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Why did William James say consciousness couldn’t be broken into components?
What’s psychoanalytic theory?
What two events spurred the cognitive revolution, and why did they do so?
field of psychology dedicated to examining how people think. It attempts
to explain how and why we think the way we do by studying the interactions among human thinking,
emotion, creativity, language, and problem solving, in addition to other cognitive processes
What’s cultural psychology?
One-third of psychologists have what kind of degree?
What percentage of psychology Ph.D.’s did minorities earn in 2010?
What are inductive and deductive reasoning?
What’s a theory?
What’s survey research, and what are its pros and cons?
-purposely misleading experiment
participants in order to maintain the integrity of the experiment, but not to the point where the deception could be considered harmful.
-compensation: full debriefing after experiment concludes
What’s the purpose of an Institutional Animal Case and Use Committee (IACUC)?
ensuring that all experimental proposals require the humane treatment of animal research subjects. It also conducts semi-annual inspections of all animal facilities to ensure that the research protocols are being followed. No animal research project can proceed without the committee’s approval.
Know the seven major neurotransmitters discussed in class and the psychological processes and behaviors with which they’re involved.
What’s an electroencephalogram (EEG)?
involves taking a number of x-rays of a particular section of a
person’s body or brain; often used to determine if someone has a tumor
scans pictures of the living, active brain using slightly radioactive "tracers" injected into someone's bloodstream to track which areas of the brain are "active" versus "inactive"
uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain to improve depression symptoms; it is used when other treatments have not worked
medulla, pons, and cerebellum
thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the limbic system
temperature, appetite, and blood pressure.
-hippocampus: essential structure for learning and memory
-amygdala: involved in our experience of emotion and in tying emotional meaning to our memories
Generally speaking, what are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes involved with?
What is consciousness?
awareness of external and internal stimuli
What’s the dynamic unconscious?
How do we keep unacceptable thoughts in the unconscious, and what’s one way they can often slip out?
biological rhythm that occurs over approximately 24 hours
What are REM sleep and NREM sleep?
of brain waves. The first four stages of sleep are NREM sleep, while the fifth and final stage of sleep is REM sleep.
Know the stages of NREM sleep and the brain waves that characterize each one.
between wakefulness and sleep; alpha & theta waves
2) state of deep relaxation; theta waves, sleep spindles & K-complexes
3 & 4) deep sleep, delta waves
What’s the activation-synthesis model?
What’s dreams-for-survival theory?
What are psychoactive drugs?
Know the four important drug use terms.
from the drug upon cessation of use
psychological: emotional, rather than physical, need for the drug and may use the drug to relieve psychological distress.
suppress central nervous system activity by being agonists for GABA
heroin, morphine, methadone, and codeine
profound alterations in sensory and perceptual
experiences by being agonists for seratonin or antagonists for the NMDA glutamate receptor
What are some common hallucinogens?
increase overall levels of neural activity by being agonists for dopamine NT system
cocaine, amphetamines (including methamphetamine), cathinones (i.e., bath salts),
MDMA (ecstasy), nicotine, and caffeine.
state of extreme self-focus and attention in which minimal attention is given to external
the act of focusing on a single target (such as the breath or a repeated sound) to increase
awareness of the moment.
-the whole is different from the sum of its parts
-the brain creates a perception that is more than simply the sum of available sensory inputs,
and it does so in predictable ways. Gestalt psychologists translated these predictable ways into principles by which we organize sensory information.
a decrease in the conditioned
response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus
when an organism demonstrates the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to
the condition stimulus (e.g. blender sound similar to can opener for Tiger)
When an organism learns to respond differently to various stimuli that are similar (e.g. Tiger hears blender & knows it isn't the can opener sound)
-behaviors that are followed by consequences that are satisfying to the
organism are more likely to be repeated, and behaviors that are followed by unpleasant consequences are
less likely to be repeated
-propsed by Edward Thorndike
learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there
is a reason to demonstrate it
we learn by watching others and then imitating, or modeling, what they do or say
-steps: attention, retention, reproduction,
If you saw that the model was reinforced for her behavior, you will be more motivated to copy her
-vicarious punishment: if you observed
the model being punished, you would be less motivated to copy her
groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such as life experiences. Concepts are,
in many ways, big ideas that are generated by observing details, and categorizing and combining these
details into cognitive structures
the best example or representation of a concept (ex. Rosa Parks for concept of civil disobedience)
mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts; method of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently
a communication system that involves using words and systematic rules to organize those
words to transmit information from one individual to another
language is learned through reinforcement
-nativist: we are born with a biological predisposition to acquire a language
What’s the availability heuristic?
heuristic in which you make a decision based on an example, information, or recent experience that is that readily available to you, even though it may not be the best example to inform your decision.
What’s a mental set?
where you persist in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but is clearly not working now
type of mental set where you cannot perceive an object being used for something
other than what it was designed for
collection of distinct abilities
What’s the two-factor theory of intelligence?
and analytical intelligence
encompasses the ability to understand the emotions of yourself and
others, show empathy, understand social relationships and cues, and regulate your own emotions and
respond in culturally appropriate ways
describes a score earned on a test designed to measure intelligence
observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation
set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time
the meaning of words; usually done without any conscious awareness
-effortful: required a lot of work and attention on your part in order to encode the information
To what are the three memory systems analogous?
encoding due to self-reference effect
technique in which you think about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory
based on the belief that we process memories in the same way that a
computer processes information-- sensory info must go through 3 stages (sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory)
storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes. It is very brief storage—up to a couple of seconds.
-temporary storage system that processes incoming sensory memory; sometimes it is called working memory.
-capacity: 7 items (+/- 2 items)
-duration: 20 sec
knowledge and facts
-episodic: information about events we have personally experienced
type of implicit memory: it stores information about how to do things. It is the
memory for skilled actions
encountering it again. It involves a process of comparison
-relearning: learning information
that you previously learned
the group of neurons that serve
as the “physical representation of memory”
if part of one area of the brain involved in
memory is damaged, another part of the same area can take over that memory function
-exceptionally clear recollection of an important event with strong emotional connections
-can be less accurate due to the Deese-Roediger-
McDermott paradigm that people can recall memories that never existed or with fabricated parts, due to similar words or events being around them
loss of long-term memory that occurs as the result of disease, physical trauma, or
the process of bringing up old
describes the effects of misinformation from external
sources that leads to the creation of false memories
-after exposure to incorrect information, a person may
misremember the original event.
-US college students IDing speed of cars in video, responses differ based on verb used, & ID of glass at scene differed based on verb used
information from long-term memory
encoding failure: memory loss happens before the actual memory process begins (e.g. face on the penny)
Accessibility of memory
decreases over time (e.g. forgetting events that happened long ago)
Forgetting caused by lapses in
attention- likely to occur when our focus is on something else
when you can’t access stored information due to a temporary block-- on the tip of your tongue, but you can't remember
more recently hinders the recall of older information (ex. studying Ch 9 of textbook, can't remember Ch 7 info)
What’s the figure-ground relationship in Gestalt psychology?
complete objects rather than as a series of parts
jagged, broken lines
What is industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology?
how machines and tools can be designed to fit human abilities and expectations
- goal is to decrease work stress and accidents
sometimes called enginnering psychology
The effect was first described in the 1950s by researcher Henry A. Landsberger during his analysis of experiments conducted during the 1920s and 1930s at the Hawthorne works electric company.
The electric company had commissioned research to determine if there was a relationship between productivity and work environment.
the task or job, obtained through survey, observation, & interview-- typically known as KSA (knowledge, skills, abilities) for a position
-used to select applicants: candidate's KSA compared with those in the job analysis-- through personality testing, IQ testing, interview, work samples/exercises, integrity test, drug test, etc.
Reflects that we send and receive messages simultaneously
At any moment we are capable of receiving, decoding, and responding to a person's behavior
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