arbitrary symbols to convey meaning.
The __________ refers to the literal ordering of words in a sentence.
We learned in class that not all reflexes can habituate. Which of the following is an example of such a reflex?
In most cases as a stimulus is repeated, a reflex tends to become weaker and weaker. This is called:
Which of the following characteristics is generally true of the preoperational period?
You can imagine objects and people but not the actions of these objects or people
What is a particularly powerful example of classical conditioning
All of the following are included in Piaget’s stages of cognitive development EXCEPT:
The genetic stage
Which of the following statements is true?
Everyone with antisocial personality disorder displayed conduct disorder as an adolescent
Which of the following characteristics is NOT true of autism?
Special abilities are common among those with autism
She is a very skilled pianist with experience with this piece. with skill level, she will experience which of the following during her performance?
Samantha is LEAST likely to form a positive attitude toward soccer if:
She has never had any exposure to it
Which of the following is a component of the covariation model of attribution?
Consensus, Distinctiveness, Consistency
Elizabeth wants to train her cat to drool at a sound telephone. she pairs the sound with tuna. Elizabeth should present the tuna:
A few seconds after the telephone rings
Sylvia is playing w/ a dog when it falls and rolls under her crib. She doesn't seem distressed, and she does not look for it. Piaget says that Sylvia:
Understands object permanence and Has not yet mastered the concept of
Lee doesn’t understand why his friend doesn’t like the same things he does. Lee’s inability to consider the perspective of another person represents:
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