Psychology 345:? Study Guide EXAM 4 27 Multiple choice 2 short answer Frontal Lobes W. James? Description of Human Intelligence (1890): ?Ability to pursue goals? Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes: 3 Natural Boundaries Posterior= central sulcus Inferior= sylvian fissure (lateral fissure) Medial/inferior= corpus callosum Major Subdivisions Precentral Premotor (BA 6) Input from prefrontal regions and parietal association areas (5, 7) Selection of actions and intention to move Primary Motor Cortex (BA 4) Input from premotor areas (BA 6) and area 44 Sends output to spinal cord, and other motor structures (basal ganglia) Prefrontal Most recently evolved ?well deceloped only in primates 1/3 of cortical surface Develops late in ontogeny Differentiation through age 1?maturation through age 6 The Prefrontal Cortex Three Major Prefrontal Regions DorsoLateral PFC Orbito PFC Ventromedial PFC Prefrontal Afferents Receives processed information from the 5 sensory systems (not primary sensory regions) Receives information from the hippocampus (long-term memory) Recieves information about the internal physiological and motivational state via the limbic system Prefrontal Efferents Sends connections back to all sensory areas from which it receives input (control of attentional processes) Sends multiple connections to motor structures (premotor, supplementary motor, basal ganglia, and superior colliculus). Influences the initiation and regulation of motor behavior Sends direct connections to limbic structures Provides a mechanism for modulating memory, influencing automatic and endocrine function and for the regulation of emotional behavior DorsoLateralPFC Orbito PFC Ventromedial PFC Anterior Cingulate (medial) Effects of Frontal Lobe Damage Re-emergence of ?primitive? reflexes Sucking/rooting reflex Elicited by touching the lip/cheek Groping reflex Involuntary following with hand/eyes moving object Grasp reflex Forceful grasping of an object that contacts palm or sole of foot Stimulus capture Utilization behaviors and visual grasp reflex Reactive to nearby objects, touching them, using them; impulsive tendency to use objects Antisaccades Saccade AWAY from a target Patients with prefrontal damage cannot produce antisaccades Reflexively saccade to the target Left lesion patients cannot generate rightward anti-saccades Right lesion patients cannot generate leftward antisaccades Two aspects of impaired anti-saccade performance More reflexive saccades Superior colliculus?controls rapid, stimulus-driven eye movements Disinhibited by frontal lobe damage Inability to produce anti-saccades Difficulty forming representation of goal to control voluntary behavior Perseveration Incorrect repeating of past responces Difficulty disengaging Disinhibition A lack of constraint manifested in several ways including disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessement Frontal Amnesia Tasks: Delayed response task Correct response requires keeping information in mind Working memory Those with lesions of LPFC fail these tasks Infants younger than 12 months also fail Delayed Saccade task Much the same as delayed response task Impaired performance corresponding to DLPFC Memory scotoma DLPFC neural activity corresponds to representation of a goal Goal is maintained ?online? ?working memory Trail Making Task Requires alternating ?sets? between numbers and letters Executive processing N-back Executive prcessing and working memory Wisconsin Card Sorting Task Gambling Task Goal Representation: Without goal representation behavior is determined by: Reflex Habit Past-reward (perseveration) Immediate stimulus conditions Working Memory: Braddeley?s model A system for maintaining and manipulating information to perform complex cognitive activities Short-term retention (approximately 10 seconds) to maintain information in the focus of attention Rehearsal processes Material specific buffers Verbal (phonological loop) left hemisphere Spatial (visio-spatial sketchpad) right hemisphere Executive processes Use active codes Render/organize, manipulate, update, inhibit Phineas Gage: Outcomes Destruction of balance between intellectual faculties and animal propensities Disinhibition Fitful Irreverent Grossly prfane Impatient of advice that conflicts with his desires Devising many plans and then abandoning them Damage Orbital/Ventromedial PFC Minimal damage to Dorsolateral PCF Damage to OFC/VMPFC caused Gage?s changes Frontal Lobotomy (1930?s-50?s): Performed to treat schizophrenia, phobia, depression, violence, anxiety Decreased affective problems ?was clinically effective Minimal effect on intellectual functioning But Drastic personality changes (withdrawn, irresponsible, childish) Patients unable to reenter society Gambling Task: Decks with low immediate, but high long term gain vs. those with high immediate gain but long term loss Neurologically intact subjects choose cards from long-term gains after several trials Generate anticipatory Galvonic skin response when they ponder risky decisions Patients with VMPFC lesions choose cards with immediate gain for the entire task No anticipatory GSR for risky choices Gambling Task vs. Working Memory Task double dissociation Patients with VMPFC damage vs. patients with DLPFC damage Gambling task and delayed matching task Results VMPFC patients are impaired on the gambling task but not on working memory Gambling task relies on emotional somatic markers DLPFC patients are impaired on the working memory task but relatively intact on the gambling task Damasio?s Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Amygdale generates bodily states of emotion VMPFC interacts with amygdale to initiate and register/represent emotional response Somatic markers tag/label options with ?gut feelings? to guide decision making Allows for quick decision making Does not depend on cognitive working memory Social Emotions: Indicate ?self-conscious? reflection about what others may think about you, another person, or a situation Compaired to DLPFC damaged patients, patients with OFC/VMPFC damage: Are impaired recognizing faux pas Inappropriately disclose personal information Phillipa: Injuries Operation removed most of her left prefrontal lobe after major head trauma Right frontal lobe also had moderately severe damage Symptoms Mild right side weakness Disinhibition Right side neglect Rule breaking behaviors Poor short term memory Perseveration Could not perform abstractions or think creatively Little insight or concern about her condition Video: Perseveration Difficulty following instructions Difficulty reversing action (opposite of what is shown) Traumatic Brain Injury: Types of Injury Closed Head Most diffuse damage Penetrating Can have very concentrated damage depending Crushing Most rare Often worse damage is to the base of the skull and the nerves that run through it other than to the brain itself Coup- point of impact Countre-coupe- opposite point of impact when the brain accelerates in the skull Rehabilitation Techniques for TBI Patients: Hollistic Approach Based on the premise that the cognitive, psychiatric, and functional aspects of TBI cannot and should not be separated Use intensive live-in or day programs with individual and group therapy to assist TBI patients to become aware of their strengths and weaknesses in all areas Expensive to run and uncommon But result in higher self-esteem, productivity, and less emotional distress Errorless Learning Trial-and-error learning can be patients with significant memory problems as they cannot remember their mistakes and thus cannot learn to avoid them Errorless learning uses a graduated learning method without the need of guessing Slowly removing letters to remember a name and if cannot remember they are simply told the answer and asked to try again Sam: Injuries Admitted to hospital in a coma with severe brain injury, no skull fractures Hemorrhage in posterior parts of the lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle as well as around the brain stem Contusion in left cerebellar hemisphere and in the frontal region, especially left Rehabilitation Fellow student who also had suffered TBI helped Sam stay motivated and worked out a buddy system Sam and his family participated in sessions together Spread responsibility out and figured out which responsibilities Sam could reclaim Kept diary to write important information so he could become independent Could not remember otherwise Structure was very important in daily life and activities Aging, Dementia, and Course Summary Structural Brain Changes with Age: Regions decline at different rates Sensory regions decline little perhaps due to a constant level of use May involve adaptation and reorganization HAROLD: Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in OLD age Decreased lateralization Overactivation: Faster seniors overactivate more Higher performing seniors overactivate more Banich Test (1989) Within hemisphere comparison vs. across hemisphere Across hemisphere advantage is greater for older than younger adults Seems compensatory Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to produce temporary ?virtual? lesion Both young adults and seniors performed about equally without lesions In doing spatial task young adults where impaired only the tiniest fraction with a lesion in the left hemisphere, while older adults were greatly impaired with a lesion to either hemisphere Alzheimer?s disease: Risk factors A slow virus As in Krutzfeldt-Jakob disease Neurotoxins Oxidative stress with the formation f free radicals A history of traumatic brain injury ApoE4 allele Mild Cognitive Impairment disorder (MCI) Protective factors ApoE2 allele High mental and physical activity into old age or high education Reduction of bad cholesterol Use of anti-inflammatory agents Vitamin E and other antioxidants Neuropathology Neurofibrillary tangles Strands of axonal material that displace normal neurons Density of these tangles correlates with the degree of psychological disturbance before death Amyloid or senile plaques Degenerated nerve fiber material Neural atrophy?widening of gyri, shrinking of sulci, and dilatation of ventricles Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) cascade Neurobehavioral Effects Forgetfulness that progresses into something clearly pathological Speech and language impairment sometimes leading to mutenessg Disinhibited behaviors Personality changes Psychotic symptoms sometimes occur in the form of delusions and hallucinations Sophie?s dementia: First indications Difficulty finding words Unable to remember interviews that she had previously been able to perform without taking notes Early neurological assessments Weshler Intelligence and Memory scales rated average performance Sophie should have scored well above average with her high language abilities Scored below average on Rey Complex Figure Mistakenly attributed to stress and overlooked Progressive Nature of dementia along with parent history gave indication for AD Brain-Based Representations and Functions: Reflex-related vs. conscious Attribute specific regions in perceptual cortices Representations for action (posting actions) Meaning represented by activity in regions associated with how we ?know? objects Representations in absence of event (memory) Representations in service of goals not reflex Representations that include ?feelings? (somatic markers) The Default Network: What it is Consistent active patten in resting baseline (fixation) condition Consistent deactive pattern in task condition (regardless of the task) Regions Active in default network in resting state Posterior parietal cortex Posterior medial cortex Ventral medial PFC Dorsal medial PFC Harder tasks= less default activity and more task-related brain activity Tasks that turn ON the default network Thinking about your past (memory) Imagining the future Thinking about how others think Thinking about moral options The more the mind wanders the more active the default network Consequences of mind wandering More activation of default network Less activation of DLPFC Weaker response to incoming task relevant stimulation Slower response time and more errors Increased by sleep deprivation Differences due to age Same default network Older adults have more difficulty turning off the default network Especially with harder tasks
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