drop in body temperature
The awereness of internal and exernal stimuli
1) your awareness of external events
2) your awareness of internal sensations
3) your awareness of your self as the unique being having these experiences
4) your awareness of your thoughts and these experiences
Electroencephalograph (EEG) and EMG
Beta - frequency 13-24 - Normal waking thought, alert problem solving
Alpha - frequency 8-12 - Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation
Theta - frequency 4-7 - Light sleep
Delta - frequency less than 4 - Deep sleep
1 > lose consciousness. alpha + slow theta waves. can be easily awakened.
2 > 1 sec. bursts of EEG activity (sleep spindles) + large slow waves (k-complexes). deeper muscle relaxation.
3> delta waves appear (slow and large). deeper sleep, futher loss of consciousness. more difficult to awaken.
4 > further decline of respiration, body temp, heart rate, muscle tension. 50% of waves are delta. very difficult to awaken.
5 > REM - eyes dart back and fouth. Associated with dreaming. Beta waves. Sleep paralysis.
Eaching cycle lasts around 90minutes. (usually repeated 4 times)
Cycles differ as sleep progresses. First REM cycle lasts only a few minutes. Peaks up to around 40-60minutes. NREM stages get shorter.
"Sleep recharges the battery, enabling recovery from day's physical, emotinal and cognitive demands" Restoration theory.
"Sleep evolved to keep us inative when food was unobtainable or predators were numerous" Circadian (evolutionary) theory
Newborns sleep the most - 50% REM sleep.
Sleep declines with age - and REM levels off at 20% during adolescence
Sleep does not vary much across culture
Abnormalities in amount, quality, or timing of sleep
Insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy
horrific dream images
occurs during stage 4 (NREM)
more common in children (boys)
Capable of avoiding obstacles (but prone to accidents)
eyes usually open (black expression)
occurs during stages 3 and 4
safe to wake them up!
occurs during REM
muscles don't become paralyzed during REM - pons do no work properly
have mobility to act on their nightmares
older men, pons deteriorate
pons keep your neural impulses from reaching your volentary muscles
A procedure that produces an altered state of consciousness and an increased openness to suggestion
Hypnotic susceptibility - ability to become hypnotized
characteristics - vivid frequent fantisies, high visual imagry, high on absorption, expect to be influenced
The Stanford Hypotic Susceptibility Scale
How is hypnosis performed?
all encourage the following...
focus attention on what is being siad
to relax and feel tired
to "let go" and accept suggestions easily
to use vivid imagination
Explaining hypnosis. Role Theory
Hypnotized subjects are merely complying with social demands...
support: motivated simulators can duplicate many aspects of hypnotic behavior
*different than faking- they believe they are hypnotized but they are not
Hypnotized persons are in an altered state of consciousness
because - hyponosis creates a split (dissociation) between 2 aspects of consciousness
1) executive function: initiates/regulates behavior - turned over to hypotist
2) monitoring fuction: observes behavior "hidden observer" - observes without participating
control group: lots of pain
hypnosis group: verbal - no pain. free hand - ouch - monitoring function
2 or more independent personalities within the same person
3 key factors
1. occurence of servere trauma around age 5 - person copes with trauma by creating alternate personalities
2. high hypnotizability
3. new personality has rf value (reduces emotional distress)
The purported ability to perceieve events in ways that cannot be explained by known sensory capacities
Parapsychology: the study of ESP and other psi phenomena
Clairvoyance: precieving objects obscurred from view
Telepathy: "reading" someones thoughts
Precognition: Predicting the future
Psychokinesis: moving objects through mental effort
1991 49% believe
Coincidence - fallacy of positive instances
Poorly conducted experiements
Drowsiness.Nausea.Impaired coordination and mental functioning.
Sleeping pill. Anticonvulsant.
Euphoria. Relaxation. Anexiety reduction. Reduced inhibitions
Drowsiness.Nausea.Impaired coordination and mental functioning.
Oral. Sniffed. Injected. Smoked.
Treatment of hyperactivity and narcolepsy.
Excitement. Increased alterness. Increased energy.
Increased blood pressure and heart rate. Insomnia. Decreased appetite. Increased anxiety and paranoia.
LSD. Mesacaline. Psilocybin.
Not for medical users
Increased sensory awareness, insightful experiences.
Dilated pupils, nausea, emotional swings, paranoia.
Marijuana. Hashish. THC.
Treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea
Mild euphoria, relaxation. Enhanced awareness.
Elevated heart rate. bloodhsot eyes. dry bouth. reduced short-term memory. sluggish. anxiety.
No medical use.
Mild euphoria. Relaxation. Aneixiety reduction.
Serverely impaired coordination. Impaired mental functioning. emotional swings.
must continue to take drug to avoid withdrawal illness
must continue to take drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving
is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
Pavalovian Conditioning - discovered by Ivon Pavlov in 1903
Phase One: before conditioning - food in mouth (saliva). ring bell (no saliva)
Phase Two: contitioning - ring belll then give dog food (repeated)
Phase Three: after contitioning - ring bell and no food (saliva)
US is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. unconditional response is an unlearned reaction to an US that ocurs without previous conditioning
CS is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. conditioned response is a learned reaction to a CS that occurs because of previous conditioning
freud: phobic objects represents deep underlying conlict
classical conditioning model: objects come to be feared after being linked with a frightening situation
OC: behavior controlled by stimulus (or event) that follows it
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