A patients memory function have deteriorated, and she has been diagnosed as suffering from Alzheimers's disease.
Which neurotransmitter is most likely involved?
The painkilling effect of morphine no longer worked after Hiu took the drug naloxone, which eliminated the effects of both __________ and ____________ by blocking opiate receptors in his brain.
A patient was bitten by a black widow spider and suffered severe, uncontrollable muscle spasms and had great difficulty breathing. What was the neurotransmitter involved?
When Melanie was suffering from severe depression, her doctor prescribed Prozac, which he said would alleviate the symptoms of her mood disorder by increasing the availability of a particular neurotransmitter called _________
Patients afflicted with Parkinson's disease suffer from rigidity, muscle tremors, and poor balance and have trouble initiating movements. These symptoms are believed to result from diminished production of the neurotransmitter __________
George suffers from chronic anxiety. His doctor has prescribed the anti anxiety drug Valium because it works by increasing ____________, which inhibits action potentials and reduces brain activity.
Mr. Lee is undergoing the ancient Chinese medical technique called acupuncture for his back pain. Inserting needles in various parts of his body may reduce his perception of pain because of the involvement of ____________
Because of a problem with a specific neurotransmitter, Taniqua's body does not respond in a normal manner when she is faced with danger or threat. She also experiences problems with learning and memory retrieval, has trouble sleeping and is often depressed. What is the neurotransmitter involved?
Dr. Chou studies 2 types of glial cells. The ones that remove waste products from the nervous system, including dead and damaged neurons, are _______. The ones that provide connections between neurons and blood vessels and are involved in brain development and communication among neurons are ________
Norman smokes cigarettes, which act as a stimulant because nicotine is chemically similar to acetycholine and binds to its receptor sites, stimulating skeletal muscles and causing his heart to beat faster. Nicotine would be classified as an ______________ drug
Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form.
GABA (gamma-amniobutyric acid)
Neurotransmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message.
Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perception
Nodes of Ranvier
Small gaps that separate segments of the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of many neurons.
Neurotransmitter that is involved in sleep, sensory perception, moods, and emotional states.
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus
Disease that involves the degeneration of patches of the myelin sheath that surrounds many neurons and causes such symptoms as muscular weakness, loss of coordination, and disturbances in speech and vision.
Chemical messenger manufactured in the synaptic vesicles of a neuron.
Neural condition in which the axon's interior is more negatively charged than the exterior fluid surrounding it, which occurs while the neuron is waiting for sufficient stimulation to activate it.
The point of communication between two neurons.
Tiny pouches, or sacs, in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movements, thought processes, and pleasurable or rewarding sensations.
Minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
The scientific study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
Time period, lasting a thousandth of a second or less, that follows the action potential and during which the neuron is unable to fire.
Disease characterized by progressive memory loss of memory and deterioration of intellectual functioning, caused by severe deplation of several neurotransmitters, most notably, acetycholine.
Specific group of painkilling drugs derived from the opium poppy that includes morphine, heroin, and codeine.
Ancient Chinese medical technique that involves inserting needles at various locations in the body.
Drug that eliminates the effects of both endorphines and opiates by blocking opiate receptor sites.
Disease characterized by rigidity, muscle tremors, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements, caused by the degeneration of neurons in one brain area that produces dopamine.
Twisted strands of DNA in the nucleus of the cell body.
Structure in the cell body that contains the cell's genetic material.
Drug or other chemical substance that binds to a receptor site and triggers response in the cell.
Selective Serotonin Reputake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Antidepressant medications, such as Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil, that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in certain neurons, increasing its availability in the brain.
Type of glial cell that removes waste products from the nervous system, including dead and damaged neurons.
Drug that converts to dopamine in the brain and alleviates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Norepinephrine is involved in activation of neurons throughout the brain, is critical in the body;s response to danger, and plays a key role in the regulation of sleep and in learning and memory retrieval.
Biological psychology (biopsychology or pyscobiology) is the specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems.
Glial cells (glia) assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes.
Interneurons communicate information from one neuron to the next.
Axon terminals are branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
Dendrites are multiple short fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells.
The myelin sheath is a white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their speed of communication.
Acetycholine is a neurotransmitter that causes muscle contractions and is involved in learning and memory.
The synaptic gap is a tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
The all-or-none law states that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur.
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to the other body areas is called the axon.
The message-sending neuron is called the presynaptic neuron, and the message-recieving neuron is called the postsynaptic neuron.
The drug curare mimics acetycholine and blocks acetycholine receptor sites, causing almost instantaneuos paralysis.
An excitatory message increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate, and an inhibitory message decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate.
The axon membrane opens and closes ion channels that allow electrically charged particles (ions) to flow into and out of the axon
When the neuron is sufficiently stimulated by other neurons or sensory receptors, the action potential begins, a process called depolarization.
Antagonists are drugs or other chemical substances that block a receptor site and inhibit or prevent a response in the receiving cell.
Allison accidentally touched a hot stove top and immediately withdrew her hand before becoming consciously aware of the sensation or movement. She was able to do this because of her ___________
Miguel dove off the cliff into the river below. Unfortunately, he landed on his head and is now paralyzed from the shoulders down. Fortunately, though, all his mental functions are intact, and he is attempting to complete his college degree. His present inability to move the lower part of his body is a result of permanent damage to his _________
Jason had just finished watching the most frightening video he had ever seen when there was a knock on the door. His heart rate suddenly increased, his breathing accelerated, and he began to sweat. These physiological changes were most likely triggered by his ________________
Sympathetic nervous system
Jason's initial reaction to the knock on the door (fight-or-flight response) resulted in his adrenal glands (in particular, the adrenal medulla) releasing the two hormones ___________ and ___________
Norepinephrine and epinephrine
Jason answered the door and discovered it was the pizza man, and before long he calmed down and his blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing returned to their normal state. These physical reactions were most likely regulated by his ________________
Parasympathetic nervous system
Munro is a professional athlete and has suffered multiple concussions while engaged in various sports. As a result of these cumulative traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) he has now been diagnosed with a degenerative brain disease called ____________
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
When Janelle breast-feeds her baby, there is a complex interaction among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and behavior. The production of prolactin, which stimulates milk productionm and oxytocin, which produces the let-down reflex, is a function of the ____________ gland, which is under the direction of a brain structure called the ______________
Pituitary; growth hormone
In a discussion about the brain and nervous system, Tom contends that there is no difference between nerves and neurons. His roommate Salvador, who is taking introductory psychology, explains the difference by pointing out that nerves are made up of large bundles of ___________ axons
Before entering ninth grade, Kristofer had to have most of his clothes replaced because he had grown almost 5 inches since the previous spring. This relatively sudden increase in height was probably the result of his __________ gland producing _____________
Pituitary; growth hormone
Young Minnie and Max are twins. Minnie's sexual development will be regulated by the hormones _____________ and _______________, which are produced by her ovaries, whereas Max's sexual development will be regulated by an androgen called ______________, which is produced by his testes.
Estrogen; Progesterone; Testosterone
As Estelle was searching for some change in her purse she accidentally dropped her keys on the floor. She quickly reached down, retrieved her keys, and put them back in her purse. This voluntary reaction involved _________ (motor/sensory) signals that were communicated to her muscles via the _____________ (somatic/autonomic) nervous system.
While Randolf is relaxing on the couch after lunch, his heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and digestion are all functioning without any conscious effort on his part. This is because a subdivision of the ___________ nervous system called the _______________ regulates these involuntary functions.
Peripheral; Autonomic nervous system
Bundles of neuron axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system.
System composed of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Simple, autonomic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord without any brain involvement.
Pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response.
The most common, and mildest, type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that causes physical damage and disrupts many aspects of brain function.
Brain structure that regulates the release of hormones by the pituitary gland.
Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates normal skeletal growth during childhood.
Peripheral Nervous System
Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
In nursing mothers, the hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates milk production
Body's defense system against invading viruses and bacteria.
Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that produces the let-down reflex, in which stored milk is "let down" into the nipple.
Endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
Degenerative brain disease caused by repeated concussions or traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Neural Stem Cells
Specialized cells that line the inner surface of the ventricles and that produce neurons in the developing brain.
The brain and spinal cord are suspended in this fluid, which protects them from being jarred.
The nervous system is the primary internal communication network of the body; it is divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system is a major division of the nervous system and consists of the brain and spinal cord
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain, which secretes hormones that affect the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes.
The fight-or-flight response refers to physiological changes such as increased heart rate, accelerated breathing, dry mouth, and perspiration that occur in response to perceived threats or danger..
Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands.
The adrenal medulla is the inner portion of the adrenal glands that secretes epinephrine and nonepinephrine.
The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal glands
Testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone are sex hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes.
The withdrawal reflex occurs when a painful stimulus, such as something hot, electrified, or sharp, is touched.
Ventricles are the four hollow cavities in the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid and lined with neural stem cells.
The three layers of membranous tissue surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord are called the meninges.
Marcel had a stroke on the right side of his brain in an area that controls motor movement; as a result, he has trouble moving limbs on the left side of his body. This is because incoming sensory messages and outgoing motor messages cross over at the _____________ level of the brain
If this area of your brain was electrically stimulated while you were fast asleep, you would wake up instantly.
After Larry was hit in the head by a baseball, his movements became jerky and uncoordinated, and he could no longer type or play his guitar.
In the third round of a boxing match, Bruno caught a right hook that snapped his head back; when he hit the canvas, his breathing stopped.
Ever since his automobile accident six months ago, Sam watches the same video day after day and each time responds to it as though he has never seen it before. All his other sensory functions appear to be intact, but it is clear that one brain area was damaged in the accident that prevents him from forming new memories.
Because of a tumor growing in her brain, Janna has lost her sense of taste, sight, hearing, and touch, but not her sense of smell. The area of the brain involved in regulating these behaviors is the ___________
Following an industrial accident, Harinder has lost his ability to plan, initiate, and execute voluntary movements, and he has problems with emotional control and in thinking clearly. It is most likely that the accident damaged his _______________.
Mr. Endo has been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Many of his movement-related symptoms are associated with the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a midbrain structure called the _________
When researchers electrically stimulated a forebrain structure in a cat, its back arched, its fur bristled, and it showed all the characteristic feline signs of rage and anger. The part of the cat's limbic system that was stimulated was the ____________
Morgana believes that you can tell a lot about a man's personality, character, and mental ability simply by examining the size and shape of his skull. Morgana's views are most like those of the popular nineteenth-century pseudoscience ___________, which, strangely enough, triggered specific psychological and mental functions are located or localized in specific brain areas, an idea called ____________
Phrenology; Cortical localization
Following a stroke, Bruce was unable to talk coherently and was partially paralyzed on his right side. However, through rehabilitation therapy he "relearned" to talk and walk. It appears that undamaged areas in his brain have gradually assumed the ability to process and execute these once routine tasks, a process called ___________
Dr. Lassiter and her colleagues conduct research on brain areas such as the hippocampus, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala. These are all components of the area of the forebrain called the ______________
During her ballet class, Emmalee executed a number of different moves, including a series of pirouettes on point. She is able to accomplish this difficult dance routine because somatosensory information about her muscles and joints, and the position of her arms and legs, are relayed to the __________ lobe in her brain.
In her work on the Human Connections Project, Dr. Weedon utilizes a new brain-scanning technique that allows neuroscientists to produce three-dimensional images of the neural pathways (tracts) that connect one part of the brain to another. This technique, called _______________, tracks the movement of water molecules in brain tissue along the axons.
Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI)
The nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex.
The area on each cerebral hemisphere located above the temporal lobe that processes somatosensory information.
Midbrain area involved in motor control and containing a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons.
Primary auditory cortex
The part of the temporal lobe that enables hearing.
Hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movement on each side of the body.
Forebrain structure that processes motor information and sensory information from all the senses, except smell, and relays it to higher brain centers.
Primary Visual Cortex
The part of the occipital lobe that receives information from the eyes.
The curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in forming new memories.
Region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain.
Primary Motor Cortex
Band of tissue in the frontal lobe on which the movements of different parts of the body are represented.
Prefrontal Association Cortex
Large association area of the brain, situated in front of the primary motor cortex, that is involved in the planning of voluntary movements.
Hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing, circulation, and heart rate.
Network of nerve fibers located at the center of the medulla and pons that helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
Area of the hypothalamus that plays a key role in regulating daily sleep-wake cycles and other body rhythms.
The development of new neurons.
The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
Psuedoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
Networks formed by groups of neuron cell bodies in one area of the brain projecting their axons to other brain areas, forming communication circuits and links between them.
White myelinated axons that extend inward from the cerebral cortex.
The frontal lobe is the largest lobe of the cerebral cortex; it processes voluntary muscle movement and is involved in thinking, planning, and emotional expression and control.
The somatosensory cortex is a band of tissue on the parietal lobe that receives information from touch receptors in different parts of the body.
The forebrain, the largest and most complex brain region, contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes.
The cerebral cortex is the wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain that contains the most sophisticated brain centers.
The occipital lobe is a region at the back of each cerebral cortex hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual information.
The association areas, which make up the bulk of the cerebral cortex and are the regions in which sensory and motor information is combined, produce complex, sophisticated human behaviors.
The temporal lobe is an area on each hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for auditory information.
Neuroplasticity refers to the brain's ability to change structure and function.
The limbic system is a group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotions, motivation, learning, and memory.
The hypothalamus is a peanut-sized forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
The thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them is called the corpus callosum.
Cortical localization refers to the notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain.
Contralateral organization refers to the crossing over of the right and left sensory and motor pathways in the hindbrain.
Structural plasticity refers to the brain's ability to change its structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental stimulation.
The cerebral cortex is mainly composed of glial cells, neuron cell bodies, and axons and is sometimes described as being composed of gray matter because of its grayish appearance.
A blindfolded split-brain patient would be able to verbally identify an object placed in her ______ hand but not in her __________ hand
When the picture of an apple was flashed to the left of the midpoint on the screen during an experiment with a split-brain patient, the patient was not able to say what he saw. However, he could draw a picture of the object with his _______ hand.
When a swear word was flashed to her _______ hemisphere, a split-brain patient could not say what she saw but showed some nonverbal signs of embarrassment.
The fact that a split-brain patient had trouble assembling colored blocks to match a design with his left hand but not his right hand suggests that the _____ hemisphere is superior to the _______ hemisphere at perceptual tasks that involve deciphering visual cues, reading maps, copying designs, and so on.
U.S. psychologist and neuroscientist who received the Nobel Prize in 1981 for his pioneering research on brain specialization in split-brain patients.
The partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language due to brain damage or injury.
The language area of the left temporal lobe concerned with speech comprehension.
The notion that different functions are located, or localized, in different areas of the brain.
Language area on the lower left frontal lobe that plays a crucial role in speech production.
Lateralization of function
The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain.
Karl Wernicke was a German psychiatrist and neurologist who discovered an area on the left temporal lobe that, when damaged, produces meaningless or nonsenical speech and difficulties in verbal or written comprehension.
The split-brain operation is a surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum.
Pierre Paul Broca was a French surgeon and neuroanatomist who discovered an area on the lower left frontal lobe that, when damaged, produces speech disturbances but no loss of comprehension.
A hunter in a South American jungle uses the poisonous drug curare on the tip of his arrow. When the arrow strikes an animal, the animal becomes almost instantly limp and quickly suffocates because its respiratory system has become paralyzed. The curare has ______________ the neurotransmitter acetycholine.
Blocked the receptors for
Miguel has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. His psychologist believes that Miguel's hallucinations and perceptual distortions may be caused, in part, by excessive amounts of the neurotransmitter _________
Jenny has just finished running a marathon but seems to be very happy and elated. According to Focus on Neuroscience, one cause of her "runner's high" may be abnormally high levels of chemical substances in her brain called _________
Mrs. Danvers has multiple sclerosis. She experiences muscle weakness, loss of coordination and speech, and visual disturbances that result from the slowdown or interruption of neural transmission. The cause of these symptoms probably involves the degeneration of the __________
When Dr. Maxwell electrically stimulated a specific area of a patient's right cerebral hemisphere, the patient's left hand twitched. The part of the cortex that was stimulated was the ___________
Primary motor cortex
Neurotransmitters are to hormones as __________ are to _________
Nervous system; endocrine system
When Mike was faced with a final exam worth 80 percent of his grade in his graduate statistics class, he was totally stressed out. The particular glands in his endocrine system that are likely yo be stimulated are the __________
If researchers electrically stimulate the reticular formation in a sleeping cat, it is most likely that the cat will ________
Instantly wake up, fully alert
If researchers destroy the amygdala of a timid cat, it is likely that the cat will _________
lose its timidity and fearfulness
If a normal right-handed individual sustained severe damage to the right cerebral hemisphere, this would most likely reduce a number of abilities. Damage to the right hemisphere is NOT likely to affect his ability to ________
Produce and understand written and spoken language.
The occipital lobe is to ______ as the temporal lobe is to _________
If someone taps you on the back, you sense the touch because the _______ cortex in the ________ lobe receives this tactile information.
Primary somatosensory; Parietal
Gye-Min was so engrossed in studying for his upcoming midterm exam that he did not notice how hungry and thirsty he was until his stomach started growling. The brain structure responsible for regulating behaviors related to survival, such as hunger and thirst, is called the _________ and is part of the ___________ system.
According to Enhancing Well-Being with Psychology, rats were exposed to either an enriched environment or an impoverished environment. Researchers found that enrichment ___________
increases the number and length of dendrites, enlarges the size of neurons, and produces more synaptic connections.
Phrenology was eventually dismissed as a pseudoscience. However, as Science Versus Pseudoscience points out, phrenology played a significant role in advancing the scientific study of the brain by triggering interest in _____________
Renata is suffering from a number of symptoms, including depression, sleep disturbances, and mood fluctuations; she also has problems in learning and memory retrieval. Her doctor prescribes Prozac and some other drugs because her problems are probably due to abnormal levels of the neurotransmitters _______________
serotonin and norepinephrine
Signal reception is to ______ as signal transmission is to ___________
As a result of a stroke, 75-year-old Mrs. Yee suffered brain damage. While she is no longer able to speak, she can understand what is being said to her. Mrs. Yee suffers from _________
Your brain is involved in every perception, thought, and emotion, as are its neurons and their neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that _____________
Travel across the synaptic gap and affect adjoining neurons
If a patient suggers damage to the hippocampus, she is likely to have problems
learning and forming new memories.
After Eduardo's serious skiing accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Eduardo is most likely to have trouble
Playing tennis, typing, and walking with a smooth gait.
In a typical test situation with a split-brain patient, a picture of an apple is briefly presented to the right of the center point. If the patient is asked to name what he sees, she will ______
Say she saw an apple
A researcher anesthetizes the entire right hemisphere of a right-handed patient, then asks her to recite the alphabet aloud while reclining on the operating table with both arms extended upward. It is most probable that the patient's ____________
Left arm will fall limp but she will continue saying the alphabet
A champion athlete loses his medal after officials discover that he has taken anabolic steroids, a synthetic version of the male sex hormone testosterone. Anabolic steroids, like other hormones, circulate through the ________ and act as chemical messengers in the __________
Bloodstream; endocrine system
In response to an exam question, Leilani carefully draws a picture of a neuron and indicates the sequence of events that are typically involved when a neuron communicates. She is likely to note that information is carried from ___________
the dendrites to the cell body and then along the axon to the axon terminals and the synapse.
The parietal lobe is to _________ as the frontal lobe is to _________
sensing touch; planning
The chapter Prologue tells the story of Asha, who suffered a stroke. This story illustrates that the brain has a remarkable ability to gradually shift functions from damaged to undamaged areas, a phenomenon called ___________
Lindsay had Botox injections in an attempt to eliminate her facial wrinkles. Botox contains minute amounts of botulin, which is an extremely lethal substance produced by bacteria; it works by blocking the release of a specific neurotransmitter from motor neurons, causing muscle paralysis. This neurotransmitter, found in all motor neurons, is called ______
The following are brain myths:
-Skilled teachers can educate the right hemisphere of the brain to become more creative and intuitive.
-The right hemisphere of the brain is solely responsible for creativity and intuition.
-We use only 10 percent of our brain.
When doctors removed a tumor from Andrew's occipital lobe, they also had to remove healthy brain tissue from the same area. When he recovers, Andrew is most likely to suffer some loss of _________
Nancy suffers from severe epilepsy that so far has not responded to any treatment. As a final resort, her doctor operates on her brain and surgically cuts the ____________
After a police car with flashing lights and blaring siren passes him and pulls over another driver for speeding, Jerry's heartbeat soon slows down, his blood pressure decreases, and he stops sweating so much. These calming physical reactions are most directly regulated by his ______________
Parasympathetic nervous sustem
While cooking dinner for a large family gathering, Mindy was so distracted by the conversations around her that she forgot to use an oven mitt when she grabbed a very hot roaster pan. She instantly withdrew her hand before becoming consciously aware of the sensation or her own hand movement. Mindy was able to do this because of her _______
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