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You are a humanistic therapist. A potential client is unfamiliar with your school of therapy and asks you to sum it up. You tell him the primary premise of humanistic therapy is that ______.
irrational thought results in negative consequences
individuals possess the capacity to heal themselves
the unconscious mind can affect conscious behavior
abnormal behavior can be manipulated in therapy
Which of the following classes of drugs are NOT considered antidepressants?
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used for _____,
dissociative identity disorder
In psychoanalytic theory, the term transference is used to describe ______.
the phenomenon in which the patient comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble her or his other relationships
the repression of painful memories from conscious awareness
the gradual shifting of erogenous desires from the mouth to the genitals
efforts to redirect anxiety-provoking desires into socially acceptable actions
Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary's therapist tends to be very non-directive and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary's therapist is most likely associated with the ____________ perspective of psychotherapy.
Two key assumptions of the ____________ approach to therapy are that psychological disorders are learned in exactly the same way as normal behaviors are and that they can be treated by applying the basic principles of learning.
Beck's cognitive therapy focuses on ______.
the relationship between therapist and client
Researchers have found that when there is an ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnic-specific services are provided, ________.
clients are more likely to drop out of therapy early
clients have better treatment outcomes
treatment outcomes are the same as when there is no ethnic match
both the client and therapist typically show evidence of bias or prejudice against other groups
A person with a phobia of horses would likely benefit most from which type of therapy?
What theoretical approach to psychological disorders would be most likely to consider a person's gender and ethnicity when diagnosing a disorder?
The leading cause of disability in the United States is ______.
major depressive disorder
_____ is a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes.
Generalized anxiety disorder
______ is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts.
Borderline personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
Which of the following statements about the DSM-IV is FALSE?
The DSM-IV classifies individuals on the basis of five dimensions or axes.
DSM-IV was introduced in 1994 and revised in 2000.
The DSM-IV is a classification of psychological disorders.
The number of disorders listed in DSM-IV is significantly lower than the number of disorders listed in the first edition of the DSM.
Randy experienced a horrific childhood. She was physically and verbally abused by her mother and sexually abused by a stepfather. Years later, she began experiencing anxiety symptoms. A diagnosis of _____ would best apply to her situation.
generalized anxiety disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of a depressive disorder?
Reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities
Significant weight gain or loss
Flashbacks and nightmares
Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of the DSM?
It emphasizes biological causes of mental illness, rather than environmental causes.
It emphasizes weaknesses rather than strengths.
It does not allow for consistent diagnoses.
It is based too heavily on the medical model.
In order for a person to be classified as having major depressive disorder, he or she must experience a depressive episode that lasts at least
What do people with anorexia have in common with people with bulimia?
Both feel that they are not disordered in any way.
Both have an intense fear of becoming fat.
Both occasionally engage in binge eating.
Both typically start showing symptoms when they are in their 20s.
A(n) _____ is a strategy that guarantees a solution to a problem.
______ uses established rules to draw conclusions, whereas in _____, such rules are not established, and we may not know the consequences of the decisions.
Heuristics / algorithms
Creativity / reasoning
Heuristics / reasoning
Reasoning / decision making
The ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast are characteristics of _____ intelligence.
Although used often, the comparison between the computer and human information processing is oversimplified. Why?
Computer information is far too complex for such a comparison to be accurate.
Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing.
Computers are currently unable to perform tasks better than humans.
Computer information is too mathematically based for such a comparison to be accurate.
Basketball, football, baseball, and soccer all fit into the _____ of sports.
When comparing algorithms and heuristics, what is the advantage of using heuristics for solving real-life problems?
Speed and convenience
_____ involves reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance.
The tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them is known as _____.
the representativeness heuristic
the availability heuristic
If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but it doesn't accurately measure intelligence, then the test is __________ but not __________.
If a child's mental age is higher than her chronological age, this means that _____.
the child's IQ is higher than normal
a mistake has occurred. This result is not possible
the child's IQ is about average
the child's IQ is lower than average
Health psychology attempts to explain the role of psychology in _____.
All of these
establishing and maintaining health
_______ is the strongest predictor of making successful life changes.
Which of the following is the strongest predictor of mortality rates?
In the long run, writing about traumatic life events ______.
is harmful because one relives the trauma over and over again
has no impact on reducing stress
increases distress among men but not among women
is associated with physical and psychological health benefits
Research has found that compared to other developed countries, in the U.S. ______.
sex education programs are more comprehensive than in other countries
condoms are more available to teenagers than they are in other countries
twice as many teenagers are sexually active as in other countries
teen pregnancy rates are two times to four times higher than in other countries
The theory of planned behavior includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds another important variable to the model. This variable is ______.
level of introversion
genetic health history
a person's perception of control over the outcome of the situation
Dan has a problem with smoking. If Dan were in the ______ stage of change, the best stage-matched intervention would be to inform him about the dangers of continuing this unhealthy behavior. However, if he were in the ______ stage, you
would do well to provide him with training in specific skills that can help him to actually stop smoking.
precontemplation / contemplation
preparation/determination / contemplation
precontemplation / preparation/determination
contemplation / precontemplation
Which of the following motives for drinking alcohol is most typically associated with negative outcomes such as social and work problems or potential substance abuse?
Coping motives (to deal with stress)
Cognitive motives (to see oneself as an adult)
Social motives (to be sociable and fit in with friends)
Enhancement motives (to have fun and feel good)
A number of studies have linked religious participation to _____.
increased loneliness and isolation
a longer life
Which of the following accurately describes the sequence of the general adaptation syndrome?
Challenge, frustration, and exhaustion
Primary appraisal, alarm, secondary appraisal
Alarm, resistance, and challenge
Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
All of these
involves a systematic change
is central to behaviorist theories
involves a relatively permanent change in behavior
Organisms learn about the consequences of behavior through _____.
In operant conditioning _____.
behavior is a consequence of the CS
the consequences of behavior is the CR to environmental stimuli
behavior is controlled by the environment
the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the occurrence of the behavior
A hitchhiker most likely gets rides on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?
In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is unlearned, but the _____ connection is learned.
CS-CR / UCS-UCR
UCR-CR / UCS-CS
UCS-UCR / CS-CR
UCS-CS / UCR-CR
Mark's dog, Gus, sits whenever he says, "Sit." Mark now wants to teach Gus a new trick. He wants to teach him to bark each time he says, "Speak," but whenever Mark says, "Speak," Gus sits. The dog's behavior is an example of ______.
In John Watson's little Albert experiment, the white rat was the ______ and the loud noise was the ______.
unconditioned response / unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned stimulus / conditioned response
conditioned stimulus / unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response / conditioned stimulus
Which of the following is the best example of negative reinforcement?
Chase's mom spanked him for hitting his little brother. Chase now hits his brother less frequently.
Abby's dad kept nagging her to clean her room. She eventually complied and did what her father wanted in order get her dad to stop nagging.
Chad's new teacher gives him a prize box toy for every five books that he reads. He now reads more frequently than he used to.
Jeremy's mom grounded him for not doing his homework. Now he rarely forgets to complete his assignments on time.
Positive punishment _____. Negative reinforcement _____.
strengthens behaviors / weakens behaviors
weakens behaviors / weakens behaviors
weakens behaviors / strengthens behaviors
strengthens behaviors / strengthens behaviors
Which of the following components are essential to the definition of consciousness?
Awareness and arousal
Awareness and responsiveness
Tolerance and arousal
Alertness and tolerance
_____ are frightening dreams that awaken a dreamer from REM sleep. _____ involve sudden arousal from sleep and an intense physiological fear reaction (e.g., screaming, heavy breathing, and perspiration)
Somnambulisms / Nightmares
Night terrors / Nightmares
Somnambulisms / Night terrors
Nightmares / Night terrors
The need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect that a lower dose used to bring is called ______.
What is the definition of a binge drinking episode?
More than 2 drinks in a row
More than 20 drinks in a row
More than 10 drinks in a row
More than 5 drinks in a row
What part of the brain is typically most involved in awareness?
Jet lag may be explained by the_____.
effect of time shifts on the circadian rhythm
dramatic changes in environmental stimuli
elevation of serotonin in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
_____ is characterized by myocionic jerks and theta waves, whereas _____ are characterized by delta waves.
Stage 5 sleep / stage 1 and stage 2 sleep
Stage 1 sleep / stage 3 and stage 4 sleep
Stage 5 sleep/ stage 3 and stage 4 sleep
Stage 3 sleep / stage 1 and stage 2 sleep
Kevin suffers from sleep apnea. With this condition, he reawakens as often as 500 times during the night due to _____.
lack of oxygen
ringing in their ears
super sensitivity to all sensory stimuli
Which of the following neurotransmitters plays an important role in addiction?
What is the most widely used drug in the United States?
The term plasticity refers to the____.
ability of people to change habits over time
natural tendency to engage in a fight or flight response
flexibility of the endocrine system
brain's special capacity for modification and change
The cell body contains the ______, which directs the manufacture of substances that a neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
Depression is associated with low levels of what neurotransmitter?
The _____ is a small forebrain structure that monitors pleasurable activities (e.g. eating, drinking, and sex), emotion, stress, and reward.
The most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning, take place in the _____.
Neurosurgeons can reduce the unbearable seizures some epileptics experience by severing the _____.
According to the all-or-nothing principle, _____.
once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity
the amount of time a neuron must "rest" in between firing episodes is stable
as a person ages, his or her neurological system slows down and the intensity of neural impulses decreases significantly
if all the neurons in a network are not integrated, the "message" carried by the neurons will be lost
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in ______.
motor function, learning, and memory
All of these
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that _____.
relies on monitoring changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity
allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working
generates very clear pictures of the brain's interior
All of these
Sonal had a stroke. Doctors told her she sustained substantial damage to the occipital lobes. What type of deficiencies will Sonal likely experience as a result of this brain damage?
She may be blind or unable to see clearly.
She will probably have difficulties with memory function.
She will probably be unable to comprehend language.
She will probably suffer from impaired cognitive functioning (planning, reasoning, and self-control will be negatively impacted).
Social psychology is the study of ______.
All of these
When many people first learn of the classic conformity and obedience studies, they often believe that the participants in these studies are weak-minded people and they tend to underestimate the power of the social situation. This is an example of ______.
the false-consensus effect
the fundamental attribution error
a positive illusion
_____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.
According to self-perception theory, if you're not sure how you feel about something, how can you find out?
Ask a friend
Look to your emotions
Look at your behavior
Compare yourself to others
What is the key social emotion involved with altruism?
The assumption that ethnic outgroups are not only different, but that other groups are inferior to your group, is called _____.
Alex regularly gives donations of blood to the Red Cross because he received a life-saving transfusion when he was in a car accident two years ago. Robert's helping behavior is best explained by _____.
the concept of reciprocity
social exchange theory
the concept of reciprocity
The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as _____.
the self-serving bias
the false consensus effect
Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of _____.
the sleeper effect
Tori did well on her first exam in psychology. She congratulated herself for studying hard and being naturally gifted. When she failed her second exam, she became angry at the professor for creating an unfair test and for not explaining the concepts well. Tori's reactions are an example of
A fertilized egg is called a(n)
Zofia's dermatologist has recommended a drug called Accutane for her acne. Accutane has potentially serious detrimental effects on a fetus, so Zofia is required to have a pregnancy test both before she begins treatment and every month that she takes the medication. In this situation, Accutane would act as a(n) ________________ on an unborn child.
Understanding that while the shape of an object may change, the mass of the object stays the same is an example of
In which of Piaget's stages does object permanence happen?
A person’s knowledge of the working of automobiles is an example of
Harry Harlow studied monkeys who were raised with two "mothers," one made of wire and one of terry cloth. What did he find?
The monkeys showed no preference between the two mothers.
The monkeys preferred the wire mother, even when the cloth mother provided food.
The monkeys preferred the cloth mother, even when the wire mother provided food.
The monkeys preferred whichever mother provided food.
Which parenting style is generally associated with the best child outcomes?
Which of the following socioemotional development stages occurs in adolescence?
identity versus identity confusion
intimacy versus isolation
initiative versus guilt
generativity versus stagnation
Making decisions about right and wrong based on punishments or rewards is consistent with which level of moral reasoning?
Kübler-Ross’s proposed stages of coping with death include all of the following except
making amends to others.
denying that death will come.
Which of the following has NOT been a criticism of Freud's theory?
He placed too much emphasis on childhood and not enough emphasis on later development.
He placed too much emphasis on cultural influences on development, and not enough emphasis on biological influences.
He placed too much emphasis on sexuality and not enough emphasis on other sources of motivation.
He placed too much emphasis on the unconscious and not enough emphasis on conscious thought.
What does reciprocal determinism mean?
The id, ego, and superego all work together to minimize a person’s anxiety.
Personality traits interact with unconscious processes to create enduring behavioral patterns.
Early childhood experiences shape the way people will behave for the remainder of their lives.
Cognitive factors, personality, and the environment all interact to determine a person’s personality.
Psychological and physical health is more common among people who are
high on the traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness.
high on the traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, and low on neuroticism.
high on the traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, and low on the trait of openness to experience.
high on the traits of openness to experience and neuroticism, and low on the trait of extraversion.
Psychologists who study personality investigate _____.
the pleasantness or sociability of an individual
relatively permanent changes in behavior due to experience
the organization of sensation into a meaningful interpretation
the enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving of individuals
Freud considered ____ to be the primary motivating force of human behavior.
rewards and punishments
Trait theories of personality ______.
take a more optimistic view of human nature than humanistic psychologists do
state that situational factors override personal characteristics
focus on the role of the unconscious
examine personal characteristics that are stable across situations
According to Freud, the _____ operates according to the pleasure principle, whereas the _____ operates on the reality principle.
ego / id
superego / ego
id / ego
id / superego
Heidi is a self-actualizer. Which of the following characteristics is she likely to possess?
All of these are characteristics of self-actualizers
Tolerant of others, gentle sense of humor, likely to pursue the greater good
Spontaneous, creative, and a childlike capacity for awe
Strong capacity for "peak experiences"
Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his clients' unconscious motivations. He would be very likely to use a(n) _____.
Your friend Steve is very excited, because he just learned that he can take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for free at his school. He plans to use this information to choose his career. As someone familiar with research on the MBTI, what should you tell him?
Steve should be cautious. There are concerns about the MBTI’s reliability and validity, but it is possible that the test may still yield some useful information.
Steve should be very happy. The MBTI is one of the best tools available for matching people with careers.
Steve is confused. The MBTI is never used for this purpose.
Steve should not take the test. The MBTI has not been shown to have any validity or usefulness.
Psychology is _____.
the study of human behavior
a type of science
All of these
the study of mental processes
The heart of the scientific method is based on ____.
All of these
Which of the following is NOT an essential feature of the scientific method?
Drawing and evaluating conclusions
Publishing politically correct results
Developing and testing hypotheses
Observing some phenomenon
The ________ approach to psychology views the mind as an active and aware problem-solving system. This view contrasts with the ______ approach to psychology, which portrays behavior as controlled by external environmental forces.
psychodynamic / humanistic
humanistic / psychodynamic
behavioral / cognitive
cognitive / behavioral
Professor Wong measured the intelligence and temperament of a group of preschoolers. He plans to follow the same group of participants over time and collect similar data when the children are in 3rd grade, 6th grade, and 9th grade. This is an example of which type of research design?
The ____ establishes ethical guidelines for psychologists. The ____ evaluates the ethical nature of research conducted at colleges and universities.
county government / state government
Institutional Review Board (IRB) / American Psychological Association (APA)
American Psychological Association (APA) / Institutional Review Board (IRB)
state government / county government
A researcher focuses on the role of previous learning experiences and on the role of rewards and punishments in shaping human behavior. Which approach to psychology is this researcher using?
the behavioral approach
the cognitive approach
the psychodynamic approach
the humanistic approach
A researcher has designed a study to test the effects of different types of individual psychotherapy on people's levels of depression. She has randomly assigned people to one of three groups: a cognitive-behavioral treatment group, a psychodynamic treatment group, or a no-treatment control group. She then measures people's level of depression after the treatment. Which of the following statements is true?
Cognitive-behavioral treatment is the dependent variable; depression is the independent variable.
Depression is the dependent variable; the treatment group is the independent variable.
Depression is the dependent variable; cognitive-behavioral treatment is the independent variable.
The treatment group is the dependent variable; depression is the independent variable.
A researcher obtained a correlation coefficient of -.65 for the relationship between job satisfaction and experiences of discrimination in the workplace. What does this correlation coefficient mean?
People who were more satisfied with their job experienced more discrimination.
Discrimination causes decreased job satisfaction.
People who experienced more discrimination were less likely to be satisfied with their job.
There is no relationship between job satisfaction and experiences of discrimination.
Which of the following should be adhered to in conducting ethical research?
All of the answers are correct.
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