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initiative vs guilt
Erikson's 3rd psychosocial stage
initiative- children have a new sense of purposefulness, eager to tackle new tasks, join activities w/peers, discover with the help of adults.
guilt- overly strict superego that causes children to feel guilty beca
set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
describe themselves with observable characteristics, such as name, physical appearance, possession, and everyday behavior. at 3.5 years of ag
early childhood self-esteem
judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements.
early childhood children have a high self-esteem and rate their abilities extremely high.
children with parents who critize their worth give up easily, chil
prosocial, altruistic behavior (Empathy)
empathy- actions that benefit another person with no expected rewards for one self
sympathy- feeling of concern or sorrow for another's plight
non-social- unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
parallel play- plays near another child but doesn't try to influence another's behavior
associative play- separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
functional- simple, repetitive motor movements or without objects, common first 2 years
constructive- creating or constructing something, between 3-6 years old
make-believe play- acting out everyday and imaginary roles, common between 2-6 years o
Early Childhood Friendships
- change frequently
- play is more complex/emotionally expressive among friends
- social compatibility attributes to academic performance
- a "friend" is someone who likes you, plays with you, shares with you
inductive- an adult tries to help the child notice feelings by pointing out the effect of the child's misbehavior on others
timeout- removing a child from the immediate setting.
matters of personal choice
moral- protect people's rights and welfare, rules and expectations
social- customs determined by consensus (table manners, please, TY)
personal choice- friends, hairstyle, leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the child.
2 types of aggresions
proactive (instrumental) aggression
reactive (hostile) aggression-
proactive- children act or fulfill a need to obtain an object, privelage, space, or social reward (peer or adult), and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal.
reactive- angry, defensive reaction to provocation or a blocked goal and its
3 types of proactive and reactive aggression
physical- harms others through physical injury (pushing, hitting, punching, kicking)
verbal- harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing.
relational aggression- damages another's peer relationship through
typing- sex in association with objects, activities, roles, or traits. conforms cultural stereotypes.
identity- image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine
androgyny- someone with both masculine or feminine characteristics
schematic- characterizes objects by gender.
ashematic- characterizes objects by like or dislike.
4 types of child abuse
physical abuse- assaults that inflict physical injury
sexual abuse- fondling, intercourse, exhibitionism, commercial exploitation, prostitution or pornography
neglect- fail to meet a child's basic need for food, clothing, medical attention, educa
obesity- grater than 20% increase over healthy body weight, based on BMI
overweight- BMI over the 85th percentile for a child's age and sex
obese- BMI above 95tu percentile
concrete operational stage
Piaget's 3rd stage of development
children between 7-11 years of age, children thoughts are more logical, flexible and organized. use concrete information, and lack abstract thinking.
conservation- be able to not only focus on one object when it comes to a problem
reversibility- capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse directions, returning to the starting point
classifications- class inclusion pro
seriation- order items along a quantitative dimension such as length or width
transitive interference- to be able to seriate mentally
spatial reasoning- cognitive maps, mental representations of familiar large scale spaces, such as neighborhoods
rehearsal-1st appears in early grade school. repeating information to one self
organization- 2nd memory strategy. grouping related items together
elaboration- late middle childhood, create relationships or shared meanings between two pieces of in
process of continuously monitoring progress towards a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful behavior
2 ways to learn to read
whole-language- from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in complete form, so they can appreciate the communicative function of written language
phonics- children should be coached on phonics, only after mastering these skills should
Sternberg's triarchial theory of success
analytical- apply strategies, acquire task-relevant and metacognitive knowledge, engage in self-regulstion
creative- solve novel problems, make processing skills automatic to free up space for complex thinking
practical- adapt to.. shape... and/o
gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
dismisses the idea of general intelligence, propses 8 independent intelligences. terms of distinctive sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activites.
stereotype threat- fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype, can trigger anxiety that interferes with ability
dynamic- adults introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with soc
traditional classroom vs a constructive classroom
traditional- teacher is the sole authority, children are passive, progress measured by how well students keep pace with the uniform set of standards
constructive- encourages students to construct their own knowledge (piaget) learning centers, small
social constructivist classroom
children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers. as children acquire knowledge they become competent, contributing members of their classroom community and advanced in cognitive and social development
learning disabilities- greater difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. achievement is considerably behind
inclusive- students with learning difficulties placed in classrooms with typical students to prepare them for partic
creativity- ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate, something others haven't thought
divergent- generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem.
convergent- arrives at a single correct answer
industry vs inferiority
industry- children develop a sense of competence at useful tasks and skills
inferiority- pessimism in children who lack in confidence to do well in useful tasks and skills.
middle childhood self-concept
use social comparisons (judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behaviors in relations to others)
instead of specific behaviors they also use positive and negative traits.
middle childhood self-esteem
not as high as in early childhood. receive a lot more feedback. self-esteem drops early in childhood and raises up again afyer 4th grade.
general middle childhood self-esteem
academic competence (math, reading, etc)
social competence (relationships with peers/parents)
physical/athletic competence (outdoor games, various sports)
learned helplessness attributions
mastery-oriented- credit their success to ability, improve through trying hard and can count on facing new challenges. attribute failures to factors that can be changed (insufficient effort, difficulty of task)
Learned-helplessness- attributes thei
problem centered coping
emotion centered coping
problem-centered- believe the situation is adaptable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it.
emotion-centered- internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome.
extent to which children hold racial and ethnic biases
overly high self esteem
fixed personality- believe children's personalities are either good or bad and ignore motives and circumstances, on the limited basis of info. lead to prejudice
overly high self esteem- most likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudice. believe they a
peer acceptance and 4 groups of peer acceptance
peer acceptance- refers to likeability, how a child is viewed by age mates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner
popular children (prosocial, antisocial)
rejected (disliked, get negative votes)
controversial (both like and dis
prosocial- liked for their academic and social competence
antisocial- cause trouble and defy adults, usually aggressive children who enhance status by ignoring, exluding, and spreading rumors of other children
rejected-aggressive- high rates of con
certain children become targets or verbal or physical attacks and abuse
3 stages of gender identity from stable dispositions
felt pressure to conform
gender typicality- degree which the child feels similar to others of the same gender. "fit" in with the same sex peers
gender contentedness- degree which the child feels comfortable in his or her gender assignment, promotes happiness
form of supervision in which parent exercises general oversight while letting children take charge of moment by moment decision making
blended family- child and parent become part of a new family (stepmom)
self-care children- take care of themselves for some period of time after school
phobia- children develop an intense, unmanageable fear.
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