Psychology 202 Exam 2
- University of Wisconsin - Madison
- Psychology 202
- Psychology 202 Exam 2
Last Modified: 2011-07-08
Related Textbooks:Discovering Psychology
drop in body temperature
The awereness of internal and exernal stimuli
1) your awareness of external events
2) your awareness of internal sensations
3) your awareness of your self as the unique being having these experiences
4) your awareness of your thoughts and these experiences
Electroencephalograph (EEG) and EMG
Beta - frequency 13-24 - Normal waking thought, alert problem solving
Alpha - frequency 8-12 - Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation
Theta - frequency 4-7 - Light sleep
Delta - frequency less than 4 - Deep sleep
1 > lose consciousness. alpha + slow theta waves. can be easily awakened.
2 > 1 sec. bursts of EEG activity (sleep spindles) + large slow waves (k-complexes). deeper muscle relaxation.
3> delta waves appear (slow and large). deeper sleep, futher loss of consciousness. more difficult to awaken.
4 > further decline of respiration, body temp, heart rate, muscle tension. 50% of waves are delta. very difficult to awaken.
5 > REM - eyes dart back and fouth. Associated with dreaming. Beta waves. Sleep paralysis.
Eaching cycle lasts around 90minutes. (usually repeated 4 times)
Cycles differ as sleep progresses. First REM cycle lasts only a few minutes. Peaks up to around 40-60minutes. NREM stages get shorter.
"Sleep recharges the battery, enabling recovery from day's physical, emotinal and cognitive demands" Restoration theory.
"Sleep evolved to keep us inative when food was unobtainable or predators were numerous" Circadian (evolutionary) theory
Newborns sleep the most - 50% REM sleep.
Sleep declines with age - and REM levels off at 20% during adolescence
Sleep does not vary much across culture
Abnormalities in amount, quality, or timing of sleep
Insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy
horrific dream images
occurs during stage 4 (NREM)
more common in children (boys)
Capable of avoiding obstacles (but prone to accidents)
eyes usually open (black expression)
occurs during stages 3 and 4
safe to wake them up!
occurs during REM
muscles don't become paralyzed during REM - pons do no work properly
have mobility to act on their nightmares
older men, pons deteriorate
pons keep your neural impulses from reaching your volentary muscles
A procedure that produces an altered state of consciousness and an increased openness to suggestion
Hypnotic susceptibility - ability to become hypnotized
characteristics - vivid frequent fantisies, high visual imagry, high on absorption, expect to be influenced
The Stanford Hypotic Susceptibility Scale
How is hypnosis performed?
all encourage the following...
focus attention on what is being siad
to relax and feel tired
to "let go" and accept suggestions easily
to use vivid imagination
Explaining hypnosis. Role Theory
Hypnotized subjects are merely complying with social demands...
support: motivated simulators can duplicate many aspects of hypnotic behavior
*different than faking- they believe they are hypnotized but they are not
Hypnotized persons are in an altered state of consciousness
because - hyponosis creates a split (dissociation) between 2 aspects of consciousness
1) executive function: initiates/regulates behavior - turned over to hypotist
2) monitoring fuction: observes behavior "hidden observer" - observes without participating
control group: lots of pain
hypnosis group: verbal - no pain. free hand - ouch - monitoring function
2 or more independent personalities within the same person
3 key factors
1. occurence of servere trauma around age 5 - person copes with trauma by creating alternate personalities
2. high hypnotizability
3. new personality has rf value (reduces emotional distress)
The purported ability to perceieve events in ways that cannot be explained by known sensory capacities
Parapsychology: the study of ESP and other psi phenomena
Clairvoyance: precieving objects obscurred from view
Telepathy: "reading" someones thoughts
Precognition: Predicting the future
Psychokinesis: moving objects through mental effort
1991 49% believe
Coincidence - fallacy of positive instances
Poorly conducted experiements
Drowsiness.Nausea.Impaired coordination and mental functioning.
Sleeping pill. Anticonvulsant.
Euphoria. Relaxation. Anexiety reduction. Reduced inhibitions
Drowsiness.Nausea.Impaired coordination and mental functioning.
Oral. Sniffed. Injected. Smoked.
Treatment of hyperactivity and narcolepsy.
Excitement. Increased alterness. Increased energy.
Increased blood pressure and heart rate. Insomnia. Decreased appetite. Increased anxiety and paranoia.
LSD. Mesacaline. Psilocybin.
Not for medical users
Increased sensory awareness, insightful experiences.
Dilated pupils, nausea, emotional swings, paranoia.
Marijuana. Hashish. THC.
Treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea
Mild euphoria, relaxation. Enhanced awareness.
Elevated heart rate. bloodhsot eyes. dry bouth. reduced short-term memory. sluggish. anxiety.
No medical use.
Mild euphoria. Relaxation. Aneixiety reduction.
Serverely impaired coordination. Impaired mental functioning. emotional swings.
must continue to take drug to avoid withdrawal illness
must continue to take drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving
is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
Pavalovian Conditioning - discovered by Ivon Pavlov in 1903
Phase One: before conditioning - food in mouth (saliva). ring bell (no saliva)
Phase Two: contitioning - ring belll then give dog food (repeated)
Phase Three: after contitioning - ring bell and no food (saliva)
US is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. unconditional response is an unlearned reaction to an US that ocurs without previous conditioning
CS is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. conditioned response is a learned reaction to a CS that occurs because of previous conditioning
freud: phobic objects represents deep underlying conlict
classical conditioning model: objects come to be feared after being linked with a frightening situation
Extinction: Weakening conditioned responses
Spontaneous Recovery: Resurrecting responses
bell - dog salivates. red light + bed. red light - dog salivates.
CC: behavior controlled by stimulus (or event) that precedes it
OC: behavior controlled by stimulus (or event) that follows it
Skinner box - small enclosure in which animals can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled
Extinction - gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency bc the response is no longer followed by reinforcement
secondary (conditioned) reinforcers - events that are acquired reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
intermittent - occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
continuous - occurs every instance of a designated response is reinforced
1. a rat is reinforced for every tenth lever press
2. a salesperson receives a bonus for every set of golf clubs sold
1. on average, the rat is reinforced every 10th lever press
2. a slot machine in a casino pays off once every six tries on average
Negative - occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus
consequences that weaken the response
Traditional: reward increases the probability of desired responses (maze learning)
Attention - must pay attention to another persons behavior and its consequences
Retention - must store a mental representation of what you have witnessed
Reproduction - enacting a modeled response
Motivation - must be motivated
(entering data through a keyboard)
(saving data in file on hard disk)
(calling up file and displaying data on monitor)
phonemic encoding - emphasizes what a word sounds like
semantic encoding - emphasizes the meaning of verbal input
Visual imagery - creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered
incoming information passes through two temporary storage buffers - the sensory store and short-term store - before it is transferred to long-term store (Atkinson and Shiffrin)
allows the sensation of visual pattern, sound, or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over
give you additional time to try to recognize stimuli
rehearsal - the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information
chunk - a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
phonological loop - represented all of the STM - use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone number - *language
Visuospatial sketchpad - permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images - mentally rearrange furniture
central executive system - controls deployment of attention - switching the focus and dividing attention
episodic buffer - temporary, limited capacity store that allows various components of working memory to integrate information
the brain depends on parallel distributed processing - simultaneous processing of the same information that is spread across networks of neurons
retrieval cues - stimuli that help gain access to memories (hints)
shows a sharp drop in retention during the first few hours after nonsense syllables were memorized - forgot more that 60% in less than 9 hours
retention interval - length of time between the presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting
three methods to measure retention: recall, recognition, and relearning
pseudo-forgetting - usually attributed to lack of attention
retroactive interference occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information
proactive interference occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information
anterograde - a person loses memories for events that occur after the injury
Retrospective - involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information
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