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- Each mode uses Information Processing Approach (encoding, storage, retrieval). Happens at each distinct memory state.
· interpretation of that sensory information so that it has meaning
o Difference between sensation and perception – sensation is the firing of neurons in the occipital lobe, while perception is what you ACTUALLY see
Stimulus, such as a beep, that you respond to if it’s off/on (hearing test) – when you say yes and it’s on, that’s a hit. When you say no and it’s off, that’s a correct rejection. If you say no and it was on, that’s a miss. If you say yes (you heard a beep) and it’s off (there was no beep), that’s a false alarm.
- Psychiatrics/schizophrenics are more likely to give false alarms (hear something when nothing is there). Nay-sayers are more likely to make the miss response (signal is on but they say it’s off) – when making diagnoses, they say the other patients are fine and should go home. Reagan: change in funding to being nay-sayers (they turned many institutionalized people out, causing homelessness). Cheaper to err on the side of saying no. In airport security pre-911, we were more likely to miss. Now, false alarms are more likely.
- central focus point when looking at something directly, color vision.
- Previous experience with object
- Presence of surrounding objects that we know the size of (tennis ball is smaller than a basketball)
- Distance between object and person
- Motion Parallax: when in a moving object, such as a car, things that are farther away from the thing you’re focused on will go the opposite direction, while things closer to what you’re focused on will move towards you). Ex: trees behind the cow move slowly in the opposite direction as car, trees in front of cow move quickly in the same direction as the car.
- Linear Perspective (ex: railroad tracks – if you stand in middle and look straight down it, tracks look like they’re coming closer and closer together, the farther they are from you).
- Occlusion: if one thing blocks your sight of the thing behind it, it must be closer (ex: man in front of blackboard is closer than board).
- Relative size: things that are larger seem closer.
- Convergence: as eyes turn inward/closer together, the object is closer to you (ex: baseball coming towards you).
- Retinal Disparity: where object hits on retina tells you where things are in visual field (ex: people sitting close in periphery of room hit different part of retina than people sitting far). Where light waves fire on retina.
We’re looking for different types of features that represent the object (basketballs are round) and when we see an object, we’re testing for different features. Ex: kitten study – half the kittens have goggles that let them see slits of lines horizontally, half have vertical slits. When the goggles were removed, horizontal kittens couldn’t see things up and down (steps).
Context matters (THE CAT; H and A are the same, but we read it that way).
- Figure-ground: what is in the forefront (figure - chalice) vs background (people talking).
- Similarity: we view similar things as being grouped together.
- Proximity: things that are proximal to each other seem grouped together.
We take in molecules floating around in environment, travel up nasal passage through olfactory bulb. Receptor cells on olfactory nerve respond to incoming molecules sending info to bulb. Olfactory bulb is the only sense that has direct route to higher parts of brain without necessarily having to go through the thalamus. Smell must have played an important role at some point in the development of our species.
4 basic taste buds (sour, sweet, salty, and bitter) which combine for all tastes. They are found in different spots (sweet on tip, sour on sides). There are more at the tip and back of tongue than in the middle. They regenerate in about the same pattern every 10 days. Humans have 10,000, while catfish have 175,000 (on outside of body because they can’t rely on sight). Certain types of receptor cells can get blocked and change perception of taste (chemical in toothpaste blunts sweet receptor cells).
- Touch cells are independent receptors for different sensations (pressure, heat, etc).
- There are different types of sensory touch receptors. Touch receptor cells are denser at different (more sensitive) parts of the body.
- Pain cells are found in inner portion of body as well as epidermis (specialization of touch). Neurotransmitter Substance P causes pain/increases feeling of pain.
- Endorphins (naturally or chemically produced) block pain and make it less likely that neuron will fire all the way through.
- spot on spinal column acts as filter/gate for allowing pain messages from body to be sent to brain (when you’re distracted/in survival mode, you don’t feel pain the same way because the gate isn’t fully opened). Adrenaline or endorphins can close gate. Vast individual difference in experience of pain.
- Problems with Gate Theory: can’t explain phantom pain (amputees feeling pain in areas no longer part of body), which is pain at a higher level of processing. Maybe all pain doesn’t necessarily flow through this gate.
- Normal: CS-US then UR.
- Simultaneous: CSUS (no learning, ignores potential CS).
- Delayed: CS----US then UR (ex: fire truck siren – when you see fire truck, you’re supposed to pull over. To improve response, siren may first have been neutral, but when it’s followed by truck and need to pull over, you start pulling over when you hear siren before you see the truck).
- Trace: CS precedes but does not overlap with US (taste aversions – food then flu then sick). Can be weakly effective if auto response isn’t strong.
- Second Order: CS1-CS2-CS3-US then CR (multiple CS paired with US to produce CR). Ex: dog and plastic bags- produce triggers going farther back in time to make dog think he’s getting walked. Ex: dentist’s drill produces fear. Can be conditioned to dentist’s chair before he’s there, then being near office.
- Generalization: respond to similar CS (dog salivates to buzzer when conditioned to bell because they’re similar sounds).
- Discrimination: learn not to respond to similar CS (point at which buzzer sound was different enough that dogs didn’t respond).
- Counter-Conditioning: using incompatible CS to quicken extinction (Little Albert was counter-conditioned by presenting a toy before white rat).
- rewarding subsequent approximations of behavior (dog shaking hand).
§ membrane on the back of the eye; where the sensory receptor cells are located
· Note – things in left visual field go to RIGHT occipital lobe and things in right visual field go to LEFT occipital lobe
§ focus light on retina; allows change from distance; close up vision; more flexible when you are young and more rigid when older, so need reading glasses/bifocals
· If you wear glasses, it compensates for the lens not focusing on retina correctly (either in front or behind retina)
the period in which the unconditioned stimulus is paired with the conditioned stimulus (can vary)
§ Example: blow puff of air into eye, automatically blink à 3 min of bell, puff of air, blink, then just rang bell and person would blink
§ Autonomic NS response
§ Example: little Albert, white rat was paired with loud noise, led to phobia; was conditioned to white rats
§ Example: Jaws – music was neutral, but was played before shark, which caused a fear response (would do it again in movie, and just the music would cause a fear response)
§ Example: sexy beer ads
§ Example: “ding” of microwave causes salivation in other room
o Taste aversions
§ Example: if have virus, throw up because of flu (so flu is unconditioned stimulus, while throwing up is unconditioned response), so if you previously liked fettuccine alfredo (conditioned stimulus), would develop taste aversion to it if you were sick
· Food – flu – sick à food – nausea (strong association, only takes one time)
· Another example is chemotherapy, which causes nausea, so strong chance of taste aversion; people are advised to eat something they don’t necessarily like very much before receiving chemotherapy because of possibility of taste aversion
§ Example: coyotes would attack lambs, so injected lambs with chemicals to make coyote sick if he eats it; coyote ate lamb, but next day, tracked the live lamb but did not attack, had strong taste aversion to lamb
§ The less experience with conditioned stimuli, the more learning occurs à Rescorla – Wagner Model
· New things (novel conditioned stimuli) – easier for classical conditioning
· Familiar things – harder for classical conditioning to occur (strength of conditioned response might be stronger for novel conditioned stimuli than for familiar conditioned stimuli)
· Classical conditioning is not that powerful on humans in general, EXCEPT for taste aversions and creation of phobias
§ Observational (social conditioning)
You see someone else reinforced/punished and it can change your behavior (social learning/vicarious learning)
· achievement, affiliation, power measured by Thematic Aperception Test (TAT)
o Example: given slide, told to write a story about what is going on (projective test) and found that people high in need for achievement more likely to talk about them celebrating project completion while those high in affiliation talk about their relationship
§ People high in need for achievement à more successful
§ People high in affiliation à better social networks
§ People high in need for power à tend to be more scheming, approach problem sets being concerned with getting more than others
· Distinct physiological state; the situation determines the physiological state, and the physiological state completely determines the emotion
· Emotions are reactions to stimuli in the environment; we do not flip-flop on emotions unless there is something causing it in the environment
§ arousal and cognition are separate things; both of them contribute to the cause of the emotion
· The situation determines the cognitive state and the physiological state independently
§ emotion as a trait – positive affect vs. negative affect
· Even such things as emotions that we tend to think are determined by situation, it is actually more trait-like; there is remarkable consistency within each individual about what emotions they experience
o Positive affect (PA) is a different dimensions thannegative affect (NA) – not one continuum – can be high/low in positive affect, high/low in negative affect
§ Short term memory
· Short term memory only lasts for a limited number of times, rehearsal is key to short term memory, take in information, but storage is always about rehearsal (retrieval is just ability to rehearse it)
· key to encoding information, about how we are going to store the information – increases likelihood that we will be able to retrieve the information later on, focuses on schemas; try to categorize information with a schema that already exists, and if it doesn’t exist, elaborate it and think about it in different ways and thus more likely to create a schema in a long term memory
Distributed vs. massed learning
§ People tend to perform better on an exam if they studied 1 hour every day for 7 days, better than mass learning (studying 7 hours before exam)
§ Distributed learning is more elaboration than massed learning (has less depth, tend to do worse getting stuff stored in long term memory)
§ people who process things visually/spatially, can visualize a scene that has visual representation of information, and the order that it comes in – image is what helps encode/retrieve information
§ But research in flashbulb memoires find that intensity of emotional content at the time tend to undermine your ability to remember things accurately – in reality, people do a worse job at remember things at time of high emotional arousal
· If eyes have to turn closer together, then the object is closer to you – focal point
· Example – if throw football toward you, as it approaches, eyes start to converge to track it, almost cross-eyed as it gets closer
· Since we have two eyes, relative retinal image between the two eyes give depth perception, still see image as one thing
§ Hearing, vision, and touch are PHYSICAL senses
§ Pain, taste, and smell are CHEMICAL senses
The use of negative stimuli over positive stimuli in operant conditioning is bad for all except?
This theory of motivation revolves around estimations of the probability of rewards and costs of doing a behavior?
Schacter and Singer said that we are especially likely to look externally for our emotional state when our arousal is?
Not remembering your new password because your old password keeps popping into your head?
Hallucinations (seeing something not actually there) are best represented by a glitch/error in this process?
Categorizing an object based upon its traits represents the use of this theory?
Previous experience with the CS without the US makes it difficult to establish conditioning based upon?
That you shut off your alarm clock when its alarm goes off represents this aspect of operant conditioning?
The effect of violent television on kid’s behavior is best considered through this?
During which component of information processing theory do availability problems become salient?
Which aspect of sensation and perception is completely based on the electrochemical transmission of neurons?
Per motion parallax, while driving - things outside your window far away from you seem to move in this manner?
Different individuals have different preferences for stimuli according to this aspect of conditioning?
Altering your opinion about a movie after you see your friend ridiculed for liking the movie best represents?
The process of elaboration in long term memory revolves around this concept?
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