Behaviorist Explanations: children acquire language through operant conditioning. Nativist Explanation: language is an innate, biological capacity. Interactionist Explanations: social interactions play a crucial role in language.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
A collection of processes that facilitate language learning.
A syndrome characterized by an inability to learn grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence.
Disorder involving the difficulty in producing or comprehending language.
Areas of the brain important for language ability: Where are they located in the brain and what do they do?
Broca's Area: responsible for production of sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages. (left frontal lobe).
Wernicke's Area : Responsible for comprehension of vocal and sign languages. (left temporal lobe).
A neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed. -depends on where the brain is damaged.
What are the different theories of concepts and categories?
Family Resemblance Theory Prototype Theory Exemplar Theory
Family Resemblance Theory
Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member.
We make categorial judgments by comparing new instances to a category's prototype. prototype: the "best" or "most typical" member of a category.
We make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category.
What are the theories about decision making?
Rational Choice Theory Prospect Theory
Rational Choice Theory
We make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two.
People choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains. -simplify available information -choose prospect with greatest value
When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event.
When people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation.
What are framing effects and how do they work?
When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed).
What is IQ?
An objective test that would provide an unbiased measure of a child's ability.
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by their physical age, and then multiplying by 100.
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying by 100.
What was the original goal of the IQ test?
To help people and be able to find out things about the children who took the test.
What do intelligence tests predict?
The succes on a wide variety of behaviors.
The ability to process information.
The accuracy and amount of information available for processing.
Low intelligence with an extraordinary ability.
Normal intelligence with an extraordinary ability.
What is the heritability coefficient?
A statistic that describes the proportion of the difference between people's scores that can be explained by differences in their genetic makeup.
What is the difference between relative intelligence and absolute intelligence?
An individual's relative intelligence is stable over time, yet one's absolute intelligence typically changes.
The person's subjective experience of the world and the mind.
How things seem to the conscious person.
Problem of other minds
The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others. -the "zombie" problem -people judge minds according to experience and agency.
The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body. -Rene Descartes proposed that the body is a physical machine and the mind/soul is a separate "thinking substance" -pineal gland proposed as center of consciousness
What is the cocktail party phenomenon?
The capacity to include some objects but not others
Low-level sensory awareness
Consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state.
A person's attention is drawn to the self as an object.
What happens when people try to suppress their thoughts?
Rebound effect of thought suppression happens; this is the tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression.
The attempt to change conscious states of mind.
Rebound Effect of Thought Suppression
Tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression.
Ironic Processes of Mental Control
Mental processes can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them.
An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, deepest instinct and desires, and an inner struggle to control these forces.
A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories form consciousness. "Freudian Slips"
The mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person.
A thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving.
The internal mechanism that regulates when we feel sleepy and when we feel alert.
What is REM sleep and how is it special and different from the other stages?
Rapid eye movement; dreams occur; 25% of the night.
Can you ever get too much sleep?
What are the negative effects of sleep deprivation?
Bad cognitive functioning Mood Changes Bad work performance and quality of life Makes you hungry Insulin response Coronary Heart Disease Heart Rhythm (poor vagal tone) Reduced pain tolerance Immune function-reduced natural killer cell activity, elevated cytokines
Difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
A person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep due to obstruction in airway that causes gasps and waking.
Occurs when a person arises and walks around while sleep. (sleepwalking).
Sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities.
The experience of waking up unable to move.
Abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal.
What is activation-synthesis model and how does it differ from Freud's theory of dreams? Which theory do most people still believe?
The theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep. This differs from Freud's theory of dreams in which dreams represented suppressed wishes. Most people still believe Freud's.
A chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system.
The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect.
When pain, convulsions, hallucinations, or other unpleasant symptoms accompany withdrawal.
A strong desire to return to the drug even when physical symptoms are gone.
Characteristics of Depressants
Substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system. Ex: alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, toxic inhalants
Characteristics of Stimulants
Substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels Ex: caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy
Characteristics of Narcotics/Opiates
Highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain Ex: Heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine
Characteristics of Endorphins
Neurotransmitters that have a similar structure to opiates and that appear to play a role in how the brain copes internally with pain and stress.
Characteristics of Hallucinogens
Drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations. Ex: LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, ketamine
Characteristics of Marijuana
The leaves and buds of the hemp plant that produces a mildly hallucinogenic intoxication. Relaxes, disinhibits, produces a euphoric high Can be used as relief for pain, nausea, severe weight loss Impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction time Disrupts memory formation
What do expectancy theory and alcohol myopia explain about the different ways people act under the influence of alcohol?
Expectancy Theory: the idea that alcohol effects can produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations. Alcohol Myopia: Results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations.
What is hypnosis?
An altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one's actions are occurring involuntarily.
What can hypnosis be helpful for?
Can reduce pain
The reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis.
The practice of intentional contemplation. -Variety of techniques have a period of quiet -Produces alpha waves
A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity. Two dimensions: -Valence-Is it good or bad? -Arousal-Does it involve more or less energy?
An evaluation of the emotionally-relevant aspects of a stimulus that is performed by the amygdala.
A strategy that involves changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus.
What are the three main theories of emotion?
James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Schacter-Singer (two-factor) Theory
Stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.
A stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain.
Schacter-Singer Theory (Two-factor Theory)
Emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal.
What did the Dutton and Aaron (1974) bridge study teach us about misattribution of arousal?
Misattribution of arousal can occur when people misinterpret their autonomic arousal. People on a higher bridge will think that someone is more attractive then if they were on a lower bridge because of their heart beating faster.
Is our perception of expressions universal?
For the most part yes. Facial expressions such as anger, disgust, fear happiness, and surprise are all universal.
Norms for the control of emotional expression. -Intensification-pretending to enjoy something -Deintensification-hiding your excitement -Masking-showing one emotion to disguise the real one -Neutralizing-trying to act neutral so as not to affect other's perceptions of you.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify.
The purpose for or cause of an action.
The notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain.
An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality.
The inherited tendency to seek out a particular goal.
Which hormones are important for turning hunger on and stopping hunger?
Ghrelin-tells the brain to switch hunger "on" Leptin-tells the brain to switch hunger "off"
Which part of the brain will cause animals to starve themselves to death when destroyed vs. gorge until they are sick?
The Lateral Hypothalamus. The Ventromedial Hypothalamus causes us to start eating more.
What are the three main eating disorders and what characterizes each?
Bulimia Nervosa- A disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Anorexia Nervose- A disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake. Obesity
What happens to our bodies when we try to diet?
The fat cells get smaller but there are not less of them. It also decreases metabolism, the rate at which energy is used.
Which hormones are important for sexual interest?
DHEA Estrogen Testosterone
Hormone involved in the onset of sexual desire.
Regulates ovulation and sexual interest. More in Females.
A motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding.
A motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to the reward.
A motivation of which one is aware.
A motivation of which one is not aware.
A motivation to experience positive outcomes.
A motivation not to experience negative outcomes.
What are the phases of the human sexual response cycle?
Excitement phase-initial interest Plateau phase-increased heart rate/muscle tension Orgasm phase-"climax" Resolution phase-refractory period when blood pressure drops, muscles relax, and some time must pass before the cycle can restart.
A single cell that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg.
The 2-week period of prenatal development that begins at conception.
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2nd week until about the 8th week.
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth.
The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months. Habituation occurs
The stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence.
The period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11-14 years) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (about 18-21 years).
The stage of development that begins around 18-21 years and ends at death.
What is myelination? In what stage does it take place?
The formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a brain cell (takes place during fetal stage).
How do teratogens affect fetal development?
They are agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses.
The "top-to-bottom" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet.
The "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.
The emergence of the ability to execute physical action.
Specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation.
The emergence of the ability to understand the world.
Theories or models of how the world works.
Applying schemas to new situations.
Revise schemas in light of new information.
The idea that objects exist even when they're not visible.
The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.
Theory of Mind
The idea that human behavior is guided by mental representation, which gives rise to the realization that the world is not always the way it looks and that different people see it differently.
The emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers.
What characterizes each of Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
A set of expectations about how the primary caregiver will respond when the child feels insecure.
What characterizes each of Piaget's 3 stages of moral development?
Preconventional Stage-The morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor. Conventional Stage-The morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules. Postconventional Stage-The morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.
What takes place during puberty?
Bodily changes are associated with sexual maturity; primary and secondary sex characteristics are involved.
Primary Sex Characteristics
Bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction.
Do people tend to feel more or less happy as they get older?
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