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You are condition an elephant to startle at the sound of atrombone. Every time you play the trombone you show the elephant a mouse, whichstartles the elephant. Eventually the elephant startles at just the sound ofthe trombone. However, after playing the trombone 10 more times without a mouseappearing the elephant exhibits no response. You give the elephant an adequaterest period from the trombone. How would you expect the elephant to behave thenext time you play the trombone after the rest period?
a) the elephant would startle (due to spontaneousrecovery)
Accustomed to the sound of the old can opener, your catstill rushes to her food dish even when she hears the sound of the new canopener for the first time. Your cat is definitely smart, more than that she isexhibiting:
- Why because the original can opener is theoriginal CS used for conditioning and the new can opener is similar enough tothe old CS which is the new CS , so the cat develops a CR (running to the fooddish) to the new CS (new can opener).
If the new stimulus is too different from the new CS theanimal will no respond.
Your new blender makes a noise somewhat similar to the canopener but your smart cat doesn’t even get up from the sofa where she hears it.She is exhibiting:
They conditioned fear in little Albert by presenting a furryanimal (CS) and the bell; he generalizes the fright to other animals.
9-month-old Albert cried when a large steel bar was struck with a hammer at the same time he was presented with a white rat. In thisacquisition phase the white rat was the:
What was the US in the little Albert study?
What was the UR (response that is not learned, he alreadyhas that response) in the little Albert study?
Fear – terrorand crying when exposed to a loud noise
What is the CR (response that is learned) in the littleAlbert study?
Terror and crying when exposed to a white rat
Not only did little Albert learn to fear white rats he alsocried when presented with a Santa clause mask or a seal fur coat. This behaviorwas the result of:
a) Stimulusgeneralization (similar to cat and can opener)
Riscorla and Wagner theorized that The reason the CSproduced the CR is because animals expect the condition stimulus to be followedby the unconditioned stimulus and because the unconditioned stimulusautomatically produces the UR, therefore the CS produces the CR because theanimal expects that unconditioned stimulus (US) to follow that CS.
Riscorla and Wagner originated with the followingtheories?
Classical conditioning occurs only when theanimal has learned to set up an expectation
You usually don’t eat sushi but you try it again one day(therefore unfamiliar). You do like and regularly consume chocolate cake whichyou eat after the sushi. Later that night you get sick to your stomachaccording to the Riscorla and Wagner model what is the most likely outcome?
You will avoid sushi in the future (it’s the NEW, UNFAMILIAR, thing that pops out inyour mind – therefore you associate getting sick with sushi because the sushiis unfamiliar)
Figure 7.5 – Delay and Trace Conditioning
Clark and Squire(1998) compared delay and trace conditioning During delay conditioning, the CS(a tone) was presented for either 700 msec (A) or 1250 msec (B), and then remainedon for 100 msec while the US (an air puff) was presented. During traceconditioning, the CS was presented for 250 msec (C and D), and was followed bya blank “trace” interval of either 500 msec (C) or 1000 msec (D) beforepresentation of the US for 100 msec. Trace conditioning depended on awarenessof the relationship between the US and CS, whereas delay conditioning did not.
When they say trace, that’s a blank – nothing happens duringthe trace (trace interval was either 500ms or 1000
Recent research in amnesiac patients who lack explicitmemory (therefore don’t have awareness of their memories) has shown that aneye blink response can be conditioned using delay but:
a) no trace conditioning
Awareness of the CS UCS contingency appears to be crucialfor a response to be acquired using:
a) trace conditioning
Which of the following groups of people could acquire aconditioned response under trace conditioning:
a) peoplein a vegetative state (people that think they are vegetables but they arenot complete vegetables because they can be conditioned/learn using traceconditioning – and because trace conditioning requires awareness we assumepeople in a vegetative state have SOME awareness)
- so before we pull that plug we must test to seeif they have any kind of awareness
- people under drugs cannot use trace conditioning
The cerebellum is critical for both _______ and ______ ________ (meaning that you can be conditioned withoutawareness through your cerebellum – but you do need awareness for traceconditioning)
The hippocampus is critical for explicit memory (when it isdamaged they don’t have good explicit memory) also good for short term memoryand therefore also important for _______ _________, but not delay conditioning.
_________ conditioninvolved in emotion (similar to the Little Albert)
___________ isimportant to emotional conditioning.
In people, as well as in rates and other animals, theamygdala is critically involved in:
a) Emotional conditioning
______ __________ isknown for conditioned taste aversion.
People were getting to not like whatever they had beforetheir chemo therapy, conditioning them to feel the nausea after they had thechemo therapy
What would they give the people?
John Garcia and collogues as a result of their studies cameto conclude that the cancer patients who experience nausea after treatmentsdeveloped a taste aversion to the foods they had eaten earlier the techniquethey developed for minimizing this negative effect involved:
a) Giving patients unusual foods such as coconut orroot beer flavored candy at the end of their last meal before undergoingtreatment (unfamiliar, so it is likely to be associated with the chemo therapyso they can eat their normal yummy food)
There is a principle related to Garcia:
What is it?
It used to thought that nay CS could be associated with anyUCS as long as they were contiguous. It turned out not to be true because ofbiological preparedness
What principle describes why the taste and smell stimulithat produce food aversions in rats do not work with most species of birds?
a) Biological preparedness (birds responds to thecolor of food not so much the taste and smell – so if you give the bird thatmakes them sick they will associate the color more so than the smell or taste)
Tammy at raw oysters for the first time and four hours laterbecame extremely sick to her stomach. Now the smell of oysters makes herstomach queasy. What is the CS?
a) The smell of oysters
What is the US?
a) Abacterium or other toxin that may or may not have been in the oysters
What is the UR?
a) Stomach sickness
What is the CR?
a) Stomach queasiness at the smell of oysters
In Thorndike’soriginal experiments, food was placed just outside the door of the puzzle box,where the cat could see it. If the cat triggered the appropriate lever, itwould open the door and let the cat out.
Getting the food is the ____________
Reinforcement comes after the __________ in Thorndike’s puzzlebox.
Thorndike’s catsdisplayed trial-and-error behavior when trying to escape from the puzzle box.They made lots of irrelevant movements and actions until, over time, theydiscovered the solution. Once they figured out what behavior was instrumentalin opening the latch, they stopped all other ineffective behaviors and escapedfrom the box faster and faster.
In a typicalSkinner box, or operant conditioning chamber, a rat, pigeon, or othersuitably sized animal is placed in this environment and observed duringlearning trials that use operant conditioning principles.
Differentschedules of reinforcement produce different rates of responding. These linesrepresent the amount of responding that occurs under each type ofreinforcement. The black slash marks indicate when reinforcement wasadministered. Notice that ratio schedules tend to produce higher rates ofresponding than do interval schedules, as shown by the steeper lines for fixedratio and variable ratio reinforcement. Schedules of Reinforcement.
Classical conditioning is __________ because you are given theUS
Operant conditioning is _______ because you have to press the lever to get the food out.
________ condition studies behaviors that are reactive.
________ condition studies behaviors that are active.
Every time Casey the dog whines, her owners give her a doggytreat. As a result of her clueless owners, Casey is a very whiney dogillustrating the effect of:
In what way did Thorndike’s experiments significantly differfrom Pavlov’s?
a) the behavior of the animal determined whathappened next – meaning the only way the animal was going to get food was if itpushed the lever (had to do something to get the food)
***Don’t choose anything with CS or US
Behaviorists were influenced by the work of Thorndike forall of these reasons except:
a) the lawof effect stressed the importance of expectancy (not true! There is noexpectancy talked about – it is suppose to be an automatic type of learning)
So how did Thorndike influence them? Behaviorists (3)
- The law of effect made predictions aboutbehavior (whatever was reinforced would be learned)
- Thorndike’s measurements were observable
- Thorndike’s procedure could quantify the rate oflearning (each time he put the cat in the box he could time how long it tookthem to pull the proper string)
it is behavior that an organism produces which has someimpact on the environment
Salivating to a bell does not have an impact on theenvironment
Pulling the string to get into a box does have animpact on the environment
whether they are positive or negative increase the futureprobability of their behavior that led to their consequences.
- meaning that, if you scream and you are givenfood you will scream again
always decreases the future probability of their behaviorthat led to those consequences.
The positive in positive reinforcement and positivepunishment means that a stimulus is presented upon the ___________ of the targetbehavior.
- you scream you are given a candy (reinforcement)– increases probability it will happen again
- you scream you are given a swat (punishment) –decreases probability it will happen again
In negative reinforcement and negative punishment a stimulusis always _______ _________upon the occurrence of the target behavior.
- you want to take away pain, that is ________ reinforcement
- negative punishment (bad because they have takensomething you love away)
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