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A personality trait is a
predisposition to act in a particular way
Why is it especially difficult to develop good measures of personality?
We are trying to measure how someone acts in
general, but their behavior may change from
moment to moment.
A measure of personality that produces consistent or repeatable scores has _______, and a measure of
personality that predicts something useful, such as actual behavior, has _______.
reliability ... validity
Factor analysis can be used to
identify traits that are highly correlated.
The big five personality dimensions are:
neuroticism, extraversion, openness to new
experiences, agreeableness, and conscientious-
Which two traits do most personality theorists agree are the most powerful?
neuroticism and extraversion
One criticism of the Big Five personality factors is that this model
ignores any trait for which our language has few
One of the main ways psychologists have studied the causes of differences in personality among people is
compare the similarities in personality between
identical twins and fraternal twins.
According to research, our personality gets more _________ as we age.
How can you determine whether a test is standardized?
Determine whether the test has a known
distribution of scores.
What is the MMPI used for?
to measure personality tendencies
When given to people of various ethnic and cultural groups, the MMPI
reveals only small differences between groups.
The MMPI includes some items that most people check true, such as "Occasionally I get angry at
to check whether people are answering honestly
The results of the MMPI seldom tell people much that they did not already know about themselves
because the test consists of
true-false questions about oneself.
Why would a psychologist use a projective test rather than just asking a person to talk about himself or
The projective test should be more effective in
getting a person to start talking.
As compared to objective personality tests, projective personality tests have the disadvantage that
their results are hard to interpret and subject to
the psychologist's expectations.
Research on the Emotional Stroop test has shown that people tend to show __________ response times to
items that have particular emotional significance for them, such as heroin addicts and heroin related
Responses on implicit personality tests, such as the Implicit Association Test, are
difficult to fake.
Although criminal profiling is possible, the majority of criminals give:
the same, vague information
Your neighbor confides that she is worried because she believes that a variety of government agencies
have bugged her phone and are out to get her. This kind of thinking suggests
ideas of persecution.
The DSM IV can be used to determine
psychological disorders based on presenting
Based on recent carefully controlled studies, which group is more likely to experience feelings of anxiety
and depression and is more prone to suicide?
young people age 15 to
The psychodynamic perspective views the obsessive compulsive disorder as connected to a/n
Cory was driving the car when an accident occurred that killed his best friend who was with him. When
Cory woke up the next morning he couldn't remember where he was or what had happened the night
before. He is most likely exhibiting
__________ involves a claim of psychological disability in order to escape responsibility.
Somatoform disorders involve
the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
Mood disorders are characterized by disturbances in __________ emotions.
Elation and depression are both aspects of __________ disorder.
Vulnerability to depression has been noted among
__________ theory suggests that depression is caused by anger that is turned inward.
Pearl constantly blames herself for problems in her marriage. She believes she has a personality flaw and
no matter what she will always have problems in relationships. Pearl will likely exhibit
Pessimism and self-criticism are __________ factors in depression.
Which of the following is considered a possible risk factor for suicide?
Your best friend discloses the fact that they are thinking of committing suicide. What should you do?
Take them seriously; show you care and
encourage them to seek help.
Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with
memory, attention, thinking, and communica-
Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecution
and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with
Floyd's therapist believes that his hallucinations and delusions are more rewarding to Floyd than social
interactions. Floyd's therapist endorses the __________ view of schizophrenia.
The observation that concordance rates for schizophrenia are high in identical twins suggests that
there is a biological basis for the disorder.
An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is
Tom is a loner, who has few friends and seems incapable of sympathy or empathy. He is showing signs of
the __________ personality disorder.
In regards to the antisocial personality disorder, the psychodynamic perspective is to __________ as the
learning perspective is to __________.
weak superego; experience
Being supportive, available, and willing to help person with suicidal thoughts is most likely associated
with which step of preventing suicide?
Being a good listener
A therapist's relationship to a client is impacted by the
interaction of the therapists theoretical approach
and the client's perspective.
The function of early asylums was to
provide a place to store the mentally ill.
Psychodynamic therapies assume that psychological disorders originate in
early childhood experiences and inner conflicts.
A goal of psychoanalysis was to strengthen the psychic structure that Freud called the
Client-centered therapy focuses on how childhood experiences create __________ which adversely affect
the client's current functioning.
denial of self
In client-centered therapy, the therapist tries to set aside his or her own values and experiences and view
the world through the client's
frame of reference.
Gestalt therapy differs from client-centered therapy in that Gestalt approaches are
Behavior therapy applies the principles of __________ to modify behavior.
One of the most successful techniques for overcoming phobias is
To change a client's nail biting behavior, the client is instructed to paint their nails with a coating that
tastes terrible. This is a(n) __________ method.
Token economy is a behavioral treatment approach based on __________ conditioning principles.
__________ therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients' psychological
Selective perception and a tendency to overgeneralize are __________ as defined by Aaron Beck.
cognitive errors or distortions
One advantage to group therapy is that it is
It is easiest to measure the outcomes of __________ goals in therapy.
Most antianxiety drugs belong to the chemical class known as
Prefrontal lobotomy, a failed __________ procedure, involved severing the nerve connections between
the prefrontal lobes and the thalamus.
Cognitive therapy provides_______________that reduce the risk of recurrence of depression when
Person perception refers to the process of
forming impressions of others
Social schemas are best defined as
organized clusters of ideas about people or
Marsha believes that all news reporters are cynical, doubting individuals who would sell their souls for an
exclusive story. In this case, Marsha's beliefs about the traits and behaviors of news reporters are one
A group that one belongs to and identifies with is known as
When we make assumptions about why people do the things they do we are making
If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are
fundamental attribution error
According to the notion of defensive attribution, we tend to explain the setbacks that befall other people
in terms of
Attributing one's successes to dispositional factors and one's failures to situational factors is referred to as
a self-serving bias
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is
referred to as
Research has shown that initial attraction
is greatly influenced by that person's physical
Which of the following is NOT one of the crucial dimensions of attitudes?
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate their products, they are relying, in part,
on the power of ____ to change consumers' attitudes.
Matthew often hears his parents discussing the importance of making lots of money. Eventually, Matthew
himself begins to value a high income. Matthew's attitude about money was acquired through
Cognitive dissonance refers to the state one is in when
cognitions are inconsistent
Cognitive dissonance theory accounts for Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) results by proposing that
$20 to lie had sufficient justification for their
counterattitudinal behavior and experienced
Conformity occurs when people change their behavior
in response to real or imagined social pressure
In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects
were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks
to a stranger
The bystander effect is the finding that
the probability that a witness to an emergency
will help decreases as the number of bystanders
The decrease in the individual effort exerted by group members when working together on a task is
Group discussion resulting in strengthening a group’s dominant view and shifting it to a greater extreme
is known as
Why are stereotypes resistant to change?
Consigning deviants to a subtype that is viewed
as unrepresentative of the group allows people
to preserve their stereotype of the group
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